GEO 101B World Geography WK 1 Study Guide
GEO 101B World Geography WK 1 Study Guide GEO 101B
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ashlyn Cook on Sunday September 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GEO 101B at Baker College taught by Heaton in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see World Geography 1 in Geography at Baker College.
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Date Created: 09/25/16
Geo 101B Wk 1 Study Guide **Includes key terms and vocab as well as things to remember from the weeks. Also has my original notes from the reading** Key Vocab and Terms from Reading Assignment (pages 1-37) Asbolute Location-an exact location using latitude and longitude. Cartography-The art and science of making maps. Climate-The long term weather of a region. Continental Drift-slow movement of the continents due to plate tectonics. Cultural Landscapes-cultural fingerprint left on a region by those there on the natural land. Economic Geography-study of how people in each region/realm make their living. Functional Region-regions marked by their dynamic internal structure. Geographic Information System (GIS)-geographic data that can be viewed quickly Geographic Realms-used as a way to divide up the world by certain similarities and characteristics. Glaciations-continental cooling in which the ice sheets expand. Globalization-the reduction of regional differences. Greenhouse Effect-The radiation from the sun becomes trapped in Earth’s atmosphere. Ice Age-a stretch of time in which the Earth’s temperatures stayed low and expanded ice sheets. Periodically they occur and last tens of millions of years. Interglacial-warm periods in Earth’s history where the ice sheets begin to melt away. Language Families-groups of languages that share the same origin. Lingua Franca- a second language or primary language spoken by most countries. Natural Landscapes-all of the natural forms on Earth’s surface. (lakes, mountains, valleys, etc…) Pacific Ring Of Fire- Earthquakes and volcanic activity along the tectonic plate from crustal instability. Political Geography-the study of geographic space and politics Population Density-how thick the populations are in geographic areas Population Distribution-the way populations of people place themselves geographically within each geographic realm. Regional Concept-geographic study of regions. Regional Geography-geographic study based on the spatial unit. Relative Location-regional positions relative to other places (America’s Southwest or Norther Ireland, etc…) Scale-measuring system commonly used on maps to represent distance. Sovereignty-controlling power and influence over a territory. Spaital Systems-components and interactions of a functional region Spatial Perspective-geographic expression of how Earths space is organized. Tectonic Plates-heavier earth rocks on which the continents are placed. Plates are always in motion. Terrestrial Space- Transition Zones- area of spatial change which two adjacent realms are marked by a gradual shift in characteristics. Urbanization-The movement of people to cities and town causing expansion. Weather-immediate and short term conditions of the atmosphere in a given area that impinge on human activity. Things to Remember Everyone uses mind maps to navigate familiar places everyday. New advances in technology (satellites) allow maps to be more accurate, but some ground work is still needed to verify information. The use of newer technology in cartography means more advanced navigation in cars, phones, computers and also allows faster transmission of data. This data can then be placed and used as a Geographic Information System (GIS). Geographers view spatial patterns to be crucial in understanding how we organize our societies geographically. Scales are used on maps and in collecting data for geographers. Maps are either large or small scale and will usually have a scale to use at the bottom that represents a given distance. Geographic realms are used to break down Earth into areas that are more manageable to study. Each realm shares similarities such as culture, environment, climate, religion, politics and economics. Where two realms meet is called a transition zone. Each geographic realm can be broken into regions in the same way. (Eastern U.S or America’s Midwest) Transition zones and borders can be harder to indentify. Earth is 4.5 Billion Years old Continental drift is evident Pacific ring of fire produces volcanoes and earthquakes very frequently due to crustal insufficiency around the edges of the tectonic plate due to continental drift. Population distribution and population density ARE NOT THE SAME THING Population density (number of people per area) also reveals areas of higher urbanization (higher populations in an area usually indicates cities or towns). Earth’s population is estimated to be about 7.2 billion 4.2 billion live in South Asia, East Asia and Europe alone. English is still the current Lingua Franca (most common language or second language) All languages can be grouped by common origins and are the essence of any culture. Earth presently has about 200 countries Globalization essentially means that what happens in one country may have repercussions in another. This blurs transitional zones between realms. Comes in from media in all forms in all mediums. (Art, radio, Tv, Movies, News, Newspapers, Internet, Social Media, etc…) Geo 101B WK 1 Reading Notes Pages 1-18 A World of Maps Geography is more closely identified with maps than any other science. All humans use mind maps Mental pictures of the places we use a lot like homes, work, church, etc…like mental layouts or blueprints. Mental maps can also include world maps. When you see maps in school, online, or on tv and memorize some of them, that’s a mental map. Maps reflect physical boundaries between countries and can also be made to show geographical locations of tribes, religions, languages, politics and cultural boundaries. Examples include maps that show you which part of the world are Muslim/Christian/Jewish/and any other religion. Cartography- the making of maps Cartography has been undergoing technical advancement such as the use of orbiting satellites to map the world, monitor deserts and glaciers, and shrinking land masses. The use of technology in cartography allows geographers to collect, store and display information and develop a geographic information system (GIS) which brings information to the computer quicker then more traditional methods. Another advance in cartography is the advancement of navigation systems in cars and on phones. This allows the use of maps on the go. Satellites can’t show geographers everything, which means ground work must still be done to ensure accuracy. Always remember the world is a sphere and so to get a 3D world on a 2D map entails some distortion. Globes tend to be more accurate. Geography Perspective Geography, if narrowed down to one discipline, is about the space on Earth’s surface called Spatial perspective. Spatial Perspective-defined as the study of the organization of terrestrial spaces on Earth. social spaces (buildings, cities, political boundries) and natural spaces (biomes, climates, terrain differences) are studied and are usually not randomly configured. Examines the particular order in which the above occur. How predictable, how regular, and where about they occur. Studies the natural causes and human causes. Another key study in geography is the relationships between human societies and the natural world. Geography lies between social and natural sciences, so