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SYG 1000 Study Guide 1

by: Cristina Rodriguez

SYG 1000 Study Guide 1 SYG 1000

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Cristina Rodriguez

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SYG 1000 Study Guide 1
Intro Sociology
Gina Lukasik
Study Guide
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Cristina Rodriguez on Sunday September 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SYG 1000 at Florida Atlantic University taught by Gina Lukasik in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 178 views.


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Date Created: 09/25/16
SYG 1000 Study Guide 1 Chapter 1: The Sociological perspective  Sociological Imagination = The ability to see the relationships between events in your  personal life and in society (uncontrollable events EX. Discrimination, outsourcing, lack  of demand)  Sociology = The study of human social life  Structuration = The two­way process by which we shape our society and by which  society shapes us  Levels of Analysis  ­ Macro = Studying of large social structures without referring to the interaction of  individuals involved (EX. Education, healthcare) ­ Micro = Studying the interactions between individuals (EX. How people of  different cultures interact) European origins of sociology  Auguste Comte  ­ Founder of Sociology ­ Social Statics = Stability and order  Can either be macro or micro  Macro ex. = How a country keeps order  Micro ex. = the class room setting ­ Social Dynamics = Social change  Harriet Martineau ­ Feminist Theory ­ Was a social activist ­ Pushed rights for women and tried to abolish slavery  Herbert Spencer ­ Social Darwinism = Survival of the fittest  Karl Marx ­ Conflict Theory ­ Power and Inequality  (bourgeoisie vs. proletariat)  Bourgeoisie = people who have a lot of money and power  Proletariat = people who don’t have a lot of money or power ­  Emile Durkheim ­ Functionalism ­ Studied suicide ­ Mechanical Solidarity vs. Organic Solidarity  Mechanical Solidarity = Pre­industrial (farming, close families)  Organic Solidarity = Industrial (factories, families start to spread out)  Max Weber ­ Verstehen = empathy (you put yourself in someone else’s shoes) American contributions to sociology  Jane Addams ­ Worked with the elderly, immigrants and the poor  W.E.B. DuBois ­ Studied how blacks were affected by society Theoretical Perspectives  Functionalism = a change ins one part of society will lead to a change in other parts ­ A Macro study ­ Very positive/optimistic ­ Manifest = functions that intended and are recognized (EX. You go to the  hospital you get better) ­ Latent = Less recognized (EX. A hospital provides jobs)  Conflict Theory = power vs. inequality ­ A Macro study  Feminist Theory = Gender equality is built into social institutions ­ A Macro Study  Symbolic Interactionism = Interactions between individuals are based on mutually  understood symbol ­ A Micro study ­ Impression Management / Dramaturgy = we changed the way we act based on  who we are around  ­ Goffman coined the term Dramaturgy  Feminist Theory = Interactions between individuals are affected by gender ­ A Micro Study Chapter 2: Social Research  Purpose of Sociological Research ­ Challenge our commonly held beliefs ­ Hope to solve social problems  Objectivity = not letting your personal biases affect your work ­ 3 Ways scientist try to increase objectivity  Carefully designed research  Sate your theoretical perspective  Scientist repeat studies that have already been done (Verifiability) Basic Research Concepts  Causation = a relationship in which change in one variable is connected to a change in  another variable  Hypothesis = a statement about the relationship between variables that is to be  investigated  Independent Variable = associated with and/or causes change in the value of the  dependent variable  Dependent Variable = changes in response to the independent variable  ­ Correlation is NOT causation Establishing Casual Relationship  Establish Correlation = a change in one variable is associated with a change in another  variable ­ Positive Correlation = when your independent and your dependent variable  change in the same direction (If I study more      than I will get better grades.     ) ­ Negative Correlation = when your independent and your dependent cariable  change in different directions ( If I party more hours per week    , then my grade  will get lower     ) Avoid Spurious Correlation  When the causal relationship you see between two variables is actually produced by  another variable ­ EX. Hotter temperature ­> Ice cream consumption increases ­> so does the  murder rate Note Time Order Your independent variable MUST happen before your dependent variable. Multiple Causation  An event occurs as the result of several factors acting in combination Types of Sociological Research  Survey = most common method in sociology (Quantitative) (ADVANTAGE – big and  generalizable) (DISADVANTAGE – superficial)  Fieldwork = research that takes places in the natural setting (Qualitative)  Comparative Research = compares information, looks for similarities and differences  Life Histories = biography  Historical Research = studies events that took