personality psychology exam 1 guide
personality psychology exam 1 guide 374
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alexandra Sinner on Sunday September 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 374 at Catholic University of America taught by Parkhurst, J. in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 96 views. For similar materials see Personality Psychology in Psychology at Catholic University of America.
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Date Created: 09/25/16
Chapter 1: Personality psychology= “the scientific study of the psychological forces that make people uniquely themselves” (Friedman & Schustack p 500) States Traits 8 aspects that make up personality Paradigms* that correlate with aspects 1. Unconscious 1. Psychoanalytic - Unconscious influences , sexual drives in nonsexual situations 2. Ego 2. Neo-Analytic/Ego -focus on self in relation to its struggle to deal with emotions and drives of others 3. Biological 3. Biological -tendencies and limits of biological forces [combined with other theories] 4. Learning 4. Behaviorist -learning experiences [more scientific analysis] 5. Cognition 5. Cognitive -human thought 6. Traits 6. Trait -individual techniques 7. Spiritual 7. Humanistic/Existential -spiritual nature, self-fulfillment 8. Interaction 8. Interactionist -different in different situations *Paradigm/Theory= set of hypothesis must be testable and observable 1. If it is not testable then it is a correlation 2. Some theories are inductive or deductive Deductive= take rules and try to see what is common or correlates (what do things boil down to) o Deductive approach= “an approach to psychology in which the conclusions follow logically from the premises or assumptions” (Friedman & Schustack p 5) Inductive= continuously adding new information (what do things add up to) o Inductive approach= “an approach to psychology in which observations are systematically collected and concepts are developed based on what the data reveal” (Friedman & Schustack p 5) 3. None of the theories are enough alone, but rather need all together as a whole o [Gestalt: the sum of a part is greater than many little parts] 4. Need to be able to consider many different theories for treatments Personality Psychology History Development through art Originated in ancient Greece people were fascinated by personality and certain traits o Acting o Theater Shakespeare uses archetype in his work o Archetype= general theme that occurs to many people Modern day actors encompass a character they are playing o Weight loss/gain o Changing of hair or appearance Development through religion People wanted to know why people were not acting in a Godly way since people were made in image and likeness of God o Curiosity stemmed from here through Christianity, Judaism, and other Christian faiths Development through Evolution Adaptive traits are stronger and the weaker ones are dying out o Domination of stronger personalities as people adapted to the world *evolution has changed the way people perceive gender Development through Freud and WWI Assessment tests o used to determine people’s traits to best place them for the war IQ tests/cognitive school testing o Came next after assessment tests to use in schools for educational purposes Personality tests o Personality profile= definition of someone’s traits *cannot overgeneralize in a profile because people are inconsistent and a profile can’t describe a person in all situations Development through Culture Anthropologist Margaret Mead said “your personality is a derivative of culture” o Dictates how you act at certain times and places *personality can’t exist without culture Nomotheic Approach “ seeking to formulate rules” (Friedman & Schustack p 18) Idiographic Approach “involved in the study of individual cases” ( Friedman & Schustack p 18) Barnum effect “the tendency to believe in the accuracy of vague generalities about one’s personality” (Friedman & Schustack p 21) ****Theory is greatest defense**** Chapter 2: Assessment 1. Subjective assessment- “measurement that relies on interpretation by the individual making the assessment” (Friedman & Schustack p 25) 2. Objective assessment- “measurements that is not dependent on the individual making the assessment” (Friedman & Schustack p 25) 3. Projective assessment When performing any of these need to use reliability and validity o Reliability- “the consistency of scores that are expected to be the same” (Friedman & Schustack p 26) o Validity- “the extent to which a test measures what it is supposed to be measuring” (Friedman & Schustack p 30) Types of validity Convergent use several instruments to converge validity “related to what it should be related to” (Friedman & Schustack p 30) Discriminant discriminate what experiment is looking for and what not looking for Construct think of alternate hypothesis to make sure stay on the construct Criterion-related correlation is needed Content whole assessment impacts other parts *need to be valid with more than one type of validity to make sure it is completely valid Error variance- “variations of a measurement that are the result of irrelevant chance fluctuations” (Friedman & Schustack p 26) Test reliability- “the degree of consistency between the results of the same test taken on different occasions” (Friedman & Schustack p 28) -need to make sure the experimenter can ask the same concept in several different ways inter-correlated - Distribution has to deal with validity normal distribution Confounds= things that change people’s assessments Acquiescence o When people are in a strange