Soc 417 first exam study guide
Soc 417 first exam study guide SW 417
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sydney Anderson on Sunday September 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SW 417 at University of Mississippi taught by Boyas, Javier Francisco in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Social Welfare Policy II in Social Work at University of Mississippi.
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Date Created: 09/25/16
Test 1 study guide based on inclass lectures: Social Work 417 (Lines beginning with a * are things Dr. Boyas specifically mentioned would be on the test.) The historical context: basic concepts and early influences (Chapter 2) Social policy ● Policies: goals pursued by institutions ● Social policies: synonymous to social welfare policies, but more encompassing ● Social welfare policies: to satisfy individual and familial basic needs not met through the market system ● Types of social welfare policy ○ Contributory: you contribute your own money (social security, disability) ■ 50% of national social welfare expenditure ○ Meanstested: eligibility is determined by need ■ 13% (even though this is the one people complain about using our taxes) ○ Benefits tied to earnings or savings: you qualify based on earnings ■ 20% ● U.S. is not a welfare state because the government doesn’t make sure all our needs are met ● *Why does social welfare policy exist? Social problems, emergencies, social control, economic transitions, support of industry, rectify social injustice, subsidize private employment sector Problem definition vs need identification ● Problem centered approach: labeling a situation a “problem” that must be solved ○ Pathology and stigmatization ● Problem saturation: focusing so much on the problem that you can’t see any way out ● Strengthsbased approach identifies basic needs and barriers to needs ○ Client goals are center ○ Analyzing resources and strengths Formulation of policy alternatives ● Strengthsbased looks at how people are overcoming barriers so others can do the same through new programs Claimsmaking ● Making a claim based on your value system ● Typically involves some selfinterest ● Problemcentered approach focuses on public opinion ● Strengthsbased: right to self determination and social justice The development of our current welfare system (chapter 3) Political ideology ● Conservatism ○ Market economy and private industry should meet social welfare needs ○ Most agree on being antiunion; against government regulations; lower taxes and less spending;local control education; oppose civil rights legislation; states’ rights ○ Social work programming erodes U.S. work ethic, diverts tax revenue that could be used in private sector, lessens profits and global competitiveness, undermines free market society ● Classical conservatism ○ Typically constitutionalists, separation of church and state, less federal government intervention,economic, social, political freedom ○ Equality isn’t important ○ Society is and should be in a hierarchy of layers ○ Elites have the right to rule but responsibilities for welfare of others: “noblesse oblige” (if they can lead, they should) ○ Stability of society is key (law and order) ○ Customs and traditions are important ● Neoconservatism ○ Favor globalism (unlike classical conservatives) ○ Downplay religious issues ○ Unlikely to actively oppose abortion and homosexuality ○ Democracy can and should be installed across the world ○ Fault government for fostering growth of social welfare industry ● Cultural conservatives ○ In 80s and mid 90s, wanted greater control against government intrusion in private sector and corporate America ○ Pro amily, anti gay rights, prolife ○ School prayer, buying foreign anything, English as U.S.’s national language ○ Large social work programs don’t maximize self interest ○ Minimalist intervention from government to help maximize individual self and market economy ● Liberalism ○ Believe in big government ○ Equality for all ○ Government's duty to alleviate social ills and protect civil liberties and individual rights ○ Government needs to protect people from themselves ○ Not afraid to explore new ideas ○ Increase taxes, especially on rich ○ Decrease/maintain defense spending ○ Regulation and worker protection ○ Against school vouchers ● Classical liberalism ○ Belief that it federal intervention is necessary for enhancing public good ○ Rights come from the government ○ Use of coercion to elicit actions from individuals is illegitimate ○ People can divvy up their property equally within a group and share it for a socially acceptable cause as long as it's voluntary ○ Advancing public good by promoting and expanding economy coupled with the growth of universal social welfare and health programs ● Neoliberalism ○ Sustained economic growth is the way to human progress ○ Welcomes big business ○ Free market is most efficient ○ Economic globalization ○ Privatization removes inefficiencies of public sector ○ Call for public and individual responsibility through labor market ○ Government should mainly function to provide infrastructure to advance the rule of law with respect to property rights and contracts English Poor Laws ● Local responsibility for social welfare ● "Worthy poor"orphans, widows, disabled, elderly ● "Unworthy poor" drunks, lazy, ablebodied ● Principle of least responsibility (they give you the least you're eligible for) Constitution and social welfare ● States primarily responsible for social welfare ● Initially, only