New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Exam 1 Notes

by: George Maxwell Miller

Exam 1 Notes Bio 102

George Maxwell Miller
U of L
GPA 3.7

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Detailed Study guide of the most important information you need to know for Exam 1
Intro to Biology
Dr. Rachel Hopp
Study Guide
Science, methods, evolution, Theory, darwin, Bacteria, virusus, Pathogens, species
50 ?




Popular in Intro to Biology

Popular in Biology

This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by George Maxwell Miller on Sunday September 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 102 at University of Louisville taught by Dr. Rachel Hopp in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 92 views. For similar materials see Intro to Biology in Biology at University of Louisville.


Reviews for Exam 1 Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/25/16
Science is a body of knowledge­ the discovery of something new and unknown Scientific Method: ­Making observations (inductive reasoning) ­Proposing ideas ­Testing the ideas (deductive reasoning) ­Discarding or modifying ideas based on results Hypotheses are proposed explanations for observations Scientific hypotheses­they are testable (possible to evaluate) and falsifiable (potentially false) Scientific theory­Powerful, broad explanation for related observations ­Based on well­supported hypothesis ­Supported by different, independent lines of research Related accepted hypothesis  Theory  Law Chronic stomach ulcers­ Treatment: drugs to reduce acid Caused by Helicobater Pylori Self­experimentation Germ Theory of Disease & Koch’s Postulates: 1. The microorganism must be found in abundance in all organisms suffering from  diseases 2. The microorganism must be isolated from a diseased organism and grown in pure  culture. 3. The cultured microorganism should cause disease when introduced into a healthy  organism. 4. The microorganism must be reisolated from the inoculated, diseased experimental  host and identified as being identical to the original specific causative agent. Inductive reasoning: Combining specific observations to a general principle Deductive reasoning: General principle to predict observations Independent (you manipulate) vs. dependent (non­manipulated) variables Controlled Experiments: ­Test the effect of a SINGLE variable ­LIMIT possible alternate hypotheses ­Differences in results should be due to TREATMENT (control all else if possible) Hypothesis Testing: Types of Correlation Studies­ (slide 49 Ch.1) Ecological ­Examine specific human populations for unusually high levels of various diseases Cross­sectional surveys ­Question individuals in population to determine amount of exposure to an environmental factor Case­control studies ­Compare exposures to specific environmental factors between individuals who have a  disease and individuals matched in a certain category that does NOT have the disease Cohort studies ­Follow a group of individuals, measuring exposure to environmental factors and diseases Correlation experiment ­Expose individuals who experience varying levels of an independent variable to an  experimental treatment Confidence Interval: Range of values with a 95% probability of containing the true population  MEAN (average) Science in the news: Primary source: Original research Secondary source: story about the original research Anecdotal evidence: Based on one person’s experience, not on experimental data. CHAPTER 10: The Evidence for Evolution Biological populations: Groups of individuals of the SAME SPECIES ­Often isolated by geography Biological Evolution: Change in the characteristics of a population that occurs OVER THE  COURSE OF GENERATIONS ­INHERETED via genes *other changes* May be due to SHORT­TERM ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES Natural Selection: Process by which populations adapt to their changing environment ­Different levels of survival and reproduction of individuals in a population ­results in evolutionary change Microevolution: changes that occur within a biological population ­easily observed ­noncontroversial Examples: ­Pesticide resistance in crop­eating insects ­Antibiotic resistance in infectious bacteria Macroevolution: Large­scale evolutionary changes that result in the origin of NEW  SPECIES ­Occurs slowly over long periods of time ­Controversial among non­biologists Definitions of theory: ­Everyday conversation theory: tentative explanation with little support ­SCIENTIFIC THEORY: statement providing the current best explanation of how the  universe works THEORY OF EVOLUTION: (A) All species present on earth today are descendants of a  SINGLE COMMON ANCESTOR, and (B) all species represent the product of MILLIONS OF  YEARS OF ACCUMULATED EVOLUTIONARY CHANGES. Charles Darwin: Credited with bringing evolution to mainstream, modern science. ­“Darwinism”= term often applied to the THEORY OF EVOLUTION Early Views of Evolution: ­JEAN BAPTISTE LAMARCK ­First modern evolutionist ­Published ideas in 1809: ­Organisms had INNATE DRIVE FOR PERFECTION ­TRAITS ACQUIRED OVER LIFETIME could be passed on to offspring The Voyage of HMS Beagle­ 1831: Darwin (age 22) was the ship’s naturalist 5­year journey to SOUTH AMERICA and other tropical locales Collected diverse animals and plants Darwin was influenced by PRINCIPLES OF GEOLOGY by CHARLES LYELL: Earth must be older than 10,000 years ­There was much more TIME for evolution to occur Darwin strongly influenced BIOGEOGRAPHY: ­Rainforests of Brazil ­Fossil collection ­Birds and reptiles of the GALAPAGOS ISLANDS ­Divergence between island organisms and mainland species ­Finches and tortoises ­Prickly pear cacti Developing the hypothesis of COMMON DESCENT: ­1836, Darwin returned to England ­Journal of his travels was a bestseller ­Continued reflections of journal entries ­Spent m20 more years collecting evidence ­Further developed his theory Darwin and Wallace­ 1858­Darwin received ALFRED RUSSEL WALLACE’S manuscript: ­Detailed mechanism for evolutionary change similar to Darwin’s natural selection  1859­Darwin published   ON THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES  by MEANS OF NATURAL  SELECTION, or the PRESERVATION OF FAVOURED RACES IN THE STRUGGLE FOR  LIFE. Alternative ideas to common descent: ­STATIC model: Organisms are unchanging ­TRANSFORMATIONAL: small changes have occurred after species were CREATED ­SEPARATE types: Plants and animals arose separately ***Biological evidence for COMMON ANCESTRY: 1. Linnaean Classification (grouping/hierarchy) ­Organizes biological diversity and implies common ancestry ­CARL VON LINNE: gave species a two­part (BINOMIAL) Latin name ­Grouped organisms in a hierarchy 2. Anatomical Homology and Convergent Evolution ­Similarities in skeletal bone structures ­Equivalent bones found in each organism ­Similar STRUCTURES despite different FUNCTIONS ­Convergent Evolution: Structural similarities in unrelated species with similar  lifestyles ­No recent common ancestry ­Evolution occurred in parallel in different groups ­EXAMPLES: Bird/Bat wings, Dorsal fins of dolphins and sharks 3. Vestigial Traits ­Nonfunctional or greatly reduced traits ­Example: flightless birds 4. Developmental Homologies (Embryos) ­Similarities in developmental processes from fertilized egg to adulthood 5. Molecular Homology (Genes) ­Similarities in DNA sequences ­Closely related species have more similar genes ­Molecular CLOCK: Estimates the RATE of change in DNA sequences 6. Biogeography ­The distribution of species on earth 7. Fossil Record/Radiometric Dating  (  SEE TABLE 10.1: The Evidence for Evolution )***** CHAPTER 10 PART 2: Bacteria, Viruses, and Eukaryotic Pathogens Pathogens: disease­causing organisms Contagious pathogen: Can be spread from one organism to another Infectious Pathogen: Invades tissue to support its growth Parasite: Obtains nutrients and shelter from an organism while contributing nothing CH 11: An Evolving Enemy Tuberculosis (TB): disease caused by bacterium Mycobacterium Tuberculosis ­2 billion people carry TB ­1 person infected per second ­2 million deaths per year History: ­Plagued humans for thousands of years ­Ancient Egypt: Tubernacular decay was found in spines of mummies Symptoms: ­Cough blood ­Fever ­Fatigue ­Long, relentless wasting; patient becomes weaker and thinner Transferred through the air (sneezing, coughing, etc.) Treated with antibiotics Artificial Selection: Selection imposed by human choice THE MODERN SYNTHESIS: the union between genetics and evolution; predicated on  genetic principles Genes: segments of genetic material with information about PROTEIN STRUCTURE ­Different versions of the same gene are ALLELES ­Different alleles for the same gene arise through MUTATION Patterns of selection: Different environmental conditions can lead to different changes in  populations Directional Selection: Changes in a population in a particular direction Stabilizing Selection: Population stabilizes; changes are resisted Diversifying Selection: Changes in a population result in two or more variants CHAPTER 12: species Species: Primary classification group with most closely related members Binomial: two­part names: Genus: broader group; first part of name Species: second part of name Subspecies: additional name applied to more specific groups Gene pool: sum total of the alleles found in all individuals of a species Gene flow:  the   spread  of an allele throughout a species’ gene pool Reproductive isolation: prevention of gene flow between species ­Two forms of reproductive barriers: ­PREFERTILIZATION: prevents fertilization from occurring 1. Spatial reproductive isolation 2. Behavioral...  