History 1720 Exam 1 Study Guide
History 1720 Exam 1 Study Guide Hist 1720
Popular in The West and the World 1
Popular in History
This 22 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ann Carter Herbert on Sunday September 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Hist 1720 at Clemson University taught by Professor Caroline Dunn in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 290 views. For similar materials see The West and the World 1 in History at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 09/25/16
History 1720 / Professor Dunn / Test 1 / Study Guide: Eastern Edge of the Mediterranean o Where did writing begin? Sumer: This is why most people begin the study of history in this location, because many people believe that the study of history is the study of the world after the written word o What is the difference between history and pre-history? Some people believe that everything before Sumer is Pre-History (A.K.A. before writing = pre-history, after writing = history) Writing doesn’t suddenly mean we have a whole lot more info about society Other types of non-written evidence remains valuable o Architecture, art, etc. Written sources are not perfect o Might not be complete o Biased o Might not be telling us the truth Example: modern people who have a death record that aren’t actually dead o What happened in the world before Sumer? The Field of Archeology: Uncovering and studying of artifacts Old Science- Geology and Biology: Evidence from sedimentary layers, glaciers, tree-rings, etc. New Science- Genetics: How populations distributed themselves and at what place o The rough consensus puts humans in Africa first and then leaving Africa Two Main Theories: Out of Afrtica Theory: o Homo erectus evolved into Homo sapiens in Africa, and then ventured out of Africa and dispersed to all around the world Multi-regional Evolution Theory: o Homo erectus left Africa to become homo sapiens in different parts of the world Which Theory holds more evidence? o Out of Africa Theory o Human History in the Stone Ages: Paleolithic Society- Hunting and Gathering Paleolithic: o They required skills to survive o They lived in very small communities: about 20-25 people and nomadic (no permanent homes) o There is evidence that the gender divide is not absolute o We start to see more manufactured goods about 50,000 years ago, textiles are starting to be produced o 30,000-10,000 years ago we start to see evidence of humans having an artistic sense o artifacts of mother goddess figurines (fertility) Neolithic (New Stone) Society- Discovery of Agriculture Start settling down: FARMING Started about 10,000 years ago Earliest evidence from the Middle East Theory: humans needed more than hunting animals to survive, they had gotten so good at hunting they needed another resource The Earth began to get warmer and wetter so the land was more easily farmed The plow: used to sew their seeds and raise their crops o Animals were essential to this We start to see more of a gender division here: but now men take the role of gathering (plowing took a lot of strength) Things begin to get more complicated and advanced (irrigation) – leads to settlements More effort put into homes Diversity of the population o Only need some of the population to farm, etc. o Pottery emerges o New tools made from bronze The introduction of metal-working o Both art and weapons Catal Huyuk: One of the earliest known settlements o Almost 10,000 years ago Every building seems to be either a house or a place to store grain They do not have places that look like temples or palaces Social equality Not much evidence of a hierarchy This may be an exception, we don’t really know Stonehenge, England, c. 2000 BC Importance of the sun o Agriculture Knowledge of the calendar Newgrange, Ireland c.3000 BC Man made hill The solstice is seen here Megaliths surround o Understanding the terms: Lithic=stone Paleo=old Neo=new The Mesopotamians Look up Song by They Might be Giants o Might help with memorizing Earliest Cities: o Why did important cities (areas of civilization) arise where they did (in major river valleys)? Accident of nature Where areas were fertile (Rivers, etc.) Flooding that would take place in the Nile that allowed crops to grow o Humans gained control of the water Irrigation techniques to control the flow of water ** very key in the emergence of early societies This provides Stability o What do historians mean when they speak of “civilization” A “civilized society” has advanced beyond a basic search for sustenance Gone beyond just hunter gatherer Has different characteristics Society=roots of people who may share values but are not all the same o People develop different occupations= Specialization Artisans: o People who make things (necessary things) not like our modern day artists May seem creative to us but pretty much everything has a purpose for use Merchants: o People who are bartering