protected white, landowning males ● Bill of Rights: framework for civil rights protections ● Private philanthropy ● Continued principles of English poor laws ● Volstead Act (prohibition) 18th amendment ● Government creates laws about upholding morals (drinking, drugs, prostitution, etc.) The economic and political contexts (Chapter 4) The Great Society ● The largest social reform since the New Deal ● End poverty○Equality○Improve education ● Rejuvenate cities ● Protect environment (first time people started thinking about protecting the environment) Factors that lead to Great Society movement ● Civil rights movement and emphasis on social justice ● Rising poverty ● Political orientation of Kennedy 1st Catholic president (postassassination) and the Johnson administration ● The Other America and other exposés of poverty shocked America by revealing that 25% of people lived in poverty ● Window of opportunity as cultural, political, and social forces aligned Economic Opportunity Act of 1964 ● Established Office of Economic Opportunity ● Created Volunteers in Service to America (VISTA) ● Job corps provided job training to young men ● Community action programs: education, housing, healthcare, job training for impoverished ● Head start: medical care, education, and parental services for low income preschoolers Medicare and Medicaid (1965) ● Medicare: elderly and disabled ● Medicaid: poor Impact of Great Society ● Wilderness Protection Act ● Elementary and Secondary Education Act ● Voting Rights Act ● Omnibus Housing Act ● Air and Waste Water Quality Acts ● Higher standards for safety in consumer products Johnson and War on Poverty ● Poverty rates dropped by half in 14 years ● Significant gains overshadowed by over promises School desegregation ● Brown v Board of Education overturned Plessy v Ferguson (separate but equal ruling) ● De jure racism is by jurisdiction (law) ● De facto racism continues today Challenges to Jim Crow ● Montgomery bus boycott ● Student lunch counter protests ● Freedom riders ● March on Washington ● Freedom summer ● Selma, AL ● Loving v Virginia (interracial marriage) MexicanAmerican civil rights ● Xenophobia, exploitation or workers, political marginalization ● Labor organizing Basic tools (Chapter 5) Devolution ● Began in earnest during Reagan administration ● Block grants (states choose how to use the social welfare money) ○ States sometimes used surplus to fill in gaps in other area’s policies (that weren’t social welfare) ● Increased state authority ○ Variation among states in benefits/ services provided challenges in distributive justice ● Decreased federal government spending ○ Increased pressure on states, especially in times of recession Privatization [background is in slideshow] ● Allocating funds to private forprofit of nonprofit entities that provide social welfare benefits/services ● Less government spending for social welfare ○ Changed social contract ● Private entities lack the resources to fully address social problems ● Ignores need for structural reform ● Vouchers (for private school) ● Contractual relationship between public and private sectors ● Savings could be used to lower taxes and extend existing programs (so they say) ● Ownership/management of social services by private sector ● Techniques for privatization [in slideshow] Issues with privatization ● Commercialization: subjects human needs to economic marketplace ● Preferential selection: choosing clients based on market principles vs client needs; discriminatory practices (ex. Hospital not accepting children, the elderly, or people with chronic conditions) ● Cost effectiveness: government is in weak position to control prices charged for services ● Standardization: offering lowest quality product/service to generate surplus for investors and providers ○ Poor people get substandard services ○ Offering the most people services, with not the best quality services ● Oligopolization (like a monopoly) ○ Small number of organizations control a market ○ Reduce competition by buying competitors ○ A small number of organizations have power to shape social policy ○ 3 waves of acquisition in corporate sector i. Longterm care ii. Hospital management iii. Health maintenance organizations ● Leftleaning believe that it’s the government’s responsibility to provide social services ● Since public social programs are under violation, there’s more government reliance on private sector Social policy is influenced by: [check slides because we skipped things] ● Economic context: production, distribution, and use of income, wealth, and resources ● Political context: pursuit and exercise of power in public affairs ● Competition and conflict in economic and political processes ● These factors shape whether social policy promotes social justice or increases economic insecurity and inequality for the needy Approaches to social welfare [on test!] ● Institutional approach: government ensures basic needs are met ○ Taxes are collected for education, housing, food, health, etc. ○ Universal programs to be more inclusive ○ Horizontal equality ● Residual approach: Government should interfere only when family, religious institutions, and marketplace can’t meet needs ● Help only for very needy in dire situations ● Vertical equality IndustrializationWelfare Hypothesis ● Breakdown of family from industrialization requires govt assistance Maintenance of capitalism hypothesis ● Power elite make up and control policies to keep their power and wealth
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