New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

psych test 1

by: Maurice Ware

psych test 1 4134

Maurice Ware

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

all of notes. study guide for test friday
Essentials of Psychology
D'Angelo-Myles, Michelle D
Study Guide
50 ?




Popular in Essentials of Psychology

Popular in Psychology

This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Maurice Ware on Sunday September 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 4134 at Rowan University taught by D'Angelo-Myles, Michelle D in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see Essentials of Psychology in Psychology at Rowan University.


Reviews for psych test 1


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/25/16
Day 1 Psychologists Studies the behavior of groups Humans: cultures, ethnicities, ages, gender Animals: species Why people act based on their brain function Counseling > psychotherapist, psychiatrist School Government Famous Psychologists Charles Darwin evolutionary psychologist Sigmund Freud Carl Jung Ivan Pavlov Nobel Prize B.F. Skinner Skinner Box instrumental operant conditioning schedules of reinforcement Jon Boelbe Day 2 Trained Introspection: a method by which individuals were taught to carefully observe, analyze, and describe their own experiences. It was promoted by Wilhelm Wundt around 1879 but the approach was abandoned because it was too subjective. Empirical: relying on or derived from objective observation, measurement, or experimentation. Psychology: The discipline concerned with behavior and mental processes and how they are affected by an organism’s physical state, mental state, and external environment. Represented by the Greek letter “psi” Phrenology: Greek for the study of the mind Psychology’s Present 1) Biological: Psychological approach that focuses on how bodily events affect behavior, feelings, and thoughts. This perspective involves hormones, brain chemistry, genes, evolutionary influences 2) Learning: Psychological approach that is concerned with how the environment and experience affect a person’s (or nonhuman animal’s) actions. This perspective involves behaviorists and social-cognitive learning theorists School Psychologist  work with parents, teachers, and students to enhance student performance Clinical Psychologist diagnose, treat, and study mental or emotional problems of those with severe disturbances Clinical Psychologists are NOT:  Psychotherapists  Psychoanalysts  Psychiatrists Basic Psychology: The study of psychological issues for the sake of knowledge rather than for its practical application Applied Psychology: The study of psychological issues that have direct practical significance; also the application of psychological findings Descriptive Methods: Methods that yield descriptions of behavior, but not necessarily casual explanations which include case studies, observational studies, psychological tests, and surveys Representative Sample: A group of randomly chosen participants that accurately represents the larger population in which the researcher is interested. Case Studies: A detailed description of a particular individual being studied or treated. Most commonly used by clinicians, but occasionally used by academic researchers Observational Studies: Researchers carefully and systematically observe and record behavior without interfering with behavior  Naturalistic Observation: Purpose is to observe how people or animals behave in their natural environments  Laboratory observation: Purpose is to observe how people or animals behave in a more controlled setting Psychological Tests: Procedures used to measure and evaluate personality traits, emotional states, aptitudes, interests, abilities, and values. Can be objective or projective. Good characteristics of one are standardization, reliability, and validity Standardized Tests: The test is constructed to include uniform procedures for giving and scoring the test Reliability (“repeatability”, producing same results from one time to the next): In test construction, the consistency of test scores from one time and place to another Validity: The ability of a test to measure what it was designed to measure what it was designed to measure Surveys: Questionnaires and interviews that ask people about experiences, attitudes, or opinions. Requires attention to proper sampling procedures Volunteer Bias: A shortcoming of findings derived from a sample of volunteers instead of a representative sample. Day 3 Major Subdivisions of the Brain • Frontal Lobe • Central sulcus • Parietal lobe • Temporal lobe • Parietal-occipital lobe • Pre-occipital notch • Occipital lobe The Limbic System contains the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, amygdala, and hippocampus The Cerebral Cortex contains the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, and temporal lobe The Central Nervous System (CNS) contains both the brain and spinal cord The Peripheral Nervous System: Handles the central nervous system’s input and output & contains all portions of the nervous system outside the CNS Neurons: transmit information to, from, and within the central nervous system Glial cells: These cells provide the neurons with nutrients, insulate them, protect the brain from toxic agents, and remove cellular debris when neurons die Structure of a Neuron Dendrites: act as antennas by receiving