Speech Science Exam I Study Guide
Speech Science Exam I Study Guide SLP5120
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This 20 page Study Guide was uploaded by Freya Kniaz on Sunday September 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SLP5120 at Wayne State University taught by Li Hsieh in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see Speech Science in Linguistics and Speech Pathology at Wayne State University.
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Date Created: 09/25/16
Speech Science Exam I Study Guide Chapter One: The Nature of Sound Define the following terms and state relevant equations: Mass: Force: Weight: Volume: Density: Speed: Velocity: Momentum: Acceleration: Inertia: Elasticity: Deformation: Strain: Stiffness: Work: Energy: Power: Pressure: Flow: Compression: Rarefaction: Damping: Wave Front: Frequency: Period: Wavelength: Amplitude: Incident Wave: Absorption: Reflection: Refraction: Diffraction: Phase: What is Brownian Motion? Does air tend to move to a space of higher or lower pressure? Distinguish between laminar and turbulent flow. Is there an inverse or direct relationship between air pressure and volume? Air pressure and density? State Hooke’s Law. Are sound waves transverse or longitudinal? State the Inverse Square Law. Distinguish between periodic and aperiodic. Distinguish between pure and complex sounds. Distinguish between fundamental frequency and harmonic frequency. Vowel sounds are __________ and _____________. What is Fourier analysis? Describe the two kinds of aperiodic complex sounds. Give an example from each. Continuous: Transient: Distinguish between constructive and destructive interference. What is Reverberation? The frequency of a vibrating object depends on which of its attributes? 1. 2. 3. 4. The range of frequencies that humans can hear are between _______ Hz and __________ Hz. Subsonic: Supersonic: What do we use to measure pitch? Intensity? Chapter Two: Resonance: What is resonance? Distinguish between natural frequency and resonance frequency. When does acoustic resonance occur? Distinguish between nodes and antinodes. Distinguish between halfwave and quarterwave resonators. What is a standing wave? Distinguish between narrowly and broadly tuned resonators. What is a cutoff frequency? Describe a resonance curve and its function. Explain each type of filter. Lowpass: Highpass: Bandpass: Bandstop: What type of resonator is the vocal tract? (Three.) What does a formant describe? Summarize SourceFilter Theory. How does the vocal tract change resonance? With which three characteristics? The longer the resonator, the _________ its resonant frequencies. Similarly, the shorter the resonator the _________ its resonant frequencies. There is a(n) ____________ relationship between formant one frequency and tongue height. Formant two is related to the length of the _______________. Chapter Three: The Articulatory System Define the following terms: Articulation: How do we modify the sound wave traveling through the vocal tract? What three anatomical structures compose the vocal tract? What are the three important features of the vocal tract? What are the valves of the vocal tract? What are the four boundaries of the oral cavity? Describe the function of the following muscles and their location: Superior labial frenulum: Inferior labial frenulum: Orbicularis oris: Levator labii superioris: Levator anguli oris: Zygomaticus major: Zygomaticus minor: Risorius: Depressor anguli oris: Depressor labii inferioris: Mentalis: What are the three ways that the mandible can move? What are the four types of teeth? What are the three types of malocclusion? Class I occlusion: Class II occlusion: Class III occlusion: What is the Palatine process? Palatine bones? What joins them together? Which anatomical structure is affected by cleft palate or other craniofacial abnormalities? What is the aponeurosis? Distinguish between hypernasality and hyponasality. Describe the function of the five muscles of the velum: Levator veli palatini: Musculus uvuli: Tensor veli palatini: Palatoglossus: Palatopharyngeus: How does the velum move to close? Describe the four types of velopharyngeal closure: Coronal: Sagittal: Circular: Circular with Passavant’s Ridge: Which is the most important and most active articulator? What is the muscular hydrostat? Describe the six parts of the tongue. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Describe the function of the following parts of the tongue: Median sulcus: Lingual Frenulum: Intrinsics muscles (define this too): Superior longitudinal: Inferior longitudinal: Transverse: Vertical: Extrinsic muscles (define this too): Genioglossus: Hyoglossus: Palatoglossus: Styloglossus: What are the four basic patterns of tongue movement? 