Study Guide Exam One
Study Guide Exam One BIO 203LEC
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Andrea Tufekcic on Sunday September 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 203LEC at University at Buffalo taught by Loretz, C A in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see General Physiology Lec in Biology at University at Buffalo.
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Date Created: 09/25/16
Exam One Study Guide Topic Overview: Basic physiological principles: Model organisms: -rapid evolution -many differences -known evolutionary history -convergence -good pedigree: rapid development, small adult size, easy availability Homeostasis: Variable detected by sensor informs integrator sends instructions to effector brings about change -positive and negative feedback loops Acclimation/Adaptation Acclimation: individual adjustment Adaptation: generational or evolutionary adjustment Multicellularity -pressures, complexities, challenges -developed independently many times -evolved accidentally: daughter cells never separated -larger size: isolation from outside world, protect from predators -aquatic: adherence to substrate, doesn’t get eaten, faster movement -terrestrial: more effective spore dispersal, better feeding What are the challenges of a larger size? -epithelia: cells that separate the organism from the exterior and interior cavities Simple diffusion -equation: net=k*ΔC What are the units of the simple diffusion equation? -Osmosis: hyperosmotic, isosmotic, hyposmotic -facilitated diffusion vs active transport ΔC∗P∗A -Rate of diffusion equation: MW∗ΔX What are the units on the rate of diffusion equation -Carrier mediated transport: -specificity (in what they transport) -saturation -competition -Passive diffusion requires no energy, active transport requires energy -uniporter: moves one substance in one direction -symporter: moves 2 things in the same direction -antiporter: moves two things in different directions -primary active transport relies on an electro chemical potential to move substances (think H ions pumped across a membrane in respiration) while secondary active transport requires a coupling of ATP (those H ions moving back across) Electrochemical gradients: Types of neurons -sensory neuron: cell body in the middle of the neuron -motor neuron: axon coated in Schwann cells -interneuron: cell body at one end , axon leading to dendrites Membrane Potential -definition: the potential of a neuron in relation to the outside fluid -macroscopic electroneutrality: the differences in charge in a neuron are minute-the overall charge on a macro scale remains neutral -Nernst equation: assume temperature to be 37°C E= .0265ln(? ou) ( )z C¿ -gradient directions Gradient Directions K+ EK+(-90mV) Concentration Outward grad. + Electrical gradientInward Na ENa60mV) CG Inward EG Outward K+ Resting potential CG Outward EG Inward + (-70mV) Na Resting potential CG Inward (-70mV) EG Inward Action Potentials -hyperpolarization/depolarization -hyperpolarization: Potassium channels opened, sodium channels closed, diffusion of potassium makes mV even more negative -depolarization: potassium channels closed, sodium channels open, diffusion of sodium makes vM less negative -Hodgin-Huxley model (step by step) 1) an action potential is triggered 2) the membrane depolarizes and becomes less negative as sodium diffuses into the cell 3) Potassium channels open at depolarization and restores the resting membrane potential 4) sodium potassium ATPase constantly maintains gradients in the background, long run and not needed for action potential -Refractory periods -absolute: sodium channels inactivate after the depolarization and sodium diffusion can’t happen= action potential cannot be created -relative: potassium repolarization raises the threshold of the action potential, makes future action potentials more difficult to create -Contiguous action potential conduction: action potentials move steadily along the axon with no myelin -Saltatory action potential conduction: action potentials jump from node of Ranvier between the myelin lining, moves faster along the ion Synapses -electrical synapses: rapid cell to cell transfer, passive current flow with non-directional currents that can be passed in both directions -chemical synapses: slower cell to cell transfer, presynaptic cell depolarization open Ca 2+channels which flow into 2+ the synaptic knob, Ca stimulated exocytosis of neurotransmitter vesicles across a synaptic cleft to opposing neuron’s postsynaptic membrane -excitatory post synaptic potential: post synaptic membrane is driven toward threshold, based on type of transmitter - inhibitory post synaptic potential: post synaptic membrane is held at or made more negative than threshold, based on type of transmitter -the two can overlap and alter the mem pot to a slight increase -spatial summation: several EPSP arriving at once -temporal summation: many ESPS in small amount of time -modulation: alters the functional activity of pre/postsynaptic cells w/o causing an E/IPSP -pre: enzymatic change of neurotransmitter -post: change in number of post synaptic receptor sites -establishes networks and paths= learning! -reflex arcs stimulus sensory neuron response -steadily increases in complexity, addition of integrator neurons and spinal interneurons to send more complex signals Animal Nervous System -Increases in complexity with increases in size -Distributed organization centralized organization -Cephalization -Plasticity (sensitization, habituation, learning) -develop of consciousness, complex behaviors
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