SYG 1000 Study Guide 1
SYG 1000 Study Guide 1 SYG 1000
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Cristina Rodriguez on Sunday September 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SYG 1000 at Florida Atlantic University taught by Gina Lukasik in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 178 views.
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Date Created: 09/25/16
SYG 1000 Study Guide 1 Chapter 1: The Sociological perspective Sociological Imagination = The ability to see the relationships between events in your personal life and in society (uncontrollable events EX. Discrimination, outsourcing, lack of demand) Sociology = The study of human social life Structuration = The twoway process by which we shape our society and by which society shapes us Levels of Analysis Macro = Studying of large social structures without referring to the interaction of individuals involved (EX. Education, healthcare) Micro = Studying the interactions between individuals (EX. How people of different cultures interact) European origins of sociology Auguste Comte Founder of Sociology Social Statics = Stability and order Can either be macro or micro Macro ex. = How a country keeps order Micro ex. = the class room setting Social Dynamics = Social change Harriet Martineau Feminist Theory Was a social activist Pushed rights for women and tried to abolish slavery Herbert Spencer Social Darwinism = Survival of the fittest Karl Marx Conflict Theory Power and Inequality (bourgeoisie vs. proletariat) Bourgeoisie = people who have a lot of money and power Proletariat = people who don’t have a lot of money or power Emile Durkheim Functionalism Studied suicide Mechanical Solidarity vs. Organic Solidarity Mechanical Solidarity = Preindustrial (farming, close families) Organic Solidarity = Industrial (factories, families start to spread out) Max Weber Verstehen = empathy (you put yourself in someone else’s shoes) American contributions to sociology Jane Addams Worked with the elderly, immigrants and the poor W.E.B. DuBois Studied how blacks were affected by society Theoretical Perspectives Functionalism = a change ins one part of society will lead to a change in other parts A Macro study Very positive/optimistic Manifest = functions that intended and are recognized (EX. You go to the hospital you get better) Latent = Less recognized (EX. A hospital provides jobs) Conflict Theory = power vs. inequality A Macro study Feminist Theory = Gender equality is built into social institutions A Macro Study Symbolic Interactionism = Interactions between individuals are based on mutually understood symbol A Micro study Impression Management / Dramaturgy = we changed the way we act based on who we are around Goffman coined the term Dramaturgy Feminist Theory = Interactions between individuals are affected by gender A Micro Study Chapter 2: Social Research Purpose of Sociological Research Challenge our commonly held beliefs Hope to solve social problems Objectivity = not letting your personal biases affect your work 3 Ways scientist try to increase objectivity Carefully designed research Sate your theoretical perspective Scientist repeat studies that have already been done (Verifiability) Basic Research Concepts Causation = a relationship in which change in one variable is connected to a change in another variable Hypothesis = a statement about the relationship between variables that is to be investigated Independent Variable = associated with and/or causes change in the value of the dependent variable Dependent Variable = changes in response to the independent variable Correlation is NOT causation Establishing Casual Relationship Establish Correlation = a change in one variable is associated with a change in another variable Positive Correlation = when your independent and your dependent variable change in the same direction (If I study more than I will get better grades. ) Negative Correlation = when your independent and your dependent cariable change in different directions ( If I party more hours per week , then my grade will get lower ) Avoid Spurious Correlation When the causal relationship you see between two variables is actually produced by another variable EX. Hotter temperature > Ice cream consumption increases > so does the murder rate Note Time Order Your independent variable MUST happen before your dependent variable. Multiple Causation An event occurs as the result of several factors acting in combination Types of Sociological Research Survey = most common method in sociology (Quantitative) (ADVANTAGE – big and generalizable) (DISADVANTAGE – superficial) Fieldwork = research that takes places in the natural setting (Qualitative) Comparative Research = compares information, looks for similarities and differences Life Histories = biography Historical Research = studies events that took place in the past Ethics in Sociological Research Don’t harm your participants Informed consent Confidentiality Debrief Approval of research Milgram Wasn’t testing