environment they will act differently Social desirability o People want to be liked and this influences answers during assessments Lie/Fake scales o On some tests there are questions to detect lying and faking (gets around the validity problem) Bias o All tests make assumptions of groups taking tests (against normal distributions/representation of population) Ex: race, ethnicity, gender, age, language, socio-economic status, region, cultural, religious, sexuality, etc. Chapter 2: Assessments series of questions Types of Assessments: 1. Self-report: has two types of data a. Raw score/data= need to be interpreted b. Compare answers to others **but be careful to compare to normal distribution population** 2. Q-sort: cards that have descriptors to describe the person patient picks the cards out -“method of personality assessment in which a person is given a stack of cards naming various characteristics and is asked to sort them out” (Friedman & Schustack p 37) **most related to trait theory** 3. Ratings(judgment): other people rating you because you can’t rate yourself accurately rating on a scale, objective observation from someone else i. Example: teachers, parents, spouses 4. Biological Measures: tell us peoples characteristic ways of acting in a state or trait a. Brain waves scans b. Polygraphs c. Hormones 5. Observation: a box that does digital recordings by collecting data over a period of timeobserving, objectively seeing characteristics and results 6. Interview a. Unstructured (psychologist) i. Open ended questions ii. People may not be objective about themselves iii. Gain trust so that patient aren’t ashamed (social desire) b. Structured (psychiatrist) i. Long list of questions 5. “a systematic interview in which the interviewer follows a definite plan so that similar types of information are elicited from each interviewee” (Friedman & Schustack p 44) **need both structured and unstructured to get the full picture** 7. Expressive behavior: way we express our nonverbal actions tells about personality i. Read emotions someone is having, shows sincerity and credibility -“term used to describe nonverbal social skills such as vocal characteristics, Facial expressions, body gestures, and movements” (Friedman & Schustack 45) 8. Document analysis: subjective a. Keeping a journal b. Medical records i. Brings in outside information 9. Projective test: assessor projects onto the patient traits designed to get people to start talking a. Open ended questions b. Drawing c. Pictures i. Thematic apperception test -“an assessment technique that attempts to study personality though use of a relatively unstructured stimulus task, or situation” (Friedman & Schustack p 50) 10.Demographic: not interpreted, fact a. Region, gender, race, age b. Cultural specific things change how view world 6. “information relevant to population statistics such as age, cultural group, place of birth, religion, and the like” (Friedman & Schustack p 52) Research Design Case study: study someone in great depth and compare to other case studies o help see patterns not prove correlation: is not causation o positive and negative correlation -“ studies in which the degree of relationship between two variables is assessed” (Friedman & Schustack p 55) experimental design: manipulative situation to see only what you want to study o have to defeat confounds o quasi- experiment *******ETHICS******* Chapter 3: Psychoanalysis Freud: 1800s, Vienna, medical school Dr. Mesmer: invented a way to help people with stress Memorization & hypnosis!! Freud: mostly dealt with rich, women who had problems with hysteria BUT he thought hysteria could dealt with hypnosis/psychoanalysis (which had no guide) ** his biggest contribution is that he attempted to describe personality and explain how we become who we are*** Unconscious forces- Freud gave people a safe, confidential environment to get to unconscious thoughts Free association- saying nothing so that people can say whatever is important to them without any biases o “a method used in psychoanalysis in which an individual reports everything that comes into awareness” (Friedman & Schustack p 64) Dreams- wanted people to talk about their dreams because “dreams are the royal road to unconscious” o Manifest- what actually happened o Latent- what did things mean (hidden meaning and symbols) Mind: Conscious-thought Pre-conscious- thoughts you are aware of when directed to think about them Unconscious- unaware thoughts Structure of the Mind Id- present at birth, pleasure factor, innermost need to survive and love , chaos with no structure o “the undifferentiated, unsocial zed core of personality that contains the basic psychic energy and motivations” (Friedman & Schustack p 67) Ego- reality principle that develops as we grow, mediates Id o “the personality structure that develops to deal with the real world; in neo-analytic theory, this term refers to the individuality of a person that is the central core of personality” (Friedman & Schustack p 67) Superego- continue to develop with life, has moral aspects (picked up from culture), governs ego o “the personality structure that develops to internalize societal rules and guide goal-seeking behavior toward socially acceptable pursuits” (Friedman & Schustack p 67) Psychosexual Stages of Development Libido= “sexual energy that underlies psychological tension” (Friedman & Schustack 70) 1. Oral stage: kid wants to put everything in their mouth [birth to 12 months] *oral fixation if do not move on from this stage -“before age one, when infants are driven to satisfy their drives of hunger and thirst” (Friedman & Schustack p 70) 2. Anal stage: potty training, pooping, not pooping, thought that a child can control other people with his actions regarding the anal region (development of the ego) [18months to2 years] *anal fixation (anal retention) if do not move on from this stage -“development around age two during which children are toilet trained” (Friedman & Schustack p 71) 3. Phallic stage: little boys interested in the penis and attached to their mom, boys are jealous with their dads because they have control of their moms [age 5] *Edipus complex- when boys do not move on from this stage, Freud explains homosexuality because of this complex *Elctra complex- girls wish they had a penis (penis envy) -“development around age four in which a child’s sexual energy is focused on the genitals” (Friedman & Schustack p 72) 4. Latency stage: [5 to puberty]- “period between age five and eleven in which no important psychosexual developments take place and during which sexual urges are not directly expressed but instead are channeled into other activities” (Friedman & Schustack 74) 5. Genital stage: men and women learn proper use of heterosexual relationships [puberty] -“development beginning at adolescence in which attention is turned toward heterosexual relations” (Friedman & Schustack p 75) **Freud recognized gender differences** Chapter 3: (Freud continued) Defense mechanisms= ways our unconscious protects our conscious 1. Repression- push down threatening feelings/thoughts/ emotions into the unconscious a. Ex) forgetting something to do when it is important but because it was causing anxiety b. Repress thoughts and memories 2. Reaction Formation- reaction formulated opposite to how you would act a. hide true feelings/actions when anxious b. ex) passive aggressive people because don’t want to admit to being bitchy 3. Denial- say an emotion or something isn’t so, refusing to acknowledge anxious thoughts a. Ex) saying “I do not need to deal with it” (not now but at all because if it’s not dealing right now that’s repression) 4. Projection- when in denial about ourselves but can see your true problems in other people a. very quick to point out others problems b. ex) you’re not a cheater but can point out people who cheat 5. Sublimation- to find a socially/cultural output for actions you don’t find socially/culturally acceptable a. ex) someone bossy becomes a leader so they can control people 6. Regression- to regress to a behavior from the past that worked a. Ex) when upset and throw a temper tantrum 7. Rationalization- make sense of something you didn’t understand, explanations for behaviors that were driven from unconscious a. Make an excuse for an action b. Ex) “I am not myself today” 8. Intellectualization –trying to use facts to explain action a. Ex) when someone dies and people say “oh they lived a long life” 9. Philosophizing – using religion to explain things to explain a situation a. Ex) “Oh God is punishing me” 10. Displacement- displace an emotion to a safer environment or person a. Ex) parents yelling at kids when mad at spouse *CULTURE DEFINES A PERSONALITY* Freud’s Contributions: Represents new way of thinking first to think about unconscious Brought mind into field of science scientific study of people and how we are (personality) Influence of sexuality first time in a long time that people were able to talk about sexual impulses and how they affect personality Suppositions the fact that we have inherent traits from early childhood Unconscious as explanation of what/ why we do things Freud’s Weakness: Deterministic he thought he was discovering laws o “if this, then that” o A lot of ambiguity (not scientific) Population/sample that Freud used is not normal distribution o His theories were based on people who had pathologies Ability to be scientific not a lot of principles o Make up words and can’t empirically study his theories *contributions outweigh weaknesses* Facial Expression= emotions linked with behaviors, react involuntarily sometimes Ex) happy- smile Illusion of Free Will= we are masters of ourselves Hyper amnesia= excessive memory (too much memory) that we cannot think of it all at any given present moment, [Abstract, non-factual] -“a situation in which a late attempt to remember something yields information that was not reportable on an earlier attempt to remember” (Friedman & Schustack p 96) A) Cues= remember memories with cues, one added with another B) Recall= flat out knowledge you are able to remember without a cue -“procedure in which a person studies a word list and then remembers as many words as he or she can remember from the list” Friedman & Schustack p 96) Manticide= rewriting history, that isn’t true but say the story often enough to rewrite Infantile Amnesia= how we cannot remember memories from childhood until language is developed we have no way to express/remember memories -“phenomenon of adults being unable to remember what happened to them before age three or four” ( Friedman & Schustack p 99) Subliminal Perception= thoughts/ experiences that do not fully rise to consciousness but are being processed -“perception and processing of weak stimuli without conscious awareness that any stimulus has occurred” ( Friedman & Schustack p 100) Chapter 4 Carl Jung- psychodynamic Wrote about self/self-hood at an early time and that was important He would sit and ponder about being existential thought He thought he had 2 personalities (counter forces) o Inner child o Sage- wise old man 3 parts to the mind: 1. Conscious self (ego) 2. Personal unconscious (preconscious) -“component of the mind that contains thoughts and feelings