it intergrates both and is the only science that does so. Looks at how climate changes affect human societies Examines how interconnected human societies actions, movement, etc..are with nature and the natural world. Spatial Patterns show geographers patterns of success and failure in the natural and human world. They also show patterns in the location and distribution of salient features. When a map is created, it shows all or a part of Earth’s surface in varying depths of detail (basic vs. detailed). Maps that show larger portions of the Earth are called large scale and maps that show smaller portions are thus called small scale. World Geographical Realms Geographic realms are boundaries geographers look at which regionalize areas The world is full of countries, islands, religions, waterways, and oceans. Looking at 3 main criteria allow the identification of the realms Physical/Human Characteristics-spatial criteria which is the largest into which the world can be divided. Cultural similarities (like how all Asian cultures are similar) along with physical characteristics (like the difference in appearance between a person of Asian descent and Spanish decent) and regional characteristics (jungles, desserts, islands, mountains) are used to determine geographic realms. Functional-geographic realms are also the result of the interaction between human societies and natural environments. They are functional interactions revealed by farms, mines, ports, bridges, villages, etc.. Historical- realms must encompass historically accurate groups. Two Varieties of Realms Monocentric-are realms that are dominated by a single political entity. North America (United States) , Middle America (Mexico),Russia, East Asia (China), and Australia are all examples of monocentric realms because they are heavily influenced by one country in their realm. For example, the North American realm has Canada in it as well but it’s heavily influenced by the U.S. Polycentric-in these realms appearance, functioning, and organization of the realms are dispersed among a number of more or less influential regions. Europe, and South Eastern Asian realms are great examples. They are one realm made up of several countries that all share influence. Regions within Realms Geographers further break down realms into regions for more specialized study. Breaking down the realms into regions is called Regional Concept. North America, for example, is broken into regions such as the Midwest, Eastern, Southwest, etc… Regions can be hard to outline on a map. Follow several criteria Area and Boundries- All regions occupy some portion of Earth and are not made up. All regions are marked by boundries whether it be natural (like a dividing mountain range) or human (sparceness of human populations). Location- have a physical location on a map within a realm. Can be absolute (latitude and longitude coordinates) or relative (names like Southwestern U.S, Siberia) Homogenity-human population similarities. Physical Settings Geologists also look at the physical natural environments to see how it’s affected human populations spatially. Several natural landscapes occur across the landmasses. Examples would be mountains, rivers, coastal plains, jungles, etc… Geologists examine how these landscapes have created borders between societies. Can study continental drift (travel of the tectonic plates) and the tectonic plates (the pieces of earth that chunks of the world sit on) Studying physical environment by region allows identification of which areas are hit with various natural disasters that are regionally specific and how those affect the populations in the area. Physical studies can also mean the study of glacial activity over history and present and things like global warming and climate change. Geo 101B WK 1 Reading Notes Pages 19-31 Realms of Populations Population numbers themselves can’t be used to create geographical realms. Instead, population distribution and the societies that give them common ground are significant enough to use in the creation of realms. Earth’s current population is around 7.2 Billion. Population slowly grew until about the 19 -20 centuries Expected to reach 9.6 billion in year 2050 Major Population Clusters The only way to present and overview locations of populations on the planet is to create a population distribution map. Population distribution map- a map that shows the population density of a given area in a way that shows where each population is located. Population distribution and population density are not the same thing Population density-the number of people per unit area Population distribution-the way in which people and populations of people locate themselves geographically. Population distribution shows where clusters of dense populations are in each realm South Asian Realm shows clusters centered in India East Asian Realm shows clusters centered in China, Korea, and Vietnam European Realm shows clusters centered all over All of the above 3 realm populations count for 4 billion of the 7.2 Billion people in the world The North American Realm has clusters centered in the Eastern U.S Populations dense in these realms are usually centered in urbanized areas, thus displaying levels of urbanization in each realm. Realms of Culture Cultural Landscapes-distinctive attributes of a society imprinted on that part of the world. Human societies take their physical environment and add their culture to fashion a landscape that shows culture specific buildings, roads, cuisine, modes of dress, religious buildings and places, etc… This forms realms and ways of dividing those realms into regions, since no one country has just one cultural realm. Language is the essence of culture Language is not permanent. It changes of the years. It’s estimated that thousands of languages have died in our history. Language Families-groups of languages that share the same past origin. English remains the lingua franca (common second language) as it’s the national or official language of many countries. Religion can also shape realms and defines a culture For example: Islamic nations tend to be grouped as the Western Asian/NW African realm A World of States Earth contains 200 countries Sovereignty-an international law which means that the government of a country riles supreme within it’s borders. In all of human history, the concept of sovereignty is still relatively new. Greek and Roman City-States exhibited some similar concepts but it wasn’t until the Eurpeans started negotiating treaties that defined sovereignty that it became used and known. Political geography-a shaper of world-scale geographic regions. Studies the political process and geographic realms. Geographies of Development Economic geography- focuses on the spatial aspects of the ways people make their living, and deals with all things related to economic goods in geographical realms. Use of Statistics Use caution when using and viewing statistics Statistics use averages and totals as data. Pitfalls to statistics include it not representing the variations, total population, or changes that are always occurring. Geologists also look at development and the spatial perspective Look to income levels Core areas-places of dominance in which the populations exert power of their surroundings. Places of cities, expansion, development and new ideas. Also marked by controlling their population with taxes, forcing workers to mine or farm. Core areas create Periphery-sustained the core as long as the system endured. Created wealth and enforced stability.
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