New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Chapter 3 Study Guide

by: Markiesha Notetaker

Chapter 3 Study Guide Bio 2200

Marketplace > Wayne State University > Biology > Bio 2200 > Chapter 3 Study Guide
Markiesha Notetaker
GPA 3.4

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes were taken from the book and lecture slides. I hope this helps on the upcoming exam!
Jared Schrader
Study Guide
50 ?




Popular in Microbiology

Popular in Biology

This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Markiesha Notetaker on Sunday September 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 2200 at Wayne State University taught by Jared Schrader in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Microbiology in Biology at Wayne State University.


Reviews for Chapter 3 Study Guide


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/25/16
Chapter 3 Book Notes Microbial Metabolism 3.1 Cell Chemistry and Nutrition Different organisms need different complements of nutrients and not all nutrients are required of the same amounts. Macronutrients: these nutrients are required in large amounts Micronutrients: these nutrients are required in small amounts Only Hydrogen, Oxygen, Carbon, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Sulfur, and Selenium are essential. Proteins dominate the macromolecule composition of a cell, making up 55% of the cells total weight. RNA is more abundant in a cell than DNA. All cells require carbon. About 50% of a bacteria cell’s dry weight is carbon. Autotrophs use carbon dioxide. Heterotrophs use organic carbon A bacterial cell is about 13% Nitrogen which is present in proteins and nucleic acids. Microorganisms require several metals for growth, but in small amounts. (micronutrients) These metals and other macronutrients include:  Magnesium which stabilizes ribosomes  Calcium which stabilizes cell walls  Sodium which is required by some microbes  Iron which plays a role in electron transport 3.2 Growth Media A culture media is a nutrient solution that is used to grow microorganisms. Defined media- prepared by adding precise amounts of pure inorganic or organic chemicals to distilled water Complex media- made from digests of microbial, animal or plant products that are highly nutritious. Selective media- Contains compounds that inhibit the growth of some microorganisms but not others. 3.3 Energy Classes All microorganisms must conserve some of the energy released in their energy yielding reactions in order to grow. The sum total of all the chemical reactions that occur in a cell is its metabolism. Catabolic reactions- energy releasing metabolic reactions Heterotrophs- The cell’s carbon is obtained by organic chemical Autotroph- Cell’s carbon is obtained by Carbon dioxide (CO2) Chemoorganotrophs- Conserve energy from organic chemicals  Energy is conserved by oxidation of the compound and energy is trapped in the cell as ATP  This is a type of heterotroph Chemolithotrophs- Conserve energy from inorganic compounds  Energy is conserved by oxidation of the inorganic compounds  This is a type of autotroph There is no competition between chemoorganotrophs and chemolithotrophs. Phototrophs- Contain pigments that allow them to convert light energy into chemical energy and do not require chemicals  Oxygenic photosynthesis- Oxygen is produced (cyanobacteria and algae)  Anoxygenic photsythesis- Does not produce oxygen (all other bacteria)  These are types of autotrophs 3.4 Bioenergectics Energy is defined as the ability to do work. Free energy (G) is the energy available to do work. The change in free energy during a reaction is (∆G) 3.5 Catalysis and Enzymes Activation energy is the energy required to bring all molecules in a reaction to the reactive state. A catalyst is a substance that lowers the activation energy, thereby increasing the reaction rate only. The catalyst (enzyme) is usually much larger than what it binds to (substrate) and the portion of where it binds to is the enzyme’s active site. 3.6 Electron Donors and Acceptors Reactions that release sufficient energy to form ATP are usually oxidation reduction type. An oxidation is the removal of an electron from a substance. Reduction is the addition of an electron to a substance. Substances differ in their inherent tendency to donate or accept electrons. This is called reduction potential. (E0) The stronger donors are located at the top of the redox tower and has a more negative E 0. The stronger acceptors are located at the bottom of the redox tower and have a more positive E 0. Look at page 83, Notice that O i2 all the way at the bottom of the page. This substance is the strongest electron acceptor in nature. 3.7 Energy Rich Compounds The most energy rich phosphate compound in cells is adenosine triphosphate (ATP). It is composed of: 1. Ribonucleoside Adenosine 2. 3 Phosphates 3. Anhydride bonds and Ester bonds This is the prime energy currency in all cells. Phosphoenolpyruvate, Glucose 6-phosphate and acetyl-CoA are also energy conservation compounds. Phosphoenolpyruvate is most energy rich wish a -51.6 change in free energy with the breakage of any anhydride bond. 3.6 Glycolysis Fermentation is a form of anaerobic catabolism in which an organic compound is both an electron donor and electron acceptor. This is an anaerobic process and releases only a small amount of energy Glycolysis is a nearly universal pathway for the breakdown of glucose into pyruvate.  There are three stages in this process. 1. Glucose is phosphorylated by ATP and at the end you have two 3-carbon molecules 2. By the end of stage 2, Two molecules of ATP are produced per molecule of glucose fermented. (Two ATP consumed, 4 ATP produced) 3. Pyruvate is reduced by NADH into other molecules (lactate or ethanol) 3.10 Respiration Oxidation using O a2 the terminal electron acceptor is called aerobic respiration. This method has a much higher yield than fermentation. The conservation of energy in respiration is linked to an energized state of the membrane. This state is established by electron transport. - When there are protons on the outside of the membrane and OH on the inside of the membrane, this causes the membrane to be charged like a battery. This potential, or charge, along with the difference in pH across the membrane is called the proton motive force. Some of this potential energy is then conserved in the formation of ATP. ATP synthase plays a major role in converting the energy from the proton motive force into ATP. ATPase has 2 parts: F and F 1 0 F0is membrane bound. F is a1tached to it and sticks out into the cytoplasm. The protons (that are originally outside of the cell) goes into the cell through the F 0 component. This action causes a conformational change in the F subuni1 that encourages the binding of ADP and P to firm ATP. Respiration of glucose is only different from fermentation whereas in fermentation, pyruvate is reduced into products that are excreted. In respiration, pyruvate is oxidized to CO 2 The latter is called the citric acid cycle. This cycle produces 38 ATP. 3.13 Catabolic Diversity So far, we have discussed energy conservation for when oxygen is present. Under anoxic conditions, electon acceptors other than oxygen support respiration. Anaerobic respiration- some of the electron acceptors can include nitrate, Ferric iron, Sulfate and others. I was not able to find exactly where he got this information from in the book. This was last slide for this chapter.


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.