Unit 1 of BSC 2010
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Date Created: 09/25/16
Unit 1 BSC 2010 Study Guide 1. Define reductionism. 2. What are the levels at which we study life? 3. Define homeostasis. 4. All cells a. Are enclosed in a membrane b. Use DNA for their genetic information c. Have a nucleus d. Both A and B 5. A has membrane enclosed organelles and a nucleus 6. Bacteria and archaea are cells, while plants, fungi, and all other forms of life are . 7. DNA controls the development and maintenance of organism and is organized in a helix 8. science is when one observes and describes some aspect of the world and uses inductive reasoning to draw general conclusions 9. science is based on observations, scientists then proposed hypothesis that lead to predictions and is then tested 10. The actions of molecules depend on the between atoms 11. Define element 12. Define compound 13. Name the four essential elements, that make up 96% of living matter 14. Name the remaining 4% of essential elements 15. Fill in the chart about subatomic particles Name Charge Location Mass Neutrons Protons Electrons 16. Define an element’s mass number compared to the atomic mass 17. Define atomic number 18. How do isotopes form? 19. How are radioactive isotopes used? 20. is the energy that matter has because of it’s location or structure 21. are electrons in the outermost shell 22. Define electron orbital 23. How does a covalent bond form? A single or double bond? 24. Is an atom’s attraction for the electrons in a covalent bond 25. Determine the difference between a polar covalent bond and a nonpolar covalent bond. 26. Bonds form when an atom strips electrons from their bonding partners 27. Determine the difference between a cation and anion. What forms betwwen these two ions? 28. A bond forms when a hydrogen atom covalently bonded to one electronegative atom is also attracted to another electronegative atom 29. are attractions between molecules that are close together as a result of positive or negative charges, which are caused by electrons being distributed asymmetrically. 30. Water has a bond angle of . 31. Water is highly . 32. is the attraction between different substances, such as the attraction between plant cell walls and water 33. is a measure of how hard it is to break the surface of a liquid 34. A is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 g of water by 1°C 35. The of a substance is the amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost for 1g of that substance to change its temperature by 1°C 36. As liquid evaporates, its remaining surface cools, a process called . 37. True or false: water is polar 38. What’s the difference between hydrophobic and hydrophilic substances 39. Acidic solutions have a pH than 7 and basic solutions have pH than 7 40. Define buffers 41. Carbon forms bonds with which elements to make biological macromolecules (DNA, RNA, and proteins) 42. define organic compounds 43. carbon bonds to other atoms and has electrons; in the first shell and valence electrons 44. Hybrid orbitals and tetravalence give methane a tetrahedral geometry with bond angles of . 45. Hybrid orbitals of double bonds create a trigonal planar molecule with bond angles of . 46. Describe the three types of isomers: structural isomers, geometric isomers, and enantiomers. 47. Be able to identify and describe the functional groups: a. Carboxyl b. Amino group c. Sulfhydryl d. Phosphate group e. Methyl group 48. Fill in the chart Macromolecules Monomers or Polymer or Type of lineage components large molecule Sugars Lipids Proteins Nucleic acids 49. Define dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis 50. Polymers are formed by . 51. Define enzymes 52. The simplest carbohydrates are or single sugars 53. Lipids mix with water 54. Fats are constructed from two types of smaller molecules: and . 55. What are fatty acids made of? 56. Identify what makes up glycerol 57. Identify three facts about saturated fatty acids 58. Identify three facts about unsaturated fatty acids 59. Define hydrogenation 60. A gram of fat stores energy as a gram of carbohydrate 61. What makes up the hydrophobic tail and a hydrophilic head of fatty acids? 62. When phospholipids are added to water, they self- assemble into what? With the hydrophobic tails pointing toward the interior. 63. Amino acids are organic molecules with and groups 64. R-groups give 3 specific chemical properties, define the 3. 65. Amino acids are linked by . 66. A is a polymer of amino acids. 67. The structure of a protein is its unique sequence of amino acids in a protein. It is determined by inherited genetic information. 