these objects Slaves o Not an equal society Kings: Hierarchy, Priests o Again supports unequal society Gender division: Patriarchy o Patrilinear: inheritance through men in the family o Women had some rights (i.e. the right to divorce) * What caused the emergence of social stratification (kings and priests as the ruling class, different social classes in society)? Protection Men ruled not only through strength but through strategy Kingship becomes hereditary The suggestion that the gods are looking upon not only the kings but the whole family favorably if they are in fact successful o We then see dynasties o In Mesopotamia and Egypt we see these leaders being linked to the gods, and also becoming god-like The people see them as having ancestors that are gods Religious deities Ex. The Pharaoh is seen as a living god o The value of Theocracy Theo=god Ocracy=ruler A society of ruling classes that are working together (priest and kings, therefore the ruling family promotes the religion and the priest promotes the ruling family) Kings protect the people from other nations, the priests protect people from the gods and goddesses (sacrifices, etc.) Gods are very related to nature Refer to the importance of the sun Ziggurats: Both a temple and offering place o People would bring their excess food and the rulers would redistribute o Sargon The king who seems to have the first idea of conquering other nations and then sticking with that Not just taking other lands goods, but also claiming their land and establishing that land as territory as well He is an exception to the lack of unity in Mesopotamia as a whole Mesopotamia has many different regions with different languages and cultures o Egypt as a contrast is unified: shared culture and language, etc. for the most part for hundreds of years Gives their culture strength through unity o Pharaoh Menes: The unification of Egypt is most linked to this Pharaoh even though he is not solely responsible for the unification of this region The first ruler that we actually believe existed is Narmer What is the purpose of organized religion? o Polytheistic: believes in multiple gods and goddesses o Egyptian afterlife: Understanding the purpose of life and what happens after or beyond o The question of morality: Religion’s hold on how people should live their lives o Pyramids: temples with tombs attached, religious structures to help kings move on to the afterlife Sphinx: half lion / half human o Cuneiform: The earliest known system of writing Receipts: earliest need for writing, a form of recorded payment Priests record the people that contribute food o Hieroglyphs: Financial transactions Expands into religious information Then into written law The Mesopotamians Cont’d Hammurabi and Gilgamesh Gilgamesh is the one leader we are not sure if he actually existed or not o The story about him is not written any time near his life time, written about 1,000 years after his life time (makes this hard to find accuracy) o The story about him is one of the earliest surviving forms of literature o He was part god, part human (an old Mesopotamian king) Perhaps super human intellect Enkidu- friend / nemesis Also a creation of the gods, starts off as this animal-like, wild, uncivilized man Knows nothing about cities, writing, or social relationships Becomes civilized after making love to a prostitute (thanks to Gilgamesh) The two fight but then become friends, the missing pieces fall here in the story After Enkidu dies, Gilgamesh goes through grief, which makes him realize that even though he is part god, he is also human enough that he will die one day Becomes obsessed with finding immortality Travels to the underworld to find the secret to immortal life Is warned of a flood very similar to Jonah’s ark o Is Gilgamesh a king to be praised or to be vilified? Hard to praise when we don’t know if he’s actually real The people who wrote it were intending for him to be praised His ability to forgive and form a relationship with a former enemy speaks to his character as a ruler Transformation could be praised o What does the story of Gilgamesh tell us about Mesopotamian values? Don’t piss off the gods That being said, the people are more forgiving than the gods Value righting your wrongs o Gilgamesh realizes he cannot live forever so he then turns to giving back to his people Rebuilds his city-in a sense he gains immortality because we are still talking about him today Hammurabi: o Hammurabi’s Code A Law Code inscribed into stone o What is the purpose of written law in general and what seems to be the purpose of Hammurabi’s code specifically? To establish a general acceptable way of life and avoid chaos and disagreement on how a society should function Hammurabi’s code didn’t a lot of key components of everyday life in Babylon. Ex. Commerce, etc. but it addressed like divorce, murder, and all of the extremes, but there was definitely a lot of gray