3. Mechanical… 4. Temporal… 5. Gamete incompatibility ­POSTFERTILIZATION: fertilization occurs, but hybrid cannot reproduce 1. Hybrid Inviability 2. Hybrid Sterility Speciation: the evolution of one or more species from ancestral form ­THREE STEPS FOR A NEW SPECIES: 1. Isolation of gene pools 2. Evolutionary changes 3. Reproductive isolation Adaptive radiation: Evolution of several diversified new species from one founding species Allopatric populations: isolated from each other by distance or a geographic barrier Sympatric populations: live NEAR each other Instantaneous speciation: Polyploid organism is genetically isolated from both parents Gradual or sudden speciation: Gradualism: Slow accumulation of small changes over long period of time Punctuated equilibrium: Sudden change followed by long periods of little change ***COMPARISON OF THREE SPECIES CONCEPTS**** BIOLOGICAL: organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring and are  reproductively isolated from other species GENEALOGICAL: organisms that can interbreed, are all descendants of a common ancestor, and represent independent evolutionary lineages MORPHOLOGICAL: organisms that share a set of unique physical characteristics that is not  found in other groups of organisms Hardy­Weinberg Theorem: Allele frequencies will remain stable in populations that meet these  conditions: 1. Large size 2. Random mating 3. No migration 4. No natural selection Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP): a single base pair in the human DNA sequence that can  differ from one individual to another Convergent Evolution: traits shared by unrelated populations due to similarities of environment Genetic Drift: Change in allele frequency that occurs due to chance Population bottleneck: genetic change resulting from a dramatic reduction of population numbers Chance events: small populations are especially prone to loss of alleles through chance Sexual selection: when a trait influences the likelihood of mating Assortive mating: Preference to mate with someone like self Polyploidy: Process of Chromosome Duplication CHAPTER 20 Bacteria: single­celled prokaryotes EUKARYOTIC cells HAVE A NUCLEUS Viruses: packets of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) surrounded by a protein coat (Capsid) ­Not living organisms ­CANNOT replicate without a host cell ­Not composed of CELLS ­Genome can be DNA or RNA ­DOUBLE or SINGLE stranded ­LINEAR or CIRCULAR VIRAL INFECTION: ­Viral genome enters host cell ­Host cell ribosome and amino acids used to make proteins First line of defense: nonspecific defense SKIN: PHYSICAL BARRIER MUCOUS MEMBRANES DIGESTIVE SECRETIONS VOMITING Second line of defense: nonspecific defense WHITE BLOOD CELLS (WBCs) PHAGOCYTE: engulfs and digests invaders INFLAMMATION: response to tissue injury ­­Vasodilation (increased blood vessel size) Defensive proteins: nonspecific defense INTERFERONS: produced by virus­infected cells Fever: body temp above 97­99F ­MACROPHAGES release pyrogens causing temp increase Third line of defense: SPECIFIC defense ­Composed of MILLIONS of LYMPHOCYTES (WBCs) ­Identify and attack specific ANTIGENS (Foreign molecules) Lymphocyte production: two types ­B cells (secretes antibodies) ­T cells Types of immunity: ­Passive immunity: Short­term; antibodies passed to another in blood and other tissue fluids ­Active immunity: Long­term; caused by exposure to antigen and antibody production  (MEMORY CELLS REQUIRED) Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) ­Infects and destroys helper T cells ­Immune system unable to respond to infection ­Causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) ­NO VACCINE against HIV is available Antibody­mediated immunity: secreted antibodies attack antigens ­B cell copies itself ­Memory cells fight infection


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Jennifer McGill UCSF Med School

"Selling my MCAT study guides and notes has been a great source of side revenue while I'm in school. Some months I'm making over $500! Plus, it makes me happy knowing that I'm helping future med students with their MCAT."

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.