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ESSM 318 Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Allison Notetaker

ESSM 318 Exam 1 Study Guide ESSM 318

Allison Notetaker
Texas A&M
GPA 3.325

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Howdy all, Here is the study guide for the first exam on September 29, 2016. From here on out I will be uploading extra notes from both lecture days on Friday; additionally, I will be uploading...
Coupled Social and Ecological Systems
Dr. David Briske
Study Guide
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Allison Notetaker on Sunday September 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ESSM 318 at Texas A&M University taught by Dr. David Briske in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 247 views. For similar materials see Coupled Social and Ecological Systems in Ecosystem Science and Management at Texas