area The purpose then would be to have semi equality yet still protect the upper class Just to establish his power as a god-appointed leader o More propaganda than law The eye for an eye principal: Only applies to the same social class A very unequal society o Primary source: As close to the original as possible o Secondary Source: Written by a modern day expert in the subject Ex. A translator of cuneiform Is it published Is it academic or scholarly source Published by a university press Cites primary source Is it recent Greece: o Minoan and Mycenaean Regions: Not many text sources that survive to tell us about these people Most info is mainly archeological The Minoan bull- over many years there has been a relationship between man and the bull King Minos- had a complicated relationship with bulls Minotaur- his monstrous step son (half man, half bull) o His wife mated with a bull Kingdom on the current island of Crete Ruler of the Minoans Many scholars have tried to decipher why the bull was such a strong figure, some think it was in recognition of a festival to honor the gods Bronze Bull Leaper from Crete Probably has a religious connotation, possibly an offering Created during the bronze age- prosperous age o Stronger than other metals Tin and copper were used also in the sculpture, which suggests that the Minoan people were participating in trade with other regions Knossos Architecturally complex The palace of Knossos- grand and beautiful, frescos suggest religious significance Mycenae: o Very militaristic society o Palaces suggesting royal authority o Places designed to set people apart o People of the works written by Homer Iliad, Odyssey o Military artifacts prove that the Mycenaean’s are more about glory than the Minoans o The Iliad: The story goes back further than the events that take place in the text The figure Achilles: The warrior who is fighting for the Greeks A mortal human being but also descended from the gods His mother wanted to make him immortal: dumped him into the river of immortality o She held him by the ankles, the one part of him that did not receive the seal of immortality: ex. Achilles’ heel Eris (goddess of discord) was not invited to Achilles’ parents’ wedding She attends the wedding in secret and leaves an apple on the table for the “fairest” o Who is the fairest? Zeus orders Paris (a human being) to make the decision (a Prince from Troy) He choses Aphrodite because she promises him the most beautiful woman in the world (Helen of Troy) – a GREEK woman, not from Troy Helen was married to King Menelaus o Menelaus was the king of Sparta Aphrodite arranges that Paris to be sent off from troy and Helen leaves with him to go to Troy o Leaving behind a lot of very angry Greek men- their Queen has been stolen away from them Helen- known as “the face that launched a thousand ships” Menelaus and Agamemnon go and fight Troy because of this for more than 9 years Iliad: Story ends with the famous story of the Trojan horse (the Greeks plan) How is the theme of “anger” displayed by both men and gods, developed throughout the Iliad? o The Greeks have anger and want vengeance on Troy for taking their Queen o Ag. And Achilles take women from the city of Troy Ag.’s woman is the daughter of Apollo’s priest So now Apollo is mad Ag. Will not release his daughter This leads to Apollo’s vengeance Causes arrows to be shot down from the sky onto the Greek people Now the Greeks are upset that Ag. Won’t give her up Achilles pleads with him, Ag. Agrees as long as everyone else gives up their women Achilles is mad again because it is not his war and he doesn’t want to give up his captive Ag. Then takes Achilles’ woman away Achilles is furious- he refuses to continue fighting for the Greeks Achilles is upset that Hector kills his possibly? Male lover Hector is displayed as the hero even though this is a Greek story – he goes to fight Achilles o Hector asks that whoever wins will not dishonor the body of the loser o Achilles tells him no he wants vengeance o Hector is defeated and Achilles does dishonor his body o Hector’s father ( King of Troy) begs for his son’s body to be returned, finally Achilles is moved to pity Agamemnon and Menelaus background: This is before the period of war Ag. Is said to be the son of Atreus o Tantalus-ancestor Ended up inviting the gods to dinner At which he had killed his son and killed him- testing the gods to see if they can tell The gods knew, and punished him by sending him down to Haetes and starving him o Pelops- ancestor Had two sons Thyestes and Atreus Thyestes seduced Atreus’ wife Atreus finds the children of Thyestes and kills them and cooks them for dinner and invites Thyestes for dinner to eat his own children o Ag. Comes from this family of vengeance The Dark Ages: Something happens to the Mycenaean palaces and cities: demolished by archeological evidence About 90% of Greece’s population is lost, whether it be emigration (leaving) or death Basically deserted and we don’t know why or how We do know that the end date of the Dark Age was the year associated with the first Olympic games- 776 BCE The Greeks revived and come together The Olympics were to honor and worship Zeus Stadion- a well known race (sprint) in the Greek Olympics o Where we get the word stadium Women had their own events Competed in the nude o The strength of the human body is very much admired in the society An individual competition, not a national competition Polis- city states o Even though Greece has many of these that have rivalries, one did not compete for their polis, it was individual No metals at this time, olive branches were used instead A city that is controlling smaller rural areas around it- that’s why its called city states Warfare changes from individual heroes to men that form an army and trained to defend a polis (like a militia) o Polis = city-state o hoplites- (soldiers) must be prepared to defend your neighbor with your shield o team work vs. defending yourself o this came about with democracy Sparta: Extremely militaristic society They had slaves to work their land (helots) who made up about 75% of their population Well trained military to keep the helot population under control Spartans believed that strong children were born from strong parents (therefore father and mother needed to have a strong body) The Persian invasion- when Sparta really came to power Xerxes (Persian ruler) Invades Sparta Greeks will be hugely outnumbered in soldiers and ships o Force the Persians into a very narrow area for battle where numbers do not matter as much o Eventually a Greek tells the Persians that there is another way around The Spartans are all killed but they accomplished holding them off so that the other Greek poils’ could get organized The Athenians then go onto win a naval battle against the Persians The defeat of the Persians eventually Persia is associated with land soldiers and Athenians associated with the navy Both nations come to an alliance so that this doesn’t happen again Evolution towards democracy in Athens o Every free man citizen voted o The people of Athens lived first under monarchy Oligarchy- government by the wealthy Elected every ten years o The hoplite soldiers wanted a say, increasing agitation o Solon “the Law Giver” Gives a new constitution to Athens Deals with concerns of the Athenian people Economic: o Very divided classes Law: o Legal system did not seem fair to many people o Very harsh, death penalty to ALL crimes Draco-man who put this in place (hence, Draconian) Politics: o Solon convinces the ruling class that changes need to be made in order to avoid a revolution Cancels debts of poor people Or he cancelled the interest on the debts? Historians are unsure Convinced the wealthy people to go along with this because if there is a civil war your land will be claimed Removed Draconian laws: Less severe penalties Everyone has the right to sue for injuries Does not bring about full democracy but does increase the amount of people who can be represented in the government He avoids civil war o After a while, tensions rise again o Cleisthenes: “the Father of Democracy” tyrants or “tryannos”- a Greek phenomenon seen as a negative word today not the case in Cleisthenes’ time o one person who takes charge with the support of most of the people and implementing political change in order to benefit most people demes- people were organized based on the places in which they lived local electoral units, root word for democracy, helps breaks the power of the oligarchy which was based on wealthy families o Pericles The man associated with bringing about FULL democracy Every free male was allowed to vote on policies Not just representatives The only full democracy the world has ever seen Representative terms were short term and random selection, not voted If you were serving in government, you were reimbursed No political parties, no politicians Ostracism- used when one leader was too powerful o The Greek god associated with the origins of drama: Dionysius Demeter – kind of booted this god cause they liked him better The god of emotion and the release of emotions A festival of Dionysius Associated with fallacy Associated with fertility City of Athens closed down for three days and built the first known theatre All free men were expected to attend the festival play o If people could not afford tickets, the government would provide these o If you were in prison, you were released to go see the play o Very much a state sponsored form of art o Most of these plays have a political theme: the government had an influence as to what they wanted to see in the plays o Supposed to praise Athenian government In Agamemnon, who kills Iphigenia? Agamemnon sacrifices his own daughter How did Greeks make amends to the gods? Sacrifice The Greeks could not leave a crime unsolved, so they would take a goat