Exam 1 Notes
U of L
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by George Maxwell Miller on Sunday September 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 102 at University of Louisville taught by Dr. Rachel Hopp in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 92 views. For similar materials see Intro to Biology in Biology at University of Louisville.
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Date Created: 09/25/16
Science is a body of knowledge the discovery of something new and unknown Scientific Method: Making observations (inductive reasoning) Proposing ideas Testing the ideas (deductive reasoning) Discarding or modifying ideas based on results Hypotheses are proposed explanations for observations Scientific hypothesesthey are testable (possible to evaluate) and falsifiable (potentially false) Scientific theoryPowerful, broad explanation for related observations Based on wellsupported hypothesis Supported by different, independent lines of research Related accepted hypothesis Theory Law Chronic stomach ulcers Treatment: drugs to reduce acid Caused by Helicobater Pylori Selfexperimentation Germ Theory of Disease & Koch’s Postulates: 1. The microorganism must be found in abundance in all organisms suffering from diseases 2. The microorganism must be isolated from a diseased organism and grown in pure culture. 3. The cultured microorganism should cause disease when introduced into a healthy organism. 4. The microorganism must be reisolated from the inoculated, diseased experimental host and identified as being identical to the original specific causative agent. Inductive reasoning: Combining specific observations to a general principle Deductive reasoning: General principle to predict observations Independent (you manipulate) vs. dependent (nonmanipulated) variables Controlled Experiments: Test the effect of a SINGLE variable LIMIT possible alternate hypotheses Differences in results should be due to TREATMENT (control all else if possible) Hypothesis Testing: Types of Correlation Studies (slide 49 Ch.1) Ecological Examine specific human populations for unusually high levels of various diseases Crosssectional surveys Question individuals in population to determine amount of exposure to an environmental factor Casecontrol studies Compare exposures to specific environmental factors between individuals who have a disease and individuals matched in a certain category that does NOT have the disease Cohort studies Follow a group of individuals, measuring exposure to environmental factors and diseases Correlation experiment Expose individuals who experience varying levels of an independent variable to an experimental treatment Confidence Interval: Range of values with a 95% probability of containing the true population MEAN (average) Science in the news: Primary source: Original research Secondary source: story about the original research Anecdotal evidence: Based on one person’s experience, not on experimental data. CHAPTER 10: The Evidence for Evolution Biological populations: Groups of individuals of the SAME SPECIES Often isolated by geography Biological Evolution: Change in the characteristics of a population that occurs OVER THE COURSE OF GENERATIONS INHERETED via genes *other changes* May be due to SHORTTERM ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES Natural Selection: Process by which populations adapt to their changing environment Different levels of survival and reproduction of individuals in a population results in evolutionary change Microevolution: changes that occur within a biological population easily observed noncontroversial Examples: Pesticide resistance in cropeating insects Antibiotic resistance in infectious bacteria Macroevolution: Largescale evolutionary changes that result in the origin of NEW SPECIES Occurs slowly over long periods of time Controversial among nonbiologists Definitions of theory: Everyday conversation theory: tentative explanation with little support SCIENTIFIC THEORY: statement providing the current best explanation of how the universe works THEORY OF EVOLUTION: (A) All species present on earth today are descendants of a SINGLE COMMON ANCESTOR, and (B) all species represent the product of MILLIONS OF YEARS OF ACCUMULATED EVOLUTIONARY CHANGES. Charles Darwin: Credited with bringing evolution to mainstream, modern science. “Darwinism”= term often applied to the THEORY OF EVOLUTION Early Views of Evolution: JEAN BAPTISTE LAMARCK First modern evolutionist Published ideas in 1809: Organisms had INNATE DRIVE FOR PERFECTION TRAITS ACQUIRED OVER LIFETIME could be passed on to offspring The Voyage of HMS Beagle 1831: Darwin (age 22) was the ship’s naturalist 5year journey to SOUTH AMERICA and other tropical locales Collected diverse animals and plants Darwin was influenced by PRINCIPLES OF GEOLOGY by CHARLES LYELL: Earth must be older than 10,000 years There was much more TIME for evolution to occur Darwin strongly influenced BIOGEOGRAPHY: Rainforests of Brazil Fossil collection Birds and reptiles of the GALAPAGOS ISLANDS Divergence between island organisms and mainland species Finches and tortoises Prickly pear cacti Developing the hypothesis of COMMON DESCENT: 1836, Darwin returned to England Journal of his travels was a bestseller Continued reflections of journal entries Spent m20 more years collecting evidence Further developed his theory Darwin and Wallace 1858Darwin received ALFRED RUSSEL WALLACE’S manuscript: Detailed mechanism for evolutionary change similar to Darwin’s natural selection 1859Darwin published ON THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES by MEANS OF NATURAL SELECTION, or the PRESERVATION OF FAVOURED RACES IN THE STRUGGLE FOR LIFE. Alternative ideas to common descent: STATIC model: Organisms are unchanging TRANSFORMATIONAL: small changes have occurred after species were CREATED SEPARATE types: Plants and animals arose separately ***Biological evidence for COMMON ANCESTRY: 1. Linnaean Classification (grouping/hierarchy) Organizes biological diversity and implies common ancestry CARL VON LINNE: gave species a twopart (BINOMIAL) Latin name Grouped organisms in a hierarchy 2. Anatomical Homology and Convergent Evolution Similarities in skeletal bone structures Equivalent bones found in each organism Similar STRUCTURES despite different FUNCTIONS Convergent Evolution: Structural similarities in unrelated species with similar lifestyles No recent common ancestry