Sociological Theories Exam 1 Study Guide
Sociological Theories Exam 1 Study Guide SOCIOL 3100
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lindsay Smith on Sunday September 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOCIOL 3100 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Rebecca Scott in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see Recent Theories in Sociology in Sociology at University of Missouri - Columbia.
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Date Created: 09/25/16
Lindsay Smith Sociology Theories Study Guide Exam 1 Study Guide Format: 8-10 Short essay questions, 1-2 paragraphs each. Full points = showing understanding of having read, coming to lecture and critical thought. Marx History: atheist Materialism/Modernity He wants to know: Who does what? Who gets what? His idealism Results: only some people have reality, and it’s not the majority. (Term: Class struggle) Modes of Production: Feudalism (set up by God) Capitalism Means of Production – resources, tools, etc. Instruments of Production – technology, machines, etc. Relationships: Bourgeoisie own the means of production Proletariat own only their own labor Past Future Hard Working Elite Relax Lazy Rascals Work Alienated from Capitalism: Product from their labor Process from their labor Self form their labor Other people from their labor Vocab: Estrangement/alienation: Unless an employer is buying your capacity, it’s worthless; thus, you’re no longer apart of society. (Labor power = life force) Human Nature: we all eat, sleep and procreate. Crisis of Overproduction: don’t pay workers enough to even buy the products their making. (Contradiction in capitalism) Ex): 2008 Fix it: colonialism, or war to expand the market, or welfare Origin of Capital: not just money, also power. (Money in process.) Peasant Market: C – M – C (C = commodity, M = money) Capitalist Market: M – C – M *Secret of capital: create more value than they get exploitation AKA. “Give them enough to get to work the next day.” worker = commodity Commodity: Use value (concrete) Exchange value (abstract) Feminism: relating economics in the house in relation to economics in society. Matrilineal v. Patrilineal Societies (Decent traced back to mother or father) Engles Progress narrative in terms of feminism: Control the woman to ensure the child is yours. Civilization: Class inequality unequal partnership Progress for 1 group exploitation of another Durkheim History: professional sociologist, atheist Goal: how society is held together Social Integration v. Social Regulation Modernity: world is changing why? Pre-industrial society = Religion State, but now industry strictly = chaos, confusion Mechanical v. Organic Solidarity (Gemeinshaft v. gosellschaft) community, family individual, diversity unison, traditional singular conformity difference simple D.O.L complex D.O.L Suicide increases as a social problem with war, religion, occupation and marriage. Likeliness scale (most-least): Protestants, Catholics, Jews. 4 Types of Suicide: Individuality v. conformity solutions? True individualism: honoring the individual as the highest ideal. Thoughts on marriage – Lacking in value Temporary (hassle?) Fewer rules (govt.) Collective representations Religion is not only divine but a cosmology. Cosmology: understanding of the universe, existence. Classification system of knowledge. Creation story that gives us a totality (whole). Ex): humans > animals because of symbolic interactions we have maps, they have a path. This thing is > the individual so it provides what people need – an ordering principle or force in their lives. Basic truth of human beings is that we have ideas, thus culture. Collective Enterprise: humanity comes from a group; not doing things alone. (Marx Agrees) Religion is a guide, a pattern to a way of live. Now… leave behind incomplete ideas (religion) for truer things (science). Cause & Effect testing: learning, “if I do this, God will punish me.” (no fine line between science/religion) Religion is basic form of society: Collective conscientiousness – Group church Rituals reconfirming group Beliefs Separation between profane v. sacred (real) (ideal) ordinary existing Collective Effervescence – Strength of a group Ex): singing in church, political rallies Surveillance = Conscious Sacred Good – MLK Sacred Bad – Hitler *neither can be praised or criticized Totem/Symbol Ex): Cross - Christianity Weber History: influenced by Dubois, (1864-1920), mom was Calvinist, dad was bureaucrat, weber’s romantic Goals: Why do people obey? What is politics? What makes people do what they do? Ideas, economics, values? (all about the why) Disenchantment: all about cost/benefit and rules, so everything loses its value EX): hotdogs with real sugar v. hot dogs with corn syrup Allocation of force – obey because someone makes you State has monopoly on violence (*it’s illegal to put a gun to someone’s head and force them to do something but police can) Multiple Causality Class (proletariat/bourgeois but market relation, property, and power) Status (honor) Party (come together with common interests) Protestant Reform Economics rational self-interest Capitalism Old – honor > economics New – economics > honor He says we can’t assume why people are going to come together because of divisions – role/status/class. 