Psyc1100 Exam 1 Study Guide
Psyc1100 Exam 1 Study Guide Psyc 1100
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by brooklyn.walls on Sunday September 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psyc 1100 at Georgia State University taught by Ken Sayers in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 123 views. For similar materials see Intro to Biological Psychology in Psychology at Georgia State University.
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Date Created: 09/25/16
What is biological psychology? o Combines biology (“study of life”) with psychology (“study of behavior”) o “the study of the physiological, evolutionary, and developmental mechanisms of behavior and experience” the scientific method o generate hypothesis test hypothesis if supported, test againif not, generate new hypothesis holistic and reductionist approaches o holistic: looks at big picture/the sum of the parts o reductionism: reduces phenomenon to its component parts; pro allows description of underlying mechanism; con may lose track of big picture Tinbergen’s four questions (physiological, ontogenetic, function, phylogeny) o Physiological: chemistry of the body and its influence on behavior; “how are motor activities activated?” o Ontogenetic: development; “how does an animal’s behavior change throughout its life?” o Function: adaptation; “how does a behavior promote survival/reproduction?” o Phylogeny: origins of behavior; “how does an animal’s behavior compare with other species?” o Physiological & ontogenetic: describe here and now (proximate mechanisms) o Function & phylogeny: describe why behavior is seen in context of geological time (ultimate/evolutionary mechanisms) What is a scientific theory? o “general principle supported by substantial evidence offered to provide an explanation of observed facts and as a basis for future discussions or investigation” evolution, micro and macro o Evolution: change over time o Micro: shortterm changes in a pop.; has been observed o Macro: longterm change and appearance of a new species; has withstood repeated testing historical figures important in the development of evolutionary theory o Archbishop James Usshur (15811656): used OT to determine “exact” time of creation (October 23, 4004 B.C.) o William Paley (17431805): Natural Theology; found “perfections” in nature evidence of design examples later used as examples of evolutionary adaptation o Anaximander (610546 B.C.): “the first evolutionist;” believed life arose from water simpler forms preceded more complex ones humans arose from “fish that forsook the sea” o John Ray (16271705): observed plants & animals can be grouped via ability/non ability to reproduce with one another; distinguished groups thru comparative anatomy o Carl Linnaeus (17071778): Systema Naturae (classification of plants/animals); standardized use of genus/species; “father of taxonomy” o JeanBaptiste Lamarck (17441829): accepted evolution; “use and disuse” or inheritance of acquired characteristics used to explain evolution o Georges Cuvier (17691832): paleontologist; introduced concept of extinction to explain why fossil organisms were no longer around; supported catastrophism o Charles Lyell (17971875): “father of modern geology;” proposed that slow acting forces (wind, rain, etc.) drive geological change; uniformitarianism; “deep time” allowed necessary time required for evolutionary change o Thomas Malthus (17661834): An Essay on the Principle of Population; warned human pop. inc. would exhaust food supply; Wallace&Darwin extended “limited resources” to natural world o Alfred Russel Wallace (18231913): collected animals in S.Amer. & S.E. Asia for money; described evolution as process driven by competition and natural selection; upon recovery from malaria, wrote up ideas and sent them to Darwin Darwin hadn’t published similar ideas papers from both published jointly in 1858; “father of biogeography;” Wallacea = line that separates two important zoogeographical regions o Charles Darwin (18091882): independently conceived process of natural selection; On the Origin of Species in 1859; 5year journey of HMS Beagle; “descent with modification o Thomas Henry Huxley (18251895): “Darwin’s bulldog;” defended theory of evolution by natural selection; published Evidences of Man’s Place in Nature in 1863 natural selection, artificial selection o natural selection: competition for resources; biological variation; more individuals are born than survive to reproduce among those that live, there’s variation in how many offspring they have (differential reproductive success/fitness); favorable traits more likely to survive and pass down traits; genetics = mechanism of transmission (came about after Darwin); occurs more slowly than artificial; trait in question must have genetic basis & there must be genetic variation o artificial selection: breeding of domestic plants/animals; has guiding forces other than environment & has specific goal Scopes monkey trial o 1925, TN; ACLU test case of Butler Act which banned teaching of evolution in schools; Clarence Darrow for defense/William Jennings Bryan for prosecution; Scopes convicted (fine later waived); law upheld until the 1960’s; creationist movement still active genotype and phenotype o genotype: genetic makeup o phenotype: outward characteristics; product of genetics & environment prokaryote and eukaryote o prokaryote: singlecelled organism that lacks true nucleus o eukaryote: true nucleus enveloped by double membrane gametes and somatic cells o gametes: sperm and egg o somatic: everything else DNA structure, DNA replication, protein synthesis o DNA structure: Franklin, WatsonCrick, & Wilkins; 2 chains of nucleotides in double helix (phosphate, sugar, & nitrogenous base); bases are adenine, thymine, guanine, & cytosine; bonds form between AT & GC o DNA replication: certain enzymes break bonds between bases exposed bases attract freefloating nucleotides after replication, there are 2 DNA molecules exactly like the original (actual original & newly formed) o Protein synthesis: RNA (singlestranded, 3 forms); protein = chain