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Exam 2 Study Guide

by: Joanna John

Exam 2 Study Guide PSYC 101

Joanna John


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About this Document

These notes cover chapter 1-6 in the book. Be careful because this does not include chapter 7 which will be on the test!
PSYC 101
Miki Kitchen
Study Guide
PSYC, 101
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Joanna John on Sunday September 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 101 at University of South Carolina - Columbia taught by Miki Kitchen in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views.


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Date Created: 09/25/16
Test 2 Study Guide Chapter1 Psychology is the study of the brain and mind (specifically behavioral processes). Types of Psychology:  Cognitive psyc is the study of how we take in info  Developmental psyc is how thinking and behavior change over time and promote stability in life  Behavioral neuroscience studies the links between brain, mind, and behavior  Biological psyc is all connection within life  Personality biology is the study of how people are unique in comparison with others.  Social psyc studies social effects on people.  Clinical psyc deals with diagnosis and treatment of mental and emotional, and behavioral disorders to promote psychological health. When you look at things in a different perspective you understand psychology in a more profound way. Do we behave in a certain way because our mind tells us to? No one perspective tells the entire story; so if we bring together many perspectives we make connections and find the truth on a subject. John Locke, Freud and Carl Roger are some of the founding fathers of Psychology. Chapter 2 Method of research in psychology Possibly on exam: The term Epigenetics can be defined as the study of changes in the way genes are activated or deactivated without changing the sequence of DNA (turning on and off the genes without changing who you are). The nature vs/ nurture debate: We re supposedly more likely to love the physically appealing but that generally isnt true. Chapter 3 Polygenetic transmission: Traits are influenced by many genes 2ndprinciple of behavioral Monogenetic transmission: Traits are influenced by one gene Endocrine system: - Spreading of hormones through the body - Usually carried through the blood - Involves thyroid and metabolism - Pituitary gland and stress control Parts of the Brain: Hind Region - Associated with higher brain functions - Pons: bridge between brain and spinal cord - Medulla: regulates breathing, center for respiration and circulation - Cerebellum: coordinate and regulate muscular activity Midbrain - Top of the brain stem - Associated with vision, hearing and motor skills Forebrain - Frontal lobe: cerebral cortex, motor cortex, impulse control and abstract thinking - Partial lobe: somatosensory cortex - Temporal lobe: hearing and memory - Occipital lobe: visual lobe Whenever something changes in our world we adjust to it, even if it is a small change. We react to everything in a certain way and try to conform to a certain behavior whether we realize it or not. Sensation is the ability to select different features from the environment and hold that information. It is almost impossible to be aware of everything around you. Some things some people are very aware of but others barely register them. Then perception then takes all of those stimulants and interprets it…..Before our brains can create a meaning for that sense we must have a experience with that sense. Weber’s law states that the just barely noticed differences depend on our weight perception. Gestalt Laws of grouping: - Similarity - Continuity - Proximity - Closure - Figure ground Pain Perception  Skin: nociceptors - Temperature - Chemical irritation - Pressure The developing Fetus 1. Germinal- conception 2. Embryonic stage- all of your systems tart to develop 3. Fetus stage 4. Full term- Your baby is born between 39 weeks, 0 days and 40 weeks, 6 days. Infant and child development - Early sensory development - five major sense develop start - Walking: o 8 to 9 months start trying to walk o 1 year start walking o 2 years walk comfortably - Hearing is nearly developed at birth. Not until 3 or 4 till vision is good Jean Piaget said object permanence begins during the sensorimotor stage. Rene Ballargeon’s research found object permanence at half the age Thomas and Chess Types of children…Might be 1. Easy child (40%) important 2. Difficult child (10%) 3. Slow-to-warm up child (15%) 4. 35% other (not classified) “Heinzz Delima” – there is an expensive drug and a lady is about to dies if she doesn’t get it. The seller is selling it for way more money than it should be. The husband buys it but then sells it for way more. The wife dies (why do we cheat) Harry Harlow: Monkey study: wire monkey vs. real mother One monkey mom with milk and the other without Baby spent more time with the one with milk (there was a need of physical contact) The ones with cloth mom grew up to be negligent mothers Chapter 6  Consciousness comes from the Latin meaning to know. The dimensions of Consciousness There are two dimensions of consciousness: wakefulness and awareness - Wakefulness id how alert you are in conjunction with how awake you are. - Awareness is the how well you are comprhendng or monitoring the information around Types of consciousness: minimal, moderate, and full. SLEEP Among the various levels of consciousness:  Beta activities - wide awake and active  Alpha waves - awake but very relaxed  Gamma waves - … 25 and 100 Hz  Delta waves – high energy  Non REM sleep – non rapid eye movement sleep 1. Relaxed wakefulness, theta waves 2. Rapid eye movement, sudden high energy moments 3. Heading towards deep sleep, delta waves 4. Deep sleep  After stage 4 we go back through stages 3-1 and after stage 1 comes REM sleep SLEEP Among the various levels of consciousness:  Beta activities - wide awake and active  Alpha waves - awake but very relaxed  Gamma waves - … 25 and 100 Hz  Delta waves – high energy  Non REM sleep – non rapid eye movement sleep 5. Relaxed wakefulness, theta waves 6. Rapid eye movement, sudden high energy moments 7. Heading towards deep sleep, delta waves 8. Deep sleep  After stage 4 we go back through stages 3-1 and after stage 1 comes REM sleep Altering consciousness with drugs Psychoactive drugs  Withdrawal symptoms  Used to aid spiritual practices  Delirium  Improve health  Tremors  Explore the self  Insomnia  Regulate mood  Irritability  Escape certain feelings  Seizures  Enhance experiences  Confusion  To stimulate  Hallucinations  Nausea/vomiting


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