that are not currently a part of conscious awareness” ( Friedman & Schustack p 113) 3. Collective unconscious- how each person is influenced by others (culture) -“component of mind that contains deeper level of unconsciousness made up of archetypes that are common across all people” ( Friedman & Schustack p 113) a. Archetypes= emotionally charged symbols -“emotional symbols that are common to all people and have been formed since the beginning of time” ( Friedman & Schustack p 113) i. Anima-animus: culture defines gender but both are in us -female element in a man and male element in a woman ii. Persona-shadow: who you are, but what people see -socially acceptable front and the dark and unacceptable side iii. Mother -generativity and fertility iv. Hero-demon: good vs bad -strong good force and evil b. Complexes= emotionally charges themes c. Latency= conflict that arises between archetypes *Jung put conflicts onto a continuum* Ectopsychic Functions: Think----- feel Sense-----intuit Judge-----percept Introversion----extroversion *Jung set stage for trait theory* Alfred Adler – Individual psychology Thought self compares itself in a social condition Striving= for superiority Social comparison We are born with inferiority complexes and then strive to overcome inferiority complexes 1. Organ Inferiority= genetically have some inferiority -“everyone is born with some physical weakness” ( Friedman & Schustack p 119) 2. Aggression complex=reaction to perceived inferiority (attempt to be equal) -“an individual is driven to lash out against the inability to achieve or master something” ( Friedman & Schustack p 119) 3. Masculine protest= striving for dominance -“an individual’s attempt to be competent and independent rather than merley an outgrowth of his or her parents” ( Friedman & Schustack p 119) 4. Superiority= attempt to overcome your inferiority -“an exaggerated arrogance that an individual develops in order to overcome an inferiority complex” ( Friedman & Schustack p 119) 5. Perfectionism striving= no threshold about what’s good enough (no limit) and never be satisfied -“an individual’s attempt to reach fictional goals by eliminating his or her perceived flaws” (Friedman & Schustack p 120) Life Tasks= describe persons daily life Encompasses whole life 1. Love-lover 2. Social- contributing member of society (friends) 3. Occupation- make world a better place (work) People can handle without one BUT without all three you are deprived of any life meaning Birth Order birth order and sibling make up makes a difference perceived position of dominance Greek Humors Yellow bile- choleric- low social interest- high activity: ruling-dominant Phlegm-phlegmatic- low social interest- low activity: getting-leaning Black bile-melancholic-very low social interest- low activity: avoiding Blood- sanguine-high social interest- high activity: socially useful Horney Basic anxiety: can’t survive without adults passive: comply with adults so can get what need aggressive: demanding to get what need withdrawn: pull back to self Self: Depressed self: our weaknesses/ shortcomings o Similar to inferiority complex Real self: natural temperament Actual self: physical being (healthy, biological) Ideal self: one we put out and want people to believe Coping styles: Passive moving toward Aggression moving against Withdrawn moving away from others **need to use all three in order to be healthy or end up with problems and a mental pathology Horney’s idea women wanted same social power as men (not penis envy) Anna Freud Took psychoanalytic thought and related it to children FIRST CHILD PSYCHOLOGIST Believed heavily in social influence and power for development of personality Hartmann Developed the idea of ego psychology Heinz Kohut He was first to really label and study narcissism o Said it developed from the failure of parents in their parenting techniques o Person who has narcissism think they are not good enough To combat narcissism in therapy he would re-parent (replace previous bad parenting) o Re-parenting lead to the idea of ego lending (therapist lending the patient ego) o Both of these lead to transference where the patient see false relationships/ meanings Margaret Mahler Dealt with object relations and the importance of objects to a person Erikson Developed psychosocial psychology Stages of Development: 1. Trust vs mistrust [age 1-2] well taken care of or neglected a. Related to basic anxiety b. Correlates to Freud’s oral stage 2. Autonomy vs shame/ self doubt learn potty training to gain assurance from parents and it not parents shame you, autonomy marks that child is no longer helpless a. Correlates to Freud’s anal stage 3. Initiative vs guilt [age 4-5] being able to have ideas and express preferences-develop a sense of self, but when shot down makes them feel sense of guilt a. Correlates to phallic stage 4. Industry vs inferiority [age 6-puberty] putting prior steps to work and develop social comparison, but too much causes to feel inferior a. Correlates with latency period 5. Identity vs role confusion understanding who you are and being comfortable as you are around other people *must understand self in order to be in a loving relationship 6. Intimacy vs isolation [young adults, 20-30] to fall in love and stay in love, or else fall into isolation 7. Generativity vs stagnation [40-50s] mild life crisis occur at this stage when people feel they have become stagnant a. Related to vocational psychology 8. Ego integrity vs despair [70s and up] look at you past life and see how you feel about it *last stage of life*
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