learning, but was actually testing obedience From Text Public Sociology = the effort to bring the findings of both basic and applied sociological research to a broader nonacademic audience Qualitative Data = any kind of evidence that is not numerical in nature, including evidence gathered from interviews, direct observation, and written or visual documents Positivist Social Science = an approach that assumes that the social world, like the natural world is characterized by laws that can be identified through research and used to predict and control human affairs Interpretive Social Science = an understanding of the meaning that people ascribe to their social world Chapter 3: Culture Culture = patterns of thinking, feeling an behaving that are passed from generations to generation among members of society also including material objects Material Culture = anything that is tangible Nonmaterial Culture = norms, values, attitudes and behaviors 3 dimensions of Culture Normative = Culture’s standards for appropriate behavior Norms = rules that define appropriate and inappropriate behavior Folkways = Customary ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving that lack moral overtones Mores = Huge moral significance – strong disapproval Laws = Formally defined and enforced Sanctions = Ways we try to enforce norms (Either can be positive or negative) Formal = must be an official Informal = Anyone Values = Cultural principles we accept Cognitive = Beliefs Material = tangible Ideal vs. Real Culture Ideal = what we say we believe in Real = actual behavior patterns Cultural Diversity Subculture = a group that is part of the dominant culture, but differs from it in some respect Counterculture = A sub culture that is deliberately opposed to some aspect of the dominant culture Ethnocentrism vs. Cultural Relativism Ethnocentrism = When you judge others by your own cultural standards Cultural Relativism = Norms, beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors are not themselves right or wrong, but rather they should be judged in their own cultural context Chapter 6: Socialization Socialization = how we learn to be a normal human being (starts at birth and continues throughout life) Personality = how you act (is formed throughout socialization) Importance Monkeys They always went to the soft “monkey” even though she didn’t have food Feral children *Isabelle (has a death and mute mom in Ohio 1930’s) (grandparent locks them away in an attic and they aren’t found until Isabelle is 6 ½) *Genie (in California in the 1970’s) (locked in the attic from 1 ½ about 13, her father beat her, she was tied down in a chair most of the time) (after years of rehab the scientist only were able to help her develop to about the age of 3 4 years old) Selfconcept = Image of yourself as an entity separate from other people Looking glass self = kids learn to judge themselves in terms of how they imaging others will react to them Significant others = people whose opinion of us matter to us the most Mead I and Me The self is composed of two separate parts I = spontaneous, creative Me = socialization Role – taking = When you take on the view of another individual and then you respond to yourself from that imagined viewpoint Imitation stage – (younger than 3) copy behavior of a significant other without comprehending it Play stage – (between 36 years old) children take on the tole of an individual, one at a time Game stage – (78 years old) children take on the role of several individuals, all at the same time Generalized other = Conception of the norms, values, and beliefs of our community or society (Conscience) Total Institutions = Places in which residents are separated from the rest of society (EX. Prison) (you are not free to some and go as you please) (Goffman) Desocialization = You abandon your old way of life Resocialization = Adopt a new way of life Anticipatory socialization = The process of preparing yourself to learn new norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors (ex. When people find out they are having a baby) Agents of Socialization = Things that significantly influence you (EX. Family, friends, media, etc) Status = A position that you occupy in the social structure (characteristic) Ascribed = assigned at birth (EX. Race, sex, social characteristic/class, religion) Achieved = you earn during your life time (EX. Education level, occupation, social class, religion) Status set = All of the statues that you occupy (EX. Female, white, instructor, mother, wife, daughter) Master status = Most important statuses – influence most areas of your life Role Role conflict = stressed out because the roles of one status clash against the roles of another status Role strain = when you are stressed out because the roles of a single status clash Brain Plasticity = the extraordinary ability of the brain to modify its own structure and function following changes within the body or in the external environment
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