to sacrifice (scapegoat) o Cassandra tells her father, the King of Troy, that the Greeks are coming and Troy will fall and no one believes her o Clytemnestra kills Agamemnon Makes a show to welcome him home But the whole time she has been weaving his death shroud Says he should be welcomed home on a “red carpet” Only the gods and goddess are to walk on the red carpet Implies blood shed He knows he’s not supposed to do this, so he takes his shoes off but still angers the gods, so C. tries to make this a reason to kill him Philosophy, etc. Wine kraters Demonstrates just how important wine is in Greek life and culture Depicts different events or celebrations Sophists: o Wise-men People who would teach politicians and other prominent men in Greece how to persuade people in an era in democracy ( to vote for one’s ticket) They were turning people away from traditional religion and traditions People thought they were spending too much time focusing on the individual and not the community- not everyone loves them or believes they are wise o Truth is subjective A major belief of the Sophists One person’s truth might be different from another person’s truth Socrates: o We only know about him because his student Plato talked about him a lot o He did not believe in writing things down o He wanted the one-on-one education o Socratic Method: Goes around Athens and asks people questions Not going around telling people what they need to know, but instead teaches through actions of questioning Socrates has been named the wisest man in the world-he denies this, goes to the artists typically associated with wisdom and asks them questions He could make you feel uncertain about your answers- often more effective than saying “you’re wrong” Socrates makes himself enormously unpopular and is ultimately accused of various crimes Accused of corrupting the youth o A lover of “young men” o Would not have been shocking in Ancient Greece o Making the youth not have good opinions of their elders and traditions He firmly believes that truth is objective: There is one set of values and truth and he is trying to seek that out Put on trial and convicted, ends up being executed Plato’s allegory of the cave: Prisoners in the cave are being shown images on a projector, the only thing these prisoners know are what is shown to them The shadows are their reality No knowledge of life outside of the cave The theory of someone who finally “sees the light” Platonic love o Things can be boiled down to its essences o Love between people who are not family members but without the sexual component o The idea of inner beauty Aristotle: One of the most important physicists Astronomy, animals, etc Believed that the middle class should lead, not wise men like him and Socrates Believes there is no role for women in government: they should keep their minds and voices quiet o The Libation Bearers Orestes and Electra plot to revenge their fathers death by killing their mother, Orestes has been demanded by Apollo to follow through with this They meet at their father’s grave to discuss this and eventually the mother (Clyen…) is killed by Orestes Libation= means a drink that is being sacrificed The mother’s dream of giving birth to a snake and the snake attacking her foreshadows her death by her son The furies pursue Orestes: Orestes goes to Apollo first to be cleansed of his sin He sacrifices a pig in hopes of cleansing him He is not strong enough to combat the furies He then tells Orestes to go to Athens to the city of Athena to ask her for help The furies want and eye for an eye (a death for a death) Athena challenges the furies’ way of dealing with justice and wants to implement a trial She makes a jury of Athenian citizens The furies decide that the killing of an actually blood relative is a worse crime, therefore Orestes needs to be punished Apollo acts as Orestes lawyer, Apollo proposes that Cly.’s crime of killing Agamemnon was worse because he was a war hero He argues that the mother is less important in creating the child than the father, therefore she is not the parent and it is not as terrible of a crime to kill her Orestes is proven non guilty of deserving punishment, Athena is the deciding vote The furies are not happy, so Athena appeals to them and says that if they stop being mad, she will set aside Athens for the furies. She wants them to protect the people and keep them just- reward good justice as well as punishing. She gives them the name “The Eumenides” o Means the “kindly ones” in Greek Hill of Aeropagus: the known location of the first ever democratic trial (as depicted by this play) Athena: the goddess of wisdom (symbol is an owl) Athenians believed in very large juries (500- 1000) people Kleroterion: Athenian jury selection machine Athenians tried to make verdicts anonymous by placing ballots into an urn and then counting them Phillip the 2 nd of Macedonia o The Macedonians actually called