New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Study Guide Exam One

by: Andrea Tufekcic

Study Guide Exam One BIO 203LEC

Marketplace > University at Buffalo > Biology > BIO 203LEC > Study Guide Exam One
Andrea Tufekcic

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

This study guide covers topics that will on the first exam, from general physiology principles to electrochemical gradients to action potentials to reflex arcs.
General Physiology Lec
Loretz, C A
Study Guide
Physiology, Biology
50 ?




Popular in General Physiology Lec

Popular in Biology

This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Andrea Tufekcic on Sunday September 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 203LEC at University at Buffalo taught by Loretz, C A in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see General Physiology Lec in Biology at University at Buffalo.


Reviews for Study Guide Exam One


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/25/16
Exam One Study Guide Topic Overview: Basic physiological principles: Model organisms: -rapid evolution -many differences -known evolutionary history -convergence -good pedigree: rapid development, small adult size, easy availability Homeostasis: Variable detected by sensor  informs integrator  sends instructions to effector  brings about change -positive and negative feedback loops Acclimation/Adaptation Acclimation: individual adjustment Adaptation: generational or evolutionary adjustment Multicellularity -pressures, complexities, challenges -developed independently many times -evolved accidentally: daughter cells never separated -larger size: isolation from outside world, protect from predators -aquatic: adherence to substrate, doesn’t get eaten, faster movement -terrestrial: more effective spore dispersal, better feeding What are the challenges of a larger size? -epithelia: cells that separate the organism from the exterior and interior cavities Simple diffusion -equation: net=k*ΔC What are the units of the simple diffusion equation? -Osmosis: hyperosmotic, isosmotic, hyposmotic -facilitated diffusion vs active transport ΔC∗P∗A -Rate of diffusion equation: MW∗ΔX What are the units on the rate of diffusion equation -Carrier mediated transport: -specificity (in what they transport) -saturation -competition -Passive diffusion requires no energy, active transport requires energy -uniporter: moves one substance in one direction -symporter: moves 2 things in the same direction -antiporter: moves two things in different directions -primary active transport relies on an electro chemical potential to move substances (think H ions pumped across a membrane in respiration) while secondary active transport requires a coupling of ATP (those H ions moving back across) Electrochemical gradients: Types of neurons -sensory neuron: cell body in the middle of the neuron -motor neuron: axon coated in Schwann cells -interneuron: cell body at one end , axon leading to dendrites Membrane Potential -definition: the potential of a neuron in relation to the outside fluid -macroscopic electroneutrality: the differences in charge in a neuron are minute-the overall charge on a macro scale remains neutral -Nernst equation: assume temperature to be 37°C E= .0265ln(? ou) ( )z C¿ -gradient directions Gradient Directions K+ EK+(-90mV) Concentration Outward grad. + Electrical gradientInward Na ENa60mV) CG Inward EG Outward K+ Resting potential CG Outward EG Inward + (-70mV) Na Resting potential CG Inward (-70mV) EG Inward Action Potentials -hyperpolarization/depolarization -hyperpolarization: Potassium channels opened, sodium channels closed, diffusion of potassium makes mV even more negative -depolarization: potassium channels closed, sodium channels open, diffusion of sodium makes vM less negative -Hodgin-Huxley model (step by step) 1) an action potential is triggered 2) the membrane depolarizes and becomes less negative as sodium diffuses into the cell 3) Potassium channels open at depolarization and restores the resting membrane potential 4) sodium potassium ATPase constantly maintains gradients in the background, long run and not needed for action potential -Refractory periods -absolute: sodium channels inactivate after the depolarization and sodium diffusion can’t happen= action potential cannot be created -relative: potassium repolarization raises the threshold of the action potential, makes future action potentials more difficult to create -Contiguous action potential conduction: action potentials move steadily along the axon with no myelin -Saltatory action potential conduction: action potentials jump from node of Ranvier between the myelin lining, moves faster along the ion Synapses -electrical synapses: rapid cell to cell transfer, passive current flow with non-directional currents that can be passed in both directions -chemical synapses: slower cell to cell transfer, presynaptic cell depolarization open Ca 2+channels which flow into 2+ the synaptic knob, Ca stimulated exocytosis of neurotransmitter vesicles across a synaptic cleft to opposing neuron’s postsynaptic membrane -excitatory post synaptic potential: post synaptic membrane is driven toward threshold, based on type of transmitter - inhibitory post synaptic potential: post synaptic membrane is held at or made more negative than threshold, based on type of transmitter -the two can overlap and alter the mem pot to a slight increase -spatial summation: several EPSP arriving at once -temporal summation: many ESPS in small amount of time -modulation: alters the functional activity of pre/postsynaptic cells w/o causing an E/IPSP -pre: enzymatic change of neurotransmitter -post: change in number of post synaptic receptor sites -establishes networks and paths= learning! -reflex arcs stimulus  sensory neuron  response -steadily increases in complexity, addition of integrator neurons and spinal interneurons to send more complex signals Animal Nervous System -Increases in complexity with increases in size -Distributed organization  centralized organization -Cephalization -Plasticity (sensitization, habituation, learning) -develop of consciousness, complex behaviors


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.