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Biology 2050

by: Elizabeth Taflinger

Biology 2050 BIOL 2050-3201

Elizabeth Taflinger

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About this Document

These notes are a summary of chapter 3 and chapter 4. these notes go over many concepts and key ideas of each chapter.
Biology Concepts II
Dr. Eileen M. Underwood
Study Guide
DNA, transcription, translation, nucleotides
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Elizabeth Taflinger on Sunday September 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 2050-3201 at Bowling Green State University taught by Dr. Eileen M. Underwood in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 148 views. For similar materials see Biology Concepts II in Science at Bowling Green State University.


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Date Created: 09/25/16
Biology 2050 Exam #2 Chapter 3 and four Chapter 3 What is replication?  DNatranscriptionRNA translation Griffith’ experiment:  studied two strains of the bacterium, one a virulent (harmful) strain that caused pneumonia and death when injected into mice, and the other a mutant, nonvirulent strain that allowed injected mice to survive  When the debris of dead virulent cells was mixed with live nonvirulent cells, some of the nonvirulent cells became virulent.  Griffith concluded that some type of molecule in the debris carried the genetic information for virulence, but he did not identify the molecule. Mutation- a change in the genetic information in the DNA  While most mutations in genes are harmful, rare favorable mutations are essential in the process of evolution because they allow populations of organisms to change through time and adapt to their environment. ribonucleic acid (RNA)- A molecule chemically related to DNA that is synthesized by proteins from a DNA template. Central Dogma:  which defines the usual flow of information in a cell from DNA to RNA to protein.  The first step is called transcription  Second step is translation Transcription- in which the genetic information in a molecule of DNA is used as a template, or pattern, to generate a molecule of RNA. Translation- in which a molecule of RNA is used as a code for the sequence of amino acids in a protein. ribonucleic acid (RNA)- A molecule chemically related to DNA that is synthesized by proteins from a DNA template. nucleotide -A constituent of nucleic acids, consisting of a 5-carbon sugar, a nitrogen-containing base, and one or more phosphate groups.  nucleotides consist of three components: a 5-carbon sugar, a base, and one or more phosphate groups  nucleotides contains one of four kind of bases o Two of the bases are double-ring structures known as purines; these are the bases adenine (A) and guanine (G) o The other two bases are single-ring structures known as pyrimidines; these are the bases thymine (T) and cytosine (C) phosphodiester bond -A bond that forms when a phosphate group in one nucleotide is covalently joined to the sugar unit in another nucleotide.  Phosophodiester bonds are relatively stable and form the backbone of a DNA strand. Polarity- An asymmetry such that one end of a structure differs from the other.  5′ end The end of a nucleic acid strand containing a free 5′ phosphate group.  3′ end The end of a nucleic acid strand that carries a free 3′ hydroxyl. Supercoils- A highly twisted rubber band forms coils of coils (supercoils), much as a circular DNA molecule does when it contains too many base pairs per helical turn. topoisomerase -Any one of a class of enzymes that regulates the supercoiling of DNA by cleaving one or both strands of the DNA double helix, and later repairing the break. chromosome -In eukaryotes, the physical structure in which DNA in the nucleus is packaged; used more loosely to refer to the DNA in bacterial cells or archaeons. Chromatin- A complex of DNA, RNA, and proteins that gives chromosomes their structure; chromatin fibers are either 30 nm in diameter or, in a relaxed state, 10 nm. Transcription- The DNA double helix unwinds for transcription, and usually only one strand, the template strand, is transcribed. RNA polymerase- The enzyme that carries out polymerization of ribonucleoside triphosphates from a DNA template to produce an RNA transcript. nontemplate strand -The untranscribed partner of the template strand of DNA used in transcription. • Ribosomal RNA (rRNA), found in all ribosomes that aid in translation. In eukaryotic cells, the genes and transcripts for ribosomal RNA are concentrated in the nucleolus, a distinct, dense, non–membrane-bound spherical structure observed within the nucleus. • Transfer RNA (tRNA) that carries individual amino acids for use in translation. • Small nuclear RNA (snRNA), found in eukaryotes and involved in splicing, polyadenylation, and other processes in the nucleus. • Small, regulatory RNA molecules that can inhibit translation or cause destruction of an RNA transcript. Two major types of small regulatory RNA are known as microRNA (miRNA) and small interfering RNA (siRNA). Chapter 4 • An amino acid consists of an α carbon connected by covalent bonds to an amino group, a carboxyl group, a hydrogen atom, and a side chain or R group. • There are 20 common amino acids that differ in their R groups. Amino acids are categorized by the chemical properties of their R groups—hydrophobic, basic, acidic, polar—and by special structures • Amino acids are connected by peptide bonds to form proteins. • the primary structure of a protein is its amino acid sequence. The primary structure determines how a protein folds, which in turn determines how it functions • The secondary structure of a protein results from the interactions of nearby amino acids. Examples include the α helix and β sheet. • The tertiary structure of a protein is its three-dimensional shape, which results from long-range interactions of amino acid R groups • translation requires many cellular components, including ribosomes, tRNAs, and proteins • Ribosomes are composed of a small and a large subunit, each consisting of RNA and protein; the large subunit contains three tRNA-binding sites that play different roles in translation • An mRNA transcript of a gene has three possible reading frames composed of three-nucleotide codons • tRNAs have an anticodon that base pairs with the codon in the mRNA and carries a specific amino acid. • A protein family is a group of proteins that are structurally and functionally related. • There are far fewer protein families than the total number of possible proteins because the probability that a random sequence of amino acids will fold properly to carry out a specific function is very small • A region of a protein that folds in a particular way and that carries out a specific function is called a folding domain. Proteins evolve by combining different folding domains • Proteins also evolve by changes in amino acid sequence, which occurs by mutation and selection.


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