themselves Greek They spoke a different language and were seen as barbarians by the Greeks o He is quite successful in his system of marriage diplomacy Men did not have to limit himself to one wife There is no rule that the eldest son inherits land, etc. instead, all of Phillip’s sons are in competition o Phillip paid and trained his soldiers for a very long time The sarissa: a very, very long spear o Phillip marries Cleopatra This is not THE Egyptian Cleopatra, a different woman She’s Macedonian so we don’t understand why he married her, usually his marriages are diplomatic At the wedding, Cleopatra’s uncle says “now Phillip will have a true heir” because the son will have a Macedonian mother and father. Alexander gets upset at hearing this, throws his cup down, and Phillip charges at his son for ruining his wedding Phillip falls down and Alexander taunts his father for losing his balance when he’s trying to conquer great lands Alexander and his mother decide they need to flee Phillip and Cleopatra do have a son, which is a threat to Alexander o Later Phillip is assassinated But no one can prove it was Alexander Alexander then takes over control o Decides he is going to take over his fathers challenge of taking over so much land Gordian knot o A knot that was tied so strongly that no one could loosen it Alexander cuts the knot with his sword, fulfilling the prophesy that who ever loosens it will be the ruler of Asia o Alexander promises his soldiers a portion of the land they conquer as well as pay The island of tyre: Alexander’s soldiers built a pathway to the island with sand because they refused to surrender o Massive slaughtering Phillip had borrowed from the Egyptian idea that the ruler was god like Alexander claims he is linked to Apollo Rumors that Alexander was assassinated by poison The Greeks called themselves “Hellenes” or Greek The word Hellenistic suggests this blending of cultures Alexander’s three major generals take over the three major sections of his empire Rome: o Aeneas: according to legend, he is the founder of Rome Lands in Latium and later founds Rome Half god, half Roman Prince Flees Troy to found Rome The Aenead is based on his story He has Trojan ancestry, so connected to Greek gods and goddesses He is the first king of the region o The story of Romulus and Remus There is a serious shortage of females in Rome Romulus has an idea to invite local people to a festival The Romans then made things violent Ran off with as many Sabine women as they could (abducted) Sabine men were angry, come back to Rome o The women say they have lost their purity, already be compromised, so if they go home they couldn’t find husbands, etc. o They suggest that they stay with the Roman men o They persuade them to put down their weapons o Just make sure you remember Romulus and Brutus*** o Rome gets rid of monarchy and establishes the Roman Republic The last king of the monarchy starts eliminating people who disagree with him Brutus- name means “stupid” or slow witted Goes to an Oracle who says “the first man to kiss his mother will be King of Rome” Brutus pretends to trip, and kisses the ground (mother Earth) Lucretia- the most honorable woman o Enrages the Prince because his wife is not the one who is honorable, He goes back to Rome and tells Lucretia she has to sleep with him- if not he will rape her, kill a slave, put a slave in her bed, and make it look like she was sleeping with a slave o She submits to him Her husband comes back, she tells him what happened Then she takes a knife and stabs herself In her mind, this is the only way she can maintain her honor o This causes the Roman people to rise up and start a new government The Roman Republic: 2 Consuls- only rule for one year o the two consuls balance each other out Senate- makes laws and advices o Also had the power to declare war A very well thought out system of checks and balances Other officers: o Roman gov is designed to prevent tyranny o Dictator- in times of extreme strife (war) This man will have full control in a war setting Appointed by the Senate Not allowed to be in power for more than 6 months o Censors: In charge of judging people Public morality The census Orders of Society in Rome: o Patricians- about 5% of population Born into this class Trace their ancestry back to before the establishment of the republic Do not think its honorable to be involved in business All their wealth through land o Equestrians o Plebeians o Slaves Struggle of the Orders- struggle between classes (Patricians and Plebeians) Patricians had a larger say in voting o They pay more in taxes because they are wealthier o They believe they’ll lose more during a war because they own land that would be conquered o The Plebeian soldiers go on strike The Twelve Tables: the first official law code Gave rights to the Plebeians Also gave the right to marriage between classes
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