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PKG 101 Exam 1 Complete Study Guide

by: Danielle Linska

PKG 101 Exam 1 Complete Study Guide PKG 101

Marketplace > Michigan State University > PKG 101 > PKG 101 Exam 1 Complete Study Guide
Danielle Linska

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This is a study guide for all of the material covered in class to prepare for Exam 1.
Principles of Packaging
Dr. Koning
Study Guide
Packaging, Intro to Packaging Science, package
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Danielle Linska on Sunday September 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PKG 101 at Michigan State University taught by Dr. Koning in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 34 views.


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Date Created: 09/25/16
Exam 1 Study Guide Friday, September 23, 2016 3:44 PM Lecture 2 (History of Packaging):  Typical packages were made of o Shells o Animal parts (Sometimes Human) o Wood and Bamboo o Grasses/Leaves for baskets  Packaging evolves based on societal advancements and cultural needs.  19th century = rapid technology growth  The first package considered to be a modern retail pack was produced for "Uneeda" biscuits  In the 20th century, most of the machines used for packaging were developed in the last 100 years.  In the 21st century, structures were made with flexible pouch with fitments  Historical causes of change were: o War - Military Conflicts o New Technology o Defined Customer or Consumer Need o Cost Savings  Packaging Company Categories are o Development  Includes the creation of new package forms, materials and processes. This can be for a new innovative product that is coming to market, or to fix an issue with an existing product.  Projects usually require cross-functional teams. o Production  Is usually performed by converters. It is not unusual for one company to purchase materials, produce packages with them, and then sell those packages to another company. o Filling and Sealing  Can both be gone at the company that manufactures the product or separately. o Distribution  Is the transport of finished products into the market to wholesalers, retailers, and eventually the consumers' homes or point of end use. Lecture 3 (The Functions of Packaging):  Packaging is a coordinated system of preparing goods for transport, distributions, storage, retailing and use.  A package performs one or more of the four basic functions: o Containment o Protection (preserve) o Communication (inform/purchase decision) o Utility (Convenience)  Containment is the first and most basic functions o This is the ability to hold throughout the package environment o Simply holding a product in a way that allows it to be grouped, enclosed, or moved. o 3 considerations when preparing a package design:  The product's physical form  Mobile, viscous, solid, fluid, paste  The product's nature  Corrosive, corrodible, flammable, volatile, fragile  The products use  Microwavable, portable, multipack, shelf stable, boutique  Protection is maintaining the integrity of the product throughout the package environment. o Protection from shocks and vibrations o Protection from the atmosphere o Protection from the consumer  All of the messages that the package provides to those who interact with it, the conveying of information by signs, symbols, color and shape is communication. o Label information motivates consumers to purchase the product.  Provides consumers means to make choices; price, nutrition, ingredients, etc.  Motivates to continue purchasing the same brand (loyalty) or acts on the information provided in advertisements or on packages to select a different product.  Package is often called the "silent salesman"  Utility - package feature that deals with function and performance.  Convenience - package feature that addresses "ease of use", reduce time, reduce effort, and reduce steps. o Examples: handles, strips, pull tabs, sprouts, shakers, valves, pumps  Any package feature that makes a product easier to use, more convenient, or safer is providing utility. The package must successfully perform these functions from the point of  manufacturing through the distribution supply chain, retailing and consumer use environment that includes: o Physical o Atmosphere o Human  Products are subjected to shocks and vibration at all stages of the manufacturing, warehousing, and distribution cycle.  Vibrational damage can cause failure over time by shaking components loose, breaking components repeated stresses, or scuffing products and their labels. o Example: Wine companies  Shock and drop events are very quick events that cause immediate damage.  Compression usually happens over time; this can occur with cases or pallets stacked in a warehouse that gradually compress, or in a truck where vibration enhances compression events.  Dirt and infestation need to be protected against. o One form of protection is to simply keep the product clean.  Infestation is contamination by bacteria and other microbes, insects, rodents, or other pests.  Packages must be tight and constructed of material which will keep such pests from gaining access to the product.  A barrier packaging material is one that slows down or stops the movement of selected gaseous substances into or out of a package. o The best barrier materials are glass or metal. For atmospheric factors:  o Many foods are hygroscopic which mean they will gain moisture in humid environments  Whether you are trying to protect from moisture gain or loss, you need to select a material that has high water vapor barrier properties to prevent the passage of moisture through it  Packaging that provides a good oxygen barrier can be used to extend the shelf life for oxygen sensitive products. o A related option is modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), where the air in the headspace of the package is replaced with a different composition of gases.  