Nutrition Exam 1 Notes
Nutrition Exam 1 Notes NUT 200
UW - L
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Benjamin Suek on Sunday September 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to NUT 200 at University of Wisconsin - La Crosse taught by Katie Wagner in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 52 views.
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Date Created: 09/25/16
Exam1StudyGuide Nutrition 200 Chapter 1: What is Nutrition o Nutrition: The science of how nutrients and other compounds in foods we eat nourish and affect the body’s functions and overall health o 6 Essential Nutrients Carbohydrates (CHOs or Carbs) Lipids (fats) Proteins Vitamins Minerals Water o “essential” means we need to consume these things because our body can’t produce them internally o CHOs, Lipids, and proteins are the 3 energy-yielding macronutrients (they provide calories) CHOs = 4 kilocalories per gram (4 kcal/g) Lipids = 9 kilocalories per gram (9 kcal/g) Proteins = 4 kilocalories per gram (4 kcal/g) *Alcohol = 7 kilocalories per gram (7 kcal/g) o CHOs and Lipids are our primary energy sources o Vitamins and Minerals Micronutrients Not energy-yielding Assist in energy production in the body o Nutrition Research Nutrition is a relatively new scientific field + It is an “active, changing, growing, body of knowledge” Scientific Approach + Systematic process to answer question(s) Scientific Challenge + Attempting to replicate results of a study or experiment in order to either support or refute findings SCIENTIFIC METHOD + Observe and ask questions Formulate a hypothesis Conduct an experiment (1) Hypothesis is supported or (2) Hypothesis is not supported Revise/Create a new hypothesis o Credible Sources or Nutrition Info Use websites that have .gov .org or .edu Nutrition Experts + Registered Dietician (RD) or Registered Dietary Nutritionist (RDN) + Certified Diabetes Educator + Public Health Nutritionist + Dietetic Technicians Chapter 2: Tools for Healthy Eating o Characteristics of a Well-Balanced Diet Adequacy + Enough of the 6 essential nutrients Balance + Healthy proportions of all 6 of the essential nutrients Calorie Control + Getting enough calories to maintain a healthy bodyweight Moderation + Fitting all foods into diet using proper portion control Variety + Eating different types of foods in a diet to get needed nutrients o Vocabulary Definitions Under-nourished: state of inadequate nutrition Over-nourished: excess of nutrients and/or calories in the diet Malnourished: long-term issue caused by a diet that contains insufficient amounts of necessary nutrients o DRIs (Dietary Reference Intakes) Tells you how much of each nutrient you need to consumes to stay healthy/prevent disease Reference Values Defined + Estimated Average Requirements (EAR) = Average amount of a nutrient known to meet the needs of 50% of individuals of same age and gender. Starting point for determining the other values + Recommended Daily Allowances (RDA)= Average amount of a nutrient that meets the needs of nearly all individuals (97-98%). Like EAR, but set higher + Adequate Intakes (AI) = Best option (After EAR & RDA) to estimate amount of nutrient needed to stay healthy + Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UT) = Highest amount of nutrient that is unlikely to harm body + Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDR) = Recommended ranges of daily caloric intakes for energy-containing nutrients Carbohydrates: 45-65% Fat: 25-35% Protein: 10-35% o MyPlate (www.ChooseMyPlate.gov) Balance calories to better manage weight Avoid foods containing solid fats and added sugars Be physically active to stay fit and reduce risk of chronic diseases o Food Labels Name of food, net weight, name/address of manufacturer, list of ingredients (in order by weight) Nutrient facts Chapter 3: Digestion o Process involving multiple steps to break down food so that the nutrients can be absorbed by the body easier. o Uses chemical and mechanical processes within the gastrointestinal tract o Mouth (breaks down food) Pharynx (moves food) Esophagus (moves food) Stomach (hold food/ some digestion) Small Intestine (digestion & absorption) Large Intestine/Colon (final breakdown/digestion of compounds) Rectum (remove waste from body) o Accessory organs: pancreas, liver, gall bladder, o Hormones, bile and enzymes are the catalysts of this process o Digestive Disorders Heartburn GERD Constipation Chapter 4: Carbohydrates o Importance/Functions CHOs as starches are found in plants and are used to store glucose CHOs as Glycogen are found in human and animal muscle and store glucose for energy Fiber trap nutrients and delay movement of foods through the digestive system to allow more time for absorption of nutrients. o Simple vs complex Simple carbs are monosaccharides and disaccharides like sugar Complex carbs are polysaccharides found in starches and fiber o Fiber 2 types: soluble and insoluble Fiber found naturally is dietary fiber Fiber added to food for a specific purpose is functional fiber Fiber plays a major role in preventing constipation, appendicitis and other GI tract issues Fiber rich diets also contain folate which is an important B vitamin
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