1. 2. 3. 4. What is the role of the tongue during swallowing? What does the papillae contain? Into what three parts do we divide the pharynx? Describe the following muscles of the pharynx: Pharyngeal constrictor: Inferior constrictor: Cricopharyngeus: When does the cricopharyngeus constrict? Relax? What are the nasal conchae? How are consonants of a language defined? What are the seven different places of articulation? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 What are the six different manners of articulation? 1 2 3 4 5 6 What are cognates? Draw the vowel quadrilateral? What is spectrography? Distinguish between narrowband and broadband spectrograms. Which is more common? What do formants look like on a spectrogram? Which formants doe we use to characterize a vowel? What is their origin? Which formant represents the fundamental frequency of the speaker? Distinguish between the formants of back, central, and front vowels. What are diphthongs in terms of spectrography? Distinguish between onglides and offglides. What is a nasal murmur? What spectrographic elements characterize it? During a nasal sound, what happens to the oral cavity? What are antiformants? Describe a nasal formant. Do the resonating characteristics change much between nasal sounds? Why? What happens in a spectrograph during a glide? Distinguish between the spectrograms of glides and liquids. Distinguish between the spectrograms of /r/ and /l/. Describe the four characteristic acoustic features of a stop: 1. 2. 3. 4. Can you see the silent gap of a voiceless stop? What is the voice bar and when does it occur? In what positions can you see the release bursts of a stop? In which can you not? In which sounds are the higher frequency components emphasized? Why? What is aspiration in terms of a stop? When does it occur? What indicates the coordination between the laryngeal and articulatory systems? What are the four values of voice onset time and what do they mean? 1. 2. 3. 4. What occurs during a fricative acoustically? What does a fricative look like on a spectrogram? On what does the specific range and intensity of a fricative depend? What is the difference between affricates and fricatives on the spectrogram? What is coarticulation? Describe the two types of coarticulation. Give an example of coarticulation/ What are the three suprasegmentals that influence sound production the most? What is intonation in terms of the spectrogram? What are breath groups? What is stress? What is lexical stress? What happens on a spectrograph during vowel reduction? Which suprasegmental can be a cue to voicing? Which suprasegmental helps create linguistic boundaries? Chapter Seven: The Respiratory System What is ventilation? What are the three parts of the bronchial tree? The cartilagenous rings of the trachea leave the front ___________ and the back ___________. What are cilia and what are their function? How many lobes does the right lung have? The left? What is the central tendon? What is the shape of the diaphragm in a relaxed state? In a constricted state? Describe the function of the following muscles of the respiratory system: External intercostals: Internal intercostals: Scalenes: Sternocleidomastoid: Costal levators: Pectoralis major: Pectoralis minor: Serratus anterior: Serratus posterior inferior: Subclavius: Subcostals: Transverse thoracic: External oblique: Internal oblique: Rectus abdominis: Transverse abdominis: The only way lungs can move is by some ________ source. How do we create it? Distinguish between the visceral and the parietal pleura. Describe the three lung pressures: 1. 2. 3. What is pneumothorax? During inhalation, alveolar pressure must become ____________ so that air will be forced to flow into the respiratory system. How does this happen? During exhalation, alveolar pressure must be higher than ______________ pressure. How does this happen? Define the following terms: Spirometer: Resting expiratory level: Endexpiratory level: Tidal volume: Inspiratory reserve volume: Expiratory reserve volume: Residual volume: Vital capacity: Functional residual capacity: Total lung capacity: Inspiratory capacity: Distinguish physiological needs for breathing for life and breathing for speech. What are the five major changes between breathing for life and speech? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What are relation pressures? Describe the three phases of respiratory development. 1. 2. 3. Good luck, you are going to get an A on this exam!!!! :)
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