Chapter 3 Study Guide
Chapter 3 Study Guide Bio 2200
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Markiesha Notetaker on Sunday September 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 2200 at Wayne State University taught by Jared Schrader in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Microbiology in Biology at Wayne State University.
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Date Created: 09/25/16
Chapter 3 Book Notes Microbial Metabolism 3.1 Cell Chemistry and Nutrition Different organisms need different complements of nutrients and not all nutrients are required of the same amounts. Macronutrients: these nutrients are required in large amounts Micronutrients: these nutrients are required in small amounts Only Hydrogen, Oxygen, Carbon, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Sulfur, and Selenium are essential. Proteins dominate the macromolecule composition of a cell, making up 55% of the cells total weight. RNA is more abundant in a cell than DNA. All cells require carbon. About 50% of a bacteria cell’s dry weight is carbon. Autotrophs use carbon dioxide. Heterotrophs use organic carbon A bacterial cell is about 13% Nitrogen which is present in proteins and nucleic acids. Microorganisms require several metals for growth, but in small amounts. (micronutrients) These metals and other macronutrients include: Magnesium which stabilizes ribosomes Calcium which stabilizes cell walls Sodium which is required by some microbes Iron which plays a role in electron transport 3.2 Growth Media A culture media is a nutrient solution that is used to grow microorganisms. Defined media- prepared by adding precise amounts of pure inorganic or organic chemicals to distilled water Complex media- made from digests of microbial, animal or plant products that are highly nutritious. Selective media- Contains compounds that inhibit the growth of some microorganisms but not others. 3.3 Energy Classes All microorganisms must conserve some of the energy released in their energy yielding reactions in order to grow. The sum total of all the chemical reactions that occur in a cell is its metabolism. Catabolic reactions- energy releasing metabolic reactions Heterotrophs- The cell’s carbon is obtained by organic chemical Autotroph- Cell’s carbon is obtained by Carbon dioxide (CO2) Chemoorganotrophs- Conserve energy from organic chemicals Energy is conserved by oxidation of the compound and energy is trapped in the cell as ATP This is a type of heterotroph Chemolithotrophs- Conserve energy from inorganic compounds Energy is conserved by oxidation of the inorganic compounds This is a type of autotroph There is no competition between chemoorganotrophs and chemolithotrophs. Phototrophs- Contain pigments that allow them to convert light energy into chemical energy and do not require chemicals Oxygenic photosynthesis- Oxygen is produced (cyanobacteria and algae) Anoxygenic photsythesis- Does not produce oxygen (all other bacteria) These are types of autotrophs 3.4 Bioenergectics Energy is defined as the ability to do work. Free energy (G) is the energy available to do work. The change in free energy during a reaction is (∆G) 3.5 Catalysis and Enzymes Activation energy is the energy required to bring all molecules in a reaction to the reactive state. A catalyst is a substance that lowers the activation energy, thereby increasing the reaction rate only. The catalyst (enzyme) is usually much larger than what it binds to (substrate) and the portion of where it binds to is the enzyme’s active site. 3.6 Electron Donors and Acceptors Reactions that release sufficient energy to form ATP are usually oxidation reduction type. An oxidation is the removal of an electron from a substance. Reduction is the addition of an electron to a substance. Substances differ in their inherent tendency to donate or accept electrons. This is called reduction potential. (E0) The stronger donors are located at the top of the redox tower and has a more negative E 0. The stronger acceptors are located at the bottom of the redox tower and have a more positive E 0. Look at page 83, Notice that O i2 all the way at the bottom of the page. This substance is the strongest electron acceptor in nature. 3.7 Energy Rich Compounds The most energy rich phosphate compound in cells is adenosine triphosphate (ATP). It is composed of: 1. Ribonucleoside Adenosine 2. 3 Phosphates 3. Anhydride bonds and Ester bonds This is the prime energy currency in all cells. Phosphoenolpyruvate, Glucose 6-phosphate and acetyl-CoA are also energy conservation compounds. Phosphoenolpyruvate is most energy rich wish a -51.6 change in free energy with the breakage of any anhydride bond. 3.6 Glycolysis Fermentation is a form of anaerobic catabolism in which an organic compound is both an electron donor and electron acceptor. This is an anaerobic process and releases only a small amount of energy Glycolysis is a nearly universal pathway for the breakdown of glucose into pyruvate. There are three stages in this process. 1. Glucose is phosphorylated by ATP and at the end you have two 3-carbon molecules 2. By the end of stage 2, Two molecules of ATP are produced per molecule of glucose fermented. (Two ATP consumed, 4 ATP produced) 3. Pyruvate is reduced by NADH into other molecules (lactate or ethanol) 3.10 Respiration Oxidation using O a2 the terminal electron acceptor is called aerobic respiration. This method has a much higher yield than fermentation. The conservation of energy in respiration is linked to an energized state of the membrane. This state is established by electron transport. - When there are protons on the outside of the membrane and OH on the inside of the membrane, this causes the membrane to be charged like a battery. This potential, or charge, along with the difference in pH across the membrane is called the proton motive force. Some of this potential energy is then conserved in the formation of ATP. ATP synthase plays a major role in converting the energy from the proton motive force into ATP. ATPase has 2 parts: F and F 1 0 F0is membrane bound. F is a1tached to it and sticks out into the cytoplasm. The protons (that are originally outside of the cell) goes into the cell through the F 0 component. This action causes a conformational change in the F subuni1 that encourages the binding of ADP and P to firm ATP. Respiration of glucose is only different from fermentation whereas in fermentation, pyruvate is reduced into products that are excreted. In respiration, pyruvate is oxidized to CO 2 The latter is called the citric acid cycle. This cycle produces 38 ATP. 3.13 Catabolic Diversity So far, we have discussed energy conservation for when oxygen is present. Under anoxic conditions, electon acceptors other than oxygen support respiration. Anaerobic respiration- some of the electron acceptors can include nitrate, Ferric iron, Sulfate and others. I was not able to find exactly where he got this information from in the book. This was last slide for this chapter.
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