Test Review 1
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Zaida Gomez on Sunday September 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 1341 at Texas State University taught by Mamiya in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry I in Chemistry at Texas State University.
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Date Created: 09/25/16
TEST REVIEW 3 States of Matter Solid- define shape, volume, can’t be compressed Liquid- define volume (shape of container), can’t be compressed, atoms touch, fluidity Gas- no fixed shape/volume, uniformly fills container, can be compressed, far molecules Density is mass per volume Properties Physical properties- observed without change to the identity or composition of substance Ex. Color, odor, density, melting point, boiling point Chemical properties- Substance will change/react to form another substance Ex. Reaction of substance with water or flammability in presence of oxygen Intensive properties- does not depend on quantity of sample Ex. Melting point, boiling point, density (is EVERYTHING not measured) Extensive properties- depends on the quantity of sample Ex. Mass or volume of sample (measured amount) Physical change- appearance changes but chemical composition doesn’t change Ex. Evaporation, melting Chemical change- substance transforms to a chemically diff substance Ex. Electrolysis of water to form oxygen and hydrogen Physical Properties can be used to separate mixtures Distillation- separate homogeneous mixtures by boiling point Filtration- separate heterogeneous mixtures by solubilities SI Units (system international) Mass- kilogram, kg Length- Meter, m Time- Second, s or sec Temperature- Kelvin, K Amount of substance- Mole, mol Volume- Liter* Prefixes Kilo- k, 10^3 Milli- m, 10^-3 Micro- u (funny shaped), 10^9 Mega- M, 10^6 Temperature K= degrees Celsius + 273.15 Density Calculations - Derived units is obtained when one or more base units are multiplied or divided - The units have direct correlation to each other - Two commonly derived units with direct correlation are mass and volume - A mass of substance will have an exact amount of volume it will occupy - This derived unit is known as density Significant Figures Only apply when they’re measurements Exact numbers such as 1ft=12in are not measurements, therefore, does not apply 12.43g for example is a measurement, so Significant Figures do apply RULES 1. All nonzero digits ARE significant 2. Zeros between nonzero digits ARE significant 3. Zeros to the left of the first nonzero (leading zeros) ARE NOT significant 4. Zeros to the right of the first nonzero digit ARE significant 5. Number ending with zero may or may not be significant (DECIMAL needs to be present to be significant) Adding and Subtracting Measurements 1. Do the math 2. Determine the measurement with the most uncertainty 3. Round the answer to the same decimal point as the measurement with the most uncertainty Multiplying and Dividing Measurements 1. Do the math 2. Determine which number has the least amount of significant figures 3. Round to that number of significant figures Precision- how close are individual measurements to agreeing with one another Accuracy- how close the individual measurements agree with the true measurement Modern Atomic Structure Subatomic Particle- Proton Location- Nucleus Charge- +1 Size- 1.0073amu (very large) Subatomic Particle- Neutron Location-Nucleus Charge- -1 Size- 1.0087amu (very large) Subatomic Particle- Electron Location- outside nucleus Charge- -1 Size- 5.4x10^-4amu (VERY small) Atomic Notation Capitol then lower case (Examples: Cl, Sy) (Sourced from http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/nuclear/nucnot.html) Atomic number is the whole # sequence on periodic table Mass #- protons + neutrons Isotope is the Mass number (X-13 is the form, ex. Na-23) Ions Ion- a charged atom or molecule Cation- positive ion, more protons than electrons Anion- negative ion, more electrons than protons Neutral Atom- protons=electrons Protons are positive and Electrons are negative Polyatomic Ions Polyatomic- many ions Ammonium ion is the only cation Most contain oxygen Empirical and Molecular Formula Molecular formula- chemical formula of a substance (ex. C6H12O6) Empirical- simplest whole number (ex. CH2O) Types of Compounds Ionic Compound: - Cation and Anion - Metal and Nonmetal Molecular or Covalent Compound: - Nonmetal and Nonmetal - Ends in H Acid Compounds: - Chemical formula starts with H - Ex. of strong acids- HCl, HBr, HNo3, H2SO4, HI, HClO4 Base/Basic Compounds: - Metal and Hydroxide - (OH) is an alcohol when attached to a nonmetal Naming Ionic- known cation charge, unknown cation charge (transition metals) known cation charge- element name + ion; anion- element name + -ide ending unknown cation- element + ion (roman numeral); anion- element name + -ide ending Molecular- metal and nonmetals since there aren’t any ions, you need to designate the # of elements mono, di, tri, tetra, penta, hexa, hepta, octa, nona, deca st 1 element- name of element, if only 1 no mono prefix is required 2 ndelement- name of element with –ide ending, must designate how many even if 1 Acidic Compound- recognize acids by chemical formula starting with H two types: with and without oxygen WITHOUT- start name with hydro- anion name and ending with –ic WITH- determine polyatomic ion -if ending is –ate change to –ic ending then add acid -if ending is –ite change to –ous ending then add acid Atomic Mass Weighted average of all isotopes of an element Atomic Mass= Summation[(% isotope)(amu)+(% isotope)(amu)]
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