place in the past Ethics in Sociological Research Don’t harm your participants Informed consent Confidentiality Debrief Approval of research ­    Milgram  Wasn’t testing learning, but was actually testing obedience  From Text  Public Sociology = the effort to bring the findings of both basic and applied sociological  research to a broader nonacademic audience  Qualitative Data = any kind of evidence that is not numerical in nature, including  evidence gathered from interviews, direct observation, and written or visual documents  Positivist Social Science = an approach that assumes that the social world, like the  natural world is characterized by laws that can be identified through research and used to  predict and control human affairs  Interpretive Social Science = an understanding of the meaning that people ascribe to  their social world Chapter 3: Culture  Culture = patterns of thinking, feeling an behaving that are passed from generations to  generation among members of society also including material objects  Material Culture = anything that is tangible  Non­material Culture = norms, values, attitudes and behaviors 3 dimensions of Culture  Normative = Culture’s standards for appropriate behavior ­ Norms = rules that define appropriate and inappropriate behavior  Folkways = Customary ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving that lack  moral overtones  Mores = Huge moral significance – strong disapproval  Laws = Formally defined and enforced  Sanctions = Ways we try to enforce norms (Either can be positive or negative) ­ Formal = must be an official ­ Informal = Anyone  Values = Cultural principles we accept  Cognitive = Beliefs  Material = tangible Ideal vs. Real Culture  Ideal = what we say we believe in   Real = actual behavior patterns Cultural Diversity  Subculture = a group that is part of the dominant culture, but differs from it in some  respect  Counterculture = A sub culture that is deliberately opposed to some aspect of the  dominant culture Ethnocentrism vs. Cultural Relativism  Ethnocentrism = When you judge others by your own cultural standards  Cultural Relativism = Norms, beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors are not themselves right  or wrong, but rather they should be judged in their own cultural context Chapter 6: Socialization  Socialization = how we learn to be a normal human being (starts at birth and continues  throughout life)  Personality = how you act (is formed throughout socialization) Importance  Monkeys  ­ They always went to the soft “monkey” even though she didn’t have food  Feral children  ­ *Isabelle (has a death and mute mom in Ohio 1930’s) (grandparent locks them  away in an attic and they aren’t found until Isabelle is 6 ½)  ­ *Genie (in California in the 1970’s) (locked in the attic from 1 ½ ­ about 13, her  father beat her, she was tied down in a chair most of the time) (after years of  rehab the scientist only were able to help her develop to about the age of 3 ­ 4  years old) Self­concept = Image of yourself as an entity separate from other people Looking glass self = kids learn to judge themselves in terms of how they imaging others will  react to them Significant others = people whose opinion of us matter to us the most Mead  I and Me ­ The self is composed of two separate parts ­ I = spontaneous, creative ­ Me = socialization  Role – taking = When you take on the view of another individual and then you respond  to yourself from that imagined viewpoint ­ Imitation stage – (younger than 3) copy behavior of a significant other without  comprehending it ­ Play stage – (between 3­6 years old) children take on the tole of an individual,  one at a time ­ Game stage – (7­8 years old) children take on the role of several individuals, all  at the same time  Generalized other = Conception of the norms, values, and beliefs of our community or  society (Conscience)  Total Institutions = Places in which residents are separated from the rest of society (EX. Prison) (you are not free to some and go as you please) (Goffman)  Desocialization = You abandon your old way of life   Resocialization = Adopt a new way of life  Anticipatory socialization = The process of preparing yourself to learn new norms,  values, attitudes, and behaviors (ex. When people find out they are having a baby)  Agents of Socialization = Things that significantly influence you (EX. Family, friends,  media, etc)  Status = A position that you occupy in the social structure (characteristic) ­ Ascribed = assigned at birth (EX. Race, sex, social characteristic/class, religion) ­ Achieved = you earn during your life time (EX. Education level, occupation,  social class, religion) ­ Status set = All of the statues that you occupy (EX. Female, white, instructor,  mother, wife, daughter) ­ Master status = Most important statuses – influence most areas of your life  Role ­ Role conflict = stressed out because the roles of one status clash against the roles  of another status ­ Role strain = when you are stressed out because the roles of a single status clash  Brain Plasticity = the extraordinary ability of the brain to modify its own structure and  function following changes within the body or in the external environment


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