68. The structure found in most proteins, consists of coils and folds in the polypeptide chain. Typical structures include a coil called a helix and a folded structure called a b pleated sheet. 69. The structure is determined by interactions among various side chains (R groups). 70. The structure results when a protein consists of multiple polypeptide chains that form a macromolecule. 71. Is a fibrous protein consisting of three polypeptides coiled like a rope. 72. Is a globular protein consisting of four polypeptides: two alpha and two beta chains. 73. Define chaperonins 74. Identify what the two types of nucleic acids are 75. Nucleic acids are polymers called polynucleotides, each polynucleotide is made of monomers called nucleotides, and each nucleotide consists of . 76. Define a nucleoside. 77. What makes up a nucleotide? 78. Identify the two families of nitrogenous bases. 79. What features of a cell are in both animal and plant cells? 80. Know the function of the nucleus, ribosomes, ER, golgi apparatus, lysozomes, vacuoles, plasma membrane, mitochondria, chloroplasts, and peroxisomes. 81. Identify the layers of plant cell walls. 82. What is a cytoskeleton? 83. Identify what a plasmodesmata is. 84. Animal cells walls are covered in that functions as support, adhesion, movement, and regulation. 85. Identify the four types of intercellular junctions. 86. Answers 1. Reductionism is the reduction of complex systems to simpler components that are more manageable to study 2. The levels at which we study life are the biosphere ecosystem community population organism organ system organ tissue cell organelle molecule atom 3. Regulation of the internal environment to maintain a constant state 4. D 5. Eukaryotic cell 6. Prokaryotic; eukaryotic 7. Double 8. Discovery science 9. Hypothesis-based science 10. Chemical bonding 11. An element is a substance that cannot be broken down to other substances by chemical reactions 12. A compound is a substance consisting of two or more elements in a fixed ratio 13. The essential elements are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen 14. Calcium, phosphorus, potassium, and sulfur 15. Name Charge Location Mass Neutrons None Nucleus 1 Protons + Nucleus 1 Electrons - Cloud around 0 the nucleus 16. An element’s mass is the sum of the protons + neutrons in its nucleus, while an atomic mass is the atom’s total mass (which is slightly different than the mass number because of the small mass of electrons) 17. Atomic number is the number of protons in a nucleus that determines the element 18. Isotopes are when an element continues to have the same number of protons but differs in number of neutrons 19. Radioactive isotopes spontaneously decay and give off particles and energy; this allows them to be applied in biological research in dating fossils, tracing atoms through metabolic processes, and diagnosing medical disorders. 20. Potential energy 21. Valence electrons; which determines the chemical behavior of an atom 22. An electron orbital is the three-dimensional space where an electron is found 90% of the time 23. Covalent bonds share a pair of electrons between two atoms and can form between atoms of the same or different elements. A single covalent bond is the sharing of one pair of valence electrons, while a double covalent bond is the sharing of two pairs of valence electrons. 24. Electronegativity; the more electronegative an atom the more strongly it pulls shared electrons towards itself 25. In a polar bond, one atom is more electronegative so the atoms don’t share the electron equally. In a nonpolar bond, the atoms share the electron equally. 26. Ionic bonds 27. A cation is a positively charged ion and an anion is a negatively charged ion. The attraction between the two is an ionic bond. 28. Hydrogen bond 29. Van der Waals Interactions 30. 105° 31. Electronegative 32. Adhesion 33. Surface tension 34. Calorie 35. Specific heat 36. Evaporative cooling 37. True 38. Hydrophobic substances don’t have an affinity for water, while hydrophilic substances have an affinity for water. 39. Less; greater 40. Buffers are su+stances –hat minimize changes in concentrations of H and OH in a solution 41. H, N, O, P, and S 42. Organic compounds are carbon containing compounds 43. Four atoms; 6 electrons; 2 in the first shell and 4 valence electrons 44. 109.5 45. 120 46. Structural isomers have a different shape. Geometric isomers have the same covalent arrangements but lack free rotation around the carbon double bond (if they’re on the same side = cis- which occurs naturally from fish and plants and different sides = trans- which leads to heart disease). Lastly, enantiomers are nonsuperimposable mirror images, like our hands. 