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Nutrition Exam 1 Notes

by: Benjamin Suek

Nutrition Exam 1 Notes NUT 200

Benjamin Suek
UW - L
GPA 3.0

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Chapters 1-4: Basics of nutrition, healthy eating, digestive system, and carbohydrates
Katie Wagner
Study Guide
nutrition, anatomy
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Benjamin Suek on Sunday September 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to NUT 200 at University of Wisconsin - La Crosse taught by Katie Wagner in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 52 views.


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Date Created: 09/25/16
Exam1StudyGuide Nutrition 200  Chapter 1: What is Nutrition o Nutrition: The science of how nutrients and other compounds in foods we eat nourish and affect the body’s functions and overall health o 6 Essential Nutrients  Carbohydrates (CHOs or Carbs)  Lipids (fats)  Proteins  Vitamins  Minerals  Water o “essential” means we need to consume these things because our body can’t produce them internally o CHOs, Lipids, and proteins are the 3 energy-yielding macronutrients (they provide calories)  CHOs = 4 kilocalories per gram (4 kcal/g)  Lipids = 9 kilocalories per gram (9 kcal/g)  Proteins = 4 kilocalories per gram (4 kcal/g)  *Alcohol = 7 kilocalories per gram (7 kcal/g) o CHOs and Lipids are our primary energy sources o Vitamins and Minerals  Micronutrients  Not energy-yielding  Assist in energy production in the body o Nutrition Research  Nutrition is a relatively new scientific field + It is an “active, changing, growing, body of knowledge”  Scientific Approach + Systematic process to answer question(s)  Scientific Challenge + Attempting to replicate results of a study or experiment in order to either support or refute findings  SCIENTIFIC METHOD + Observe and ask questions  Formulate a hypothesis  Conduct an experiment  (1) Hypothesis is supported or (2) Hypothesis is not supported  Revise/Create a new hypothesis o Credible Sources or Nutrition Info  Use websites that have .gov .org or .edu  Nutrition Experts + Registered Dietician (RD) or Registered Dietary Nutritionist (RDN) + Certified Diabetes Educator + Public Health Nutritionist + Dietetic Technicians  Chapter 2: Tools for Healthy Eating o Characteristics of a Well-Balanced Diet  Adequacy + Enough of the 6 essential nutrients  Balance + Healthy proportions of all 6 of the essential nutrients  Calorie Control + Getting enough calories to maintain a healthy bodyweight  Moderation + Fitting all foods into diet using proper portion control  Variety + Eating different types of foods in a diet to get needed nutrients o Vocabulary Definitions  Under-nourished: state of inadequate nutrition  Over-nourished: excess of nutrients and/or calories in the diet  Malnourished: long-term issue caused by a diet that contains insufficient amounts of necessary nutrients o DRIs (Dietary Reference Intakes)  Tells you how much of each nutrient you need to consumes to stay healthy/prevent disease  Reference Values Defined + Estimated Average Requirements (EAR) = Average amount of a nutrient known to meet the needs of 50% of individuals of same age and gender. Starting point for determining the other values + Recommended Daily Allowances (RDA)= Average amount of a nutrient that meets the needs of nearly all individuals (97-98%). Like EAR, but set higher + Adequate Intakes (AI) = Best option (After EAR & RDA) to estimate amount of nutrient needed to stay healthy + Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UT) = Highest amount of nutrient that is unlikely to harm body + Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDR) = Recommended ranges of daily caloric intakes for energy-containing nutrients  Carbohydrates: 45-65%  Fat: 25-35%  Protein: 10-35% o MyPlate (   Balance calories to better manage weight  Avoid foods containing solid fats and added sugars  Be physically active to stay fit and reduce risk of chronic diseases o Food Labels  Name of food, net weight, name/address of manufacturer, list of ingredients (in order by weight)  Nutrient facts  Chapter 3: Digestion o Process involving multiple steps to break down food so that the nutrients can be absorbed by the body easier. o Uses chemical and mechanical processes within the gastrointestinal tract o Mouth (breaks down food)  Pharynx (moves food) Esophagus (moves food)  Stomach (hold food/ some digestion)  Small Intestine (digestion & absorption)  Large Intestine/Colon (final breakdown/digestion of compounds)  Rectum (remove waste from body) o Accessory organs: pancreas, liver, gall bladder, o Hormones, bile and enzymes are the catalysts of this process o Digestive Disorders  Heartburn  GERD  Constipation  Chapter 4: Carbohydrates o Importance/Functions  CHOs as starches are found in plants and are used to store glucose  CHOs as Glycogen are found in human and animal muscle and store glucose for energy  Fiber trap nutrients and delay movement of foods through the digestive system to allow more time for absorption of nutrients. o Simple vs complex  Simple carbs are monosaccharides and disaccharides like sugar  Complex carbs are polysaccharides found in starches and fiber o Fiber  2 types: soluble and insoluble  Fiber found naturally is dietary fiber  Fiber added to food for a specific purpose is functional fiber  Fiber plays a major role in preventing constipation, appendicitis and other GI tract issues  Fiber rich diets also contain folate which is an important B vitamin


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