Many products need the controlled levels of oxygen.  A low level of oxygen can be an advantage or a hazard, depending on the product.  Carbonated beverages (beer and soft drinks) lose the "fizz" and bubbly character if the carbon dioxide (CO2) leaks out of the package.  Many consumer and medical products must be held in a specific temperature range to prevent damage or spoilage. o Example: (Ice Cream)  Consumer products effected by freezing can be damaged.  Packaging can be damaged by excessive heat or cold.  Light can change, degrade, and fade products during transportation and storage.  For human factors, tampering is an issue. o Temper evident features used today include shrink bands, seals, markings, break-away components. o Protection against unauthorized opening of packages to tamper with a product. o Child-resistant packaging provides protection of a child against injury by the product. o Examples: medications, household cleaners, paint  Primary packaging is the first wrap or containment of the product that directly holds the product for sale. Secondary packaging is a wrap or containment of the  primary package.  Tertiary packaging is a wrap or containment whose primary purpose is to protect the product during distribution and to provide efficient.  Unit Load is a group of distribution packages assembled into a single unit for the purpose of mechanical handling, storage and shipping.  Packages are often defined by their intended destination: o Consumer package is a package that will ultimately reach the consumer as a unit of sale from a merchandising outlet. o An Industrial Package is a package for delivering goods from manufacturer to manufacturer.  Usually contain goods for further manufacturing. Lecture 4 The Role of The Package in Marketing: o FMOT is when the prospect has an a-ha moment when confronted with the pkg/product system and related alternatives. o SMOT is when the consumer has bought and used your brand or product. The experience hopefully supports your pre-purchase promise. o TMOT is when the consumer becomes a true fan and gives back to your brand with loyalty, repurchases, and evangelizes. o ZMOT is when the customer makes decisions based on feedback and online blogs, influenced by social media in making purchase decisions. o The four P's of marketing are: o Product  Specifications of the actual goods or services, and how it relates to the end-user's needs and wants.  (warranties, guarantees, and support) o Pricing o A value exchange or process of setting a price for a product, including discounts.  Promotion o Advertising, sales promotion, publicity, and personal selling, branding and refers to the various methods of promoting the product, brand, or company  Placement o How the product gets to the customer  Nowadays there is a fifth P in marketing: People  The package is the product and more  The package is the delivery system  The package is an important sales tool, often called the "Silent Salesman"  The package is the new trends enabler and a major contributor to the whole consumer/user "experience" when using a product.  Customers need to know, "What is this?", "What are you going to do for me?", and "Who guarantees that?"  It is critical to consider your consumer's experience, and packages role throughout the usage cycle.  Companies have realized the value in communicating innovation to grow business and enhance the consumer experience through packaging.  New packaging may cost more, but provides significant top and bottom line opportunities.  Equity is the trust in a product, company or symbolic representation of a product or company built over a period of time.  The American Cereal Co. was the first to create an imaginary personage to represent their product.  Smart (or active) packaging is response to consumers needs of immediacy and convenience. o Entertainment value - eye-catching fun  Example: Winking Rum Bottles o Real Value - time/temperature indicators  Example: RFID expiration date changing sensors. o Links customers to worldwide network of engagement and e-commerce. o Category disruptors - disrupting the sea of sameness/status quo packaging in the retail space. o Innovative products invest and break out with disruptive category packaging. o Different cultures apply the role of packaging at varying degrees in terms of complexity, product safety, supply chain factors, source reduction, and sustainability. o Global packaging industry continues to grow rapidly. o Growth Drivers - Population Growth and Growth of the Middle Class. o The need for properly package foods, beverages and pharmaceuticals will grow with this increase in population. Lecture 5: Wood Packaging o For packaging, the most common use of wood is as a raw material for manufacturing paper and paperboard. o Wood is used for packaging applications in the form of barrels, boxes, baskets, wire-bound containers, crates and pallets. o Pallets = biggest use of wood o Advantages of wood include: o Good Strength to Weight Ratio o Economical Structural Material o It does not require sophisticated equipment o IDEAL FOR RIGID STRUCTURES NEEDED IN SMALL QUANTITIES o Excellent rigidity and outstanding mechanical properties in bending. o Disadvantages of wood include: o Wood is not well suited to high speed mechanized packaging operations. o High labor factor o Bulky  Shipping  Storage o Moisture sensitive o Softwood is wood from conifers (which are mostly synonymous with evergreens) o Softwood is generally easy to work with, but has less strength than hardwood. o Examples of softwoods include: pine, fir, cedar, redwood o Hardwood is wood from deciduous trees o Hardwoods are generally more difficult to work with, and are stronger than