47. Carboxyl group: C double bonded to O and bonded to OH (but the H can leave). Can act has an acid properties because it is so polar a. Amino: N bonded to two H atoms. Acts as a base, and therefore can pick up H+ from surrounding solution. b. Sulfhydryl: HS or SH. Two can form a covalent bond and make proteins. Keeps the curliness or straightness of hair. c. Phosphate: P double bonded to O and P also bonded to 3 negative O. contributes negative charge and can react with water and release energy. Totally electronegative. d. Methyl: C bonded to 3 H. Affects the expression of genes in DNA. 48. Macromolecules Monomers or Polymer or Type of lineage components large molecule Sugars Monosaccharide Polysaccharides Glycosidic s linkages Lipids Fatty acids Triacylglycerols Ester linkages Proteins Amino acids Polypeptides Peptide bonds Nucleic acids Nucleotides Polynucleotides Phosphodiester linkages 49. Dehydration synthesis is the removal of a water between molecules, hydrolysis is the addition of water which breaks apart bonds. 50. Dehydration synthesis. 51. Enzymes are molecules (proteins) that speed up the making and breaking of polymers. 52. Monosaccharides 53. Poorly 54. Glycerol and fatty acids 55. A fatty acid consists of a carboxyl group attached to a long carbon skeleton (fatty acid = hydrocarbon + carboxylic acid) 56. Glycerol is a three-carbon alcohol with a hydroxyl group attached to each carbon 57. saturated fatty acids are solids at room temperature and come from all animals except fish. Are saturated with hydrogens and have the maximum number of hydrogen atoms possible and no double bonds. Contributes to cardiovascular disease. 58. Unsaturated fatty acids have one or more double bonds, are liquids at room temperature, and are plant and fish fats. 59. Hydrogenation is the process of converting unsaturated fats to saturated fats by adding hydrogen 60. Twice as much 61. Hydrophobic tail is made of two fatty acids and the hydrophilic head is the phosphate group and its attachments 62. Assembles into a bilayer 63. Carboxyl and amino groups 64. Non-polar: equal distribution of electrons, polar: unequal distribution of electrons, and charged: acidic or basic. 65. Peptide bonds 66. Polypeptide 67. Primary structure 68. Secondary structure 69. Tertiary structure 70. Quaternary structure 71. Collagen 72. Hemoglobin 73. Chaperonins are protein molecules that assist the proper folding of other proteins 74. The two types are DNA which provides directions for its own replication and that directs synthesis of messenger RNA (mRNA), which controls protein synthesis. 75. A nitrogenous base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. 76. The portion of a nucleotide without the phosphate group, which is a nitrogenous base + sugar. 77. Nucleoside + phosphate group 78. Pyrimidines (cytosine, thymine, and uracil) have a single six-membered ring. Purines (adenine and guanine) have a sex-membered ring fused to a five-membered ring. 79. Cell membrane, ribosomes, nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, vacuoles, mitochondria, and lysosomes. 80. Nucleus contains cell’s gene, ribosomes are responsible for the conversion of genetic material to protein, the ER is the factory, golgi is responsible for modifying products of the ER, manufactures some macromolecules and sorts packages materials into transport vesicles. Lysozomes is a hydrolytic enzymes that can digest macromolecules. Vacuoles are maintenance compartments. Mitochondria are the sites of cellular respiration. Chloroplasts contain the green pigment chlorophyll that function in photosynthesis. Perioxisomes are specialized metabolic compartments bounded by a single membrane. 81. Primary cell wall is relatively thin and flexible. Middle lamella is the thin layer between primary walls of adjacent cells. Secondary cell wall in some cells is added between the plasma membrane and the primary cell wall 82. A cytoskeleton is a network of fibers, extending throughout the cytoplasm that organizes the cell’s structures and activites. 83. Plasmodesmata are channels between adjacent plant cells 84. Elaborate extracellular matrix (ECM) 85. Plasmodesmata are channels that perforate plant cell walls. Tight junctions are membranes of neighboring cells are pressed together, preventing leakage of extracellular fluid. Desmosomes (anchoring junctions) fasten cells together into strong sheets. Gap junctions (communicating junctions) provide cytoplasmic channels between adjacent cells.
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