Evolution occurred in parallel in different groups EXAMPLES: Bird/Bat wings, Dorsal fins of dolphins and sharks 3. Vestigial Traits Nonfunctional or greatly reduced traits Example: flightless birds 4. Developmental Homologies (Embryos) Similarities in developmental processes from fertilized egg to adulthood 5. Molecular Homology (Genes) Similarities in DNA sequences Closely related species have more similar genes Molecular CLOCK: Estimates the RATE of change in DNA sequences 6. Biogeography The distribution of species on earth 7. Fossil Record/Radiometric Dating ( SEE TABLE 10.1: The Evidence for Evolution )***** CHAPTER 10 PART 2: Bacteria, Viruses, and Eukaryotic Pathogens Pathogens: diseasecausing organisms Contagious pathogen: Can be spread from one organism to another Infectious Pathogen: Invades tissue to support its growth Parasite: Obtains nutrients and shelter from an organism while contributing nothing CH 11: An Evolving Enemy Tuberculosis (TB): disease caused by bacterium Mycobacterium Tuberculosis 2 billion people carry TB 1 person infected per second 2 million deaths per year History: Plagued humans for thousands of years Ancient Egypt: Tubernacular decay was found in spines of mummies Symptoms: Cough blood Fever Fatigue Long, relentless wasting; patient becomes weaker and thinner Transferred through the air (sneezing, coughing, etc.) Treated with antibiotics Artificial Selection: Selection imposed by human choice THE MODERN SYNTHESIS: the union between genetics and evolution; predicated on genetic principles Genes: segments of genetic material with information about PROTEIN STRUCTURE Different versions of the same gene are ALLELES Different alleles for the same gene arise through MUTATION Patterns of selection: Different environmental conditions can lead to different changes in populations Directional Selection: Changes in a population in a particular direction Stabilizing Selection: Population stabilizes; changes are resisted Diversifying Selection: Changes in a population result in two or more variants CHAPTER 12: species Species: Primary classification group with most closely related members Binomial: twopart names: Genus: broader group; first part of name Species: second part of name Subspecies: additional name applied to more specific groups Gene pool: sum total of the alleles found in all individuals of a species Gene flow: the spread of an allele throughout a species’ gene pool Reproductive isolation: prevention of gene flow between species Two forms of reproductive barriers: PREFERTILIZATION: prevents fertilization from occurring 1. Spatial reproductive isolation 2. Behavioral... 3. Mechanical… 4. Temporal… 5. Gamete incompatibility POSTFERTILIZATION: fertilization occurs, but hybrid cannot reproduce 1. Hybrid Inviability 2. Hybrid Sterility Speciation: the evolution of one or more species from ancestral form THREE STEPS FOR A NEW SPECIES: 1. Isolation of gene pools 2. Evolutionary changes 3. Reproductive isolation Adaptive radiation: Evolution of several diversified new species from one founding species Allopatric populations: isolated from each other by distance or a geographic barrier Sympatric populations: live NEAR each other Instantaneous speciation: Polyploid organism is genetically isolated from both parents Gradual or sudden speciation: Gradualism: Slow accumulation of small changes over long period of time Punctuated equilibrium: Sudden change followed by long periods of little change ***COMPARISON OF THREE SPECIES CONCEPTS**** BIOLOGICAL: organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring and are reproductively isolated from other species GENEALOGICAL: organisms that can interbreed, are all descendants of a common ancestor, and represent independent evolutionary lineages MORPHOLOGICAL: organisms that share a set of unique physical characteristics that is not found in other groups of organisms HardyWeinberg Theorem: Allele frequencies will remain stable in populations that meet these conditions: 1. Large size 2. Random mating 3. No migration 4. No natural selection Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP): a single base pair in the human DNA sequence that can differ from one individual to another Convergent Evolution: traits shared by unrelated populations due to similarities of environment Genetic Drift: Change in allele frequency that occurs due to chance Population bottleneck: genetic change resulting from a dramatic reduction of population numbers Chance events: small populations are especially prone to loss of alleles through chance Sexual selection: when a trait influences the likelihood of mating Assortive mating: Preference to mate with someone like self Polyploidy: Process of Chromosome Duplication CHAPTER 20 Bacteria: singlecelled prokaryotes EUKARYOTIC cells HAVE A NUCLEUS Viruses: packets of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) surrounded by a protein coat (Capsid) Not living organisms CANNOT replicate without a host cell Not composed of CELLS Genome can be DNA or RNA DOUBLE or SINGLE stranded LINEAR or CIRCULAR VIRAL INFECTION: Viral genome enters host cell Host cell ribosome and amino acids used to make proteins First line of defense: nonspecific defense SKIN: PHYSICAL BARRIER MUCOUS MEMBRANES DIGESTIVE SECRETIONS VOMITING Second line of defense: nonspecific defense WHITE BLOOD CELLS (WBCs) PHAGOCYTE: engulfs and digests invaders INFLAMMATION: response to tissue injury Vasodilation (increased blood vessel size) Defensive proteins: nonspecific defense INTERFERONS: produced by virusinfected cells Fever: body temp above 9799F MACROPHAGES release pyrogens causing temp increase Third line of defense: SPECIFIC defense Composed of MILLIONS of LYMPHOCYTES (WBCs) Identify and attack specific ANTIGENS (Foreign molecules) Lymphocyte production: two types B cells (secretes antibodies) T cells Types of immunity: Passive immunity: Shortterm; antibodies passed to another in blood and other tissue fluids Active immunity: Longterm; caused by exposure to antigen and antibody production (MEMORY CELLS REQUIRED) Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Infects and destroys helper T cells Immune system unable to respond to infection Causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) NO VACCINE against HIV is available Antibodymediated immunity: secreted antibodies attack antigens B cell copies itself Memory cells fight infection
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