softwoods. o Examples of hardwoods include: oak, maple, birch, walnut, cherry o The four structural wood groups are group 1 (lower- density), group 2 (medium density coniferous), group 3(medium density hardwoods), and group 4(high density hardwoods) o The moisture content of wood (MC) is the ratio of the mass of water in the wood to a reference wood mass. o The process of drying wood is called seasoning. o Wood for packaging should be well seasoned and have MC around 15-20%. o A typical 1" x 4" actually measures about (3/4)" x 3(1/2)" o The Grocery Manufacturers Association (GMA) makes two pallet sizes: 48" x 40" and 48" x 48" o Pallets designed to fit across in a standard US truck. Lecture 6: Metal Packaging o Durand developed the first metal can in 1810 o Soldered can led to health problem s - lead contamination o Advantages of metals: o Relatively inexpensive o High temperature tolerance o High Physical Strength o High durability, thermal processing o Excellent light, gas, and moisture barrier properties o Excellent stiffness o High production and filling speeds o Readily recyclable o Disadvantages of metals: o Heavy o Difficult to form into shapes  Bottles o Can't be colored o Cant be heat sealed o Major metals used in packaging are steel and aluminum o Major packaging applications are cans and beverages o Other applications: o Metalized coatings o Decorative gift packages o Tubes o Drums o Pails o Closures o Trays o Racks o Pallets o Strapping o Most common use for metal pails: paint cans o Most common use for metal drums: Chemicals o Steel drums are made in two different styles: tight head and open head o Most common use for metal racks and systems: Automotive packaging applications, warehouse & distribution o Most common use for metal strapping: Unitizing Loads, Palletizing o Most common use for metal closures: Glass containers o Most common use for metal trays: aluminum trays (food packaging) o Nearly all of the foil used for packaging is made of aluminum. o Primary advantages of aluminum foil is its superior barrier properties to moisture and oxygen o Metallized film - a metallized layer that can be applied to plastic film or paper. o Very good barrier o Lower cost than foil o Most common use for aluminum: beverage cans (carbonated drinks) o Aluminum weighs (1/3) as much as steel, and has (1/3) the strength. o Aluminum is more expensive per pound than steel o Aluminum is non-toxic o Aluminum is easier to shape and form into packages than steel o Aluminum is a great barrier to moisture, gases, and light o Aluminum is non-magnetic and more resistant than steel to corrosion. o Most common use for steel: steel can in food industry. o Steel beverage containers are almost eliminated in US by aluminum cans and plastic bottles. o Steel packages are strong, inexpensive, non-toxic, great barrier, magnetic, but easily rusts. o Steel is coated with a very thing later of other materials, sometimes tinplate. o Corrosion needs to be prevented when steel is used as a packaging material. o Coatings for steel include: Tin - Tinplate (TP), and Chromium - Tin-Free Steel (TFS) 1. Tin Plate to Steel o Today, steel is electrolytic tin-plated o This allows:  Substantial reductions in the amount of tin required  The ability to put different thicknesses of tine on either side of a steel sheet.  The thicker layer will face the product (the harsher environment) 2. Tin Free Steel (TFS)  Use chromium (chrome oxide) for corrosion protection instead of tin  Advantage – more economical than tin plate  Disadvantage – chrome must be removed prior to welding the can side seam  Bisphenol A (BPA) – common ingredient in many can coatings o Tiny amounts might leach into food  3 types of can manufacturing material are: Tinplate, Tin-Free Steel, Aluminum  2 Basic styles of cans are: three piece cans (tinplate) and two piece cans (aluminum or tin-free steel)  A three piece can consist of three parts: top end (Canner/Filler’s end), Cylindrical shell (body), and bottom end (Maker’s end)  3 piece can Mfg. Process: o Flat sheet is formed into “tube” o Side seal is formed o Ends are “flanged” to receive can top and bottom o Can Maker applies one end o “Double Seaming” o Lids and empty can (one end applied) are shipped to Canner/Filler  3 piece can side seams seal process: o Soldered: engaging hooks are bent into the can and flattened o Lead soldered cans are no longer permitted in the US  Phased out in 1979  Three piece can manufacturing requires about 0.25” undecorated/printed bare strip along the weld  Welding is by far the most common method of forming a can side seam.  Adhesive (or cemented) are dry products and non-food products  Adhesive joints are not as reliable as welded joints – not heat processable  Permit all around printing as there is no bare strip.  During the 3-PC Can End Seam Process, the can ends are flanged which begins the double seaming process where one end is attached during can making process  A two piece can consists of two parts: top end (canner/filler) and one body (with an integral bottom end)  2-PC can Mfg. Process: 1. Draw process (Shallow Draw) a. Cans whose height is less than their diameter i. Example: Tuna 2. Draw-redraw process a. Cans having a height equal to their diameter require a second draw i. 1 draw produces shallow cup 3. Draw and Iron process a. Aluminum Cans for most carbonated beverages b. Blank disk is drawn to a wide cup c. 2nddraw reduces the diameter and the can is deepened d. The cup is pushed through a series of iron rings, each with smaller diameter than the previous. e. The bottom has the same thickness as the starting disk, but the walls are considerably thinner f. Restricted systems that will not undergo thermal processing  Increasingly, 3-PC cans are being replaced by two-piece cans


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