of amino acids (AA); group of 3 DNA bases (triplet) codes for specific AA; step 1 = transcription; formation of mRNA from DNA in nucleus (uracil replaces thymine; different sugar) (mRNA formation = complement of DNA template) process continues until mRNA strand reaches terminator triplet (ATT/ATC/ACT) mRNA then peels from DNA and travels across nuclear membrane to ribosome; step 2 = translation; genetic instructions of mRNA are translated into an AA chain at ribosome tRNA carries AA matching mRNA codon AA string together forming protein genes, alleles, locus o genes: segment of DNA that codes for a protein or portion of a protein o alleles: alternate form of genes o locus: position on DNA mutation, point mutation o mutation: change in gene o point mutation: chemical change in single base of DNA sequence exons and introns o exons: expressed; transcribed into mRNA and translated into AA chain; some code for structural proteins, others are regulatory (proteins that turn on/switch off other DNA segments) o introns: junk DNA; noncoding region of DNA; not translated in AA chain, but has important regulatory functions autosomes, sex chromosomes, karyotype o autosomes: govern physical characteristics, except sex determination o sex chromosomes: x & y o karyotype: “chromosomal complement of an individual or that which is typical for a species” mitosis and meiosis o mitosis: cell division in somatic cells; produces 2 daughter cells genetically identical to one another o meiosis: cell division of gametes; 2 divisions result in 4 daughter cells each with half the original number of chromosomes (haploid=23); gamete may unite with another gamete (sperm & egg) to form a zygote with diploid number of chromosomes (46) crossing over (recombination) o recombination: prior to first meiosis division, partner chromosomes come together and exchange genetic information nondisjunction o failure of homologous chromosomes to separate during cell division (monosomy, trisomy) Mendel’s principles (discoveries) o Segregation: each parent has 2 but only passes 1 on o Dominant/recessive factors o Independent assortment: distribution of one pair of alleles into gametes doesn’t influence distribution of another pair nonMendelian patterns of inheritance o codependence: blood type o polygenetic/continuous: skin color, eye color, height o pleiotropy: single gene influences more than one phenotypic expression; very common; ex. sicklecell anemia, PKU mitochondrial DNA o mtDNA; up to 1000 copies cell (only 1 copy/nucleus); maternal inheritance (no recombination); high mutation rate (more accurate “molecular clock” cloning, ancient DNA o ancient DNA: insects in amber; actual bodies/bones; usually mtDNA because of high copy number o cloning: option 1) nuclei from unfertilized egg removed and replaced with nuclei from unspecialized cells derived from embryo (stem cells) electrically or chemically induced to divide and implanted in surrogate; option 2) donor nucleus comes from somatic cell of mature sheep (Dolly the sheep) farm fox experiment o wild silver foxes bread for “tameness” over 18+ generations (40+ years); results coat color changes, more gregarious, less shy, less likely to bite; behavior differences likely related to dec. in stress/fear hormones (corticosteroids) & inc. in particular neurotransmitters (serotonin); differences in 40+ genes between tame foxes and others on farm epigenetics o difference in gene expression related to environment and experience; no change in underlying DNA sequence; some effects are heritable, thus “inheritance of acquired characteristics” modern synthesis o integrated genetics into Wallace&Darwin evolutionary theory; came together in 1930’s1940’s; argued that the joint action of mutation, recombination, and natural selection account for major, longterm features of evolution; extended m.s. is ongoing revision of m.s. that more fully integrates development, phenotypic plasticity, behavior, epigenetics, & other factors sicklecell anemia o freq. of sicklecell vs. freq. of malaria correspond; heterosis/heterozygous advantage types of natural selection (stabilizing, disruptive, directional) o stabilizing: genetic diversity dec. & pop. mean stabilizes on particular trait value o disruptive: changes in pop. genetics in which extreme values for a trait are favored over intermediate values; variance of trait inc. & pop. is divided into 2 distinct groups o directional: extreme phenotype is favored over others, causing allele freq. to shift over time in direction of that phenotype the four forces of evolution o gene flow: exchange of genes between populations (migration, immigration) o genetic drift: important in small populations; evolutionary changes produced by random factors, often associated with small sample size (founder effect; Amish/Mennonite/Pitcairn Is.) o mutation o natural selection rudimentary organs o structure that has lost most/all of its ancestral function homology and analogy o homology: similarity due to common ancestry o analogy: similarity between organisms based strictly on common function, not common descent o homoplasy: separate evolutionary development of similar characteristics in different groups MillerUrey experiment o 1952; AA formed when primitive earth conditions are stimulated origins of life: survival of the stable o more and more complex molecules = fewer free resources endosymbiotic origins hypothesis o all biological life descended from first cells that replicated thru double mirror images; same molecule (DNA), different sequences “survival machines” and “selfish genes” o Survival machines: DNA is more common if it’s often copied, copied well, & inherently stable DNA built body around itself as a protective shield & specialized structures (acquiring food, evading predators, & fighting competitors); most simple one is a virus; survival machines procreate but copy only genes that procreate the most become the most numerous o Selfish genes: genes have no consciousness, intentions, or desires; genes code for protein synthesis & builds a survival machine (us)
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