3 kinds of rule: 1. Traditional – routine, ancestry, permanent, fixed, divine right, know what to expect 2. Affective –Emotional – come from bottom ranks, swept up in emotional feeling; transformational; magical. Not business as usual, enables change. Ex): MLK, Ghandi, Jesus 3. Rational – calculability, measurability, cost/benefit Education now vs. then Then: to enrich lives with a greater understanding of the world Now: it’s to just get a job, specialization *means to an end Now people are asking themselves…why is my place in a Bureaucratic machine? And they must find the credentials to fit in somewhere Substantive rationality rises with modernity and struggles against instrumental rationality because of love and emotions. EX): I love sociology so that’s my major, but instrumental rationality would tell me that makes me no money. Spirit of Capitalism: Soul/Ghost (something’s died has no soul) Accumulating wealth is key idea and Weber wants to know where it came from? He does not think we were born greedy people. Traditional Capitalism v. Rational Capitalism Trad. Methods, employees Most efficient, oversight Pay/customers more work less leisure Small business Walmart The Calling Ascetic (denial of pleasure) Reform of Protestant Church – God doesn’t just talk to priests, he talks to everyone. Everyone has a task set before them by God. Critics from Weber: Calvinism is unbearable to him Predestination: God knows who is saved or damned before they are born. Methodists: following the methods, doing work, sticking to it – virtue of God Vocab: Usury: charging interest on a loan (was a sin in old Europe) Ideal type: thought experiment to measure reality against Authority: Traditional v. Charismatic v. Rational Demagogue: can stir up a crowd (ex. Hitler) Rationality: instrumental (calculable) v. substantive (values) Bureaucratic: most efficient form of authority (impossible to destroy) *can change the leadership but can’t change the structure Utilitarianism: greatest good for the greatest # of people Credit: people give me money to do stuff, implies merit. Double Ethic: it’s okay to do stuff to these people but not these other people. Dubois History: structural sociologist, communist, somewhat erased in history because of race, first began studying culture in Philly at the university. Structural Sociology: Class, status, party Whites can only see blacks through stereotypes But Blacks have double consciousness/the Vail Everyone has his or her own cultural lens Color-line century: color is fetishized problem is racism (structural) Dubois says he was asked, “How does it feel to be a problem?” Souls of Black Folk – The Vail is main point African Americans are founders of this country, they’re not immigrants Battle with Booker T. Wash. B: Focus on agriculture and the simpler trades – making money D: Go to school; get an education – become intellectual leader White privilege gives whites the “psych wage,” the small everyday courtesies of the majority. Ex): To Kill a Mocking Bird Vocab: Jim Crow Laws: Legalized segregation Double-Consciousness: from between 2 worlds, see yourself in the positive and negative light. (Seen through their own eyes’ and dominant societies’) Radical Multiculturalism: acknowledging every cultures contribution, not erasing other minorities’ contribution because of white supremacy. Robert Park Contact – Conflict – Assimilation Gilman Goals: commentary on mental illness Writes about: being locked in a nursery 19 century: cult of womanhood –femininity Woman are passive, represent religion. Industrial work is public, outside but private work is inside the home only. 1867: impossible for a married woman to owner her own property, without a question To a man, it’s not an employment relationship but a duty. (Women in the home) The ideal is that the image of woman is childlike, separate from economic rationality. Yellow Wallpaper: *rest cure – too much exertion = infertility Apparently, a developing brain leaves behind the uterus. Women as people are this radical idea for her in the home setting. Domesticity v. Political Naturalized challenges political Pre-Modernity = savage does all the work for her group Modernity = liberation Critique: When does mom actually get to retire? She still cooks, cleans, etc. while dad sits around actually retired/on vacation. Treatment of mental illness for women Knowledge production for women Objectivity & women’s individuality Vocab: Couverture Law: dependent of husband and not an individual. Feminine Couverte: she is what her husband is. Blue stocking: intellectual woman who fights for her rights. Enforced Dependency: not being able to self-direct; boredom. OVERALL REVIEW: Progress Narratives for Theorists – Marx = Material Durkheim = Ideas Weber = Interaction between the 2
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