messages from other nerve cells and transmitting these messages towards the body Cell Body: contains the cell’s nucleus and controls the cell’s growth and reproduction Axon: transmits messages away from the cell body to other neurons or to muscle or gland cells Myelin Sheath: A fatty material that may surround the axon of a neuron and prevents signals in adjacent cells from interfering with each other and speeds up the conduction of neural impulses Nodes of Ranvier: These are gaps, or nodes, along the myelin sheath which help to speed up neural communication. Types of Neurons 1. Spinal Cord (motor neuron) 2. Thalamus 3. Cerebellum 4. Cortex Neurogenesis: The production of new neurons from immature stem cells Stem cells: Immature cells that renew themselves and have the potential to develop into mature cells Neurons Communicate through action potential (Produces an electric impulse that travels down the axon into the axon terminal and stimulates the release of neurotransmitters) Neurotransmitter: Chemical released by a transmitting neuron at the synapse that alters the activity of a receiving neuron Major Neurotransmitters 1. Serotonin 2. Dopamine 3. Acetylcholine 4. Norepinephrine 5. GABA (gamma aminobutyric acid) 6. Glutamate Endorphins Glutamate: the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, and is released by about 90 percent of the brain’s neurons GABA: the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain Hormones: chemical substances that affect the functioning of other organs. Hormones 1. Melatonin: Regulates daily biological rhythms and promotes sleep 2. Oxytocin: Facilitates lactation and, with vasopressin, facilitates bonding at birth 3. Adrenal hormones: Involved in emotions and stress; Cortisol, epinephrine, and norepinephrine 4. Sex hormones: Regulate development and functioning of reproductive organs; Androgens, estrogens, and progesterone Electroencephalogram (EEG): A recording of neural activity detected by electrodes Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS): Involves delivering an electrical current through a wire coil on a person’s head Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Method for studying body and body tissue Brain Stem Pons: Involved in sleeping, waking, and dreaming Medulla: Responsible for certain automatic functions such as breathing and heart rate Reticular activating system: Arouses cortex and screens incoming information Cerebellum: Regulates movement and balance; Involved in remembering simple skills and acquired reflexes The Thalamus: “Relay station” Relays sensory messages to the cerebral cortex Hypothalamus: Involved in drives vital to survival (Hunger, thirst, emotion, sex, and reproduction) Controls the autonomic nervous system Pituitary gland Small endocrine gland which releases hormones and regulates other endocrine glands Amygdala: Responsible for Arousal, Regulation of emotion, and Initial emotional response to sensory information Hippocampus: Responsible for Storage of new information in memory Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex Occipital lobes (visual cortex) Parietal lobes (somatosensory cortex) Temporal lobes: Memory, perception, emotion, and auditory cortex Frontal lobes: Emotion, planning, creative thinking, initiating, and motor cortex Plasticity: The brain’s ability to change and adapt in response to experience, by reorganizing or growing new neural connections Socialization: The process by which children learn the rules and behavior expected of them by society Visual abilities Quickly develops beyond initial range of eight inches Can distinguish contrasts, shadows, and edges Piaget: Stages of cognitive development • Sensorimotor • Preoperational • Concrete operational • Formal operational Power assertion is when a parent uses punishment and authority to correct misbehavior. Induction is when a parent appeals to child’s own resources, abilities, sense of responsibility, and feelings for others in correcting misbehavior. Gender identity: The fundamental sense of being male or female or something in between Gender typing: Process by which children learn the abilities, interests, personality traits, and behaviors associated with being masculine or feminine in their culture Intersex conditions: People born with ambiguous genitals; When non-human animals are born with both genitals they are referred to as hermaphrodites Biological influences: Biological researchers believe that early play and toy preferences have a basis in prenatal hormones, particularly androgens. Cognitive influences: Cognitive psychologists suggest that toy preferences are based on gender schemas, or the mental network of knowledge, beliefs, and expectations about what it means to be male or female. Learning influences: Gender-appropriate play may be reinforced by parents, teachers, and other adults. Erikson’s Eight Stages 1. Trust versus mistrust: Infancy 0-2 yrs Hope 2. Autonomy versus shame & doubt: Toddler 2-4 yrs Will 3. Initiative versus guilt: Preschooler 4-5 yrs Purpose 4. Competence versus inferiority: School-age 5-12 yrs Competence 5. Identity versus role confusion: Adolescence 13-19 yrs Fidelity 6. Intimacy versus isolation: Young adulthood 20-39 yrs Love 7. Generativity versus stagnation: Middle adulthood 40-64 yrs Care 8. Ego integrity versus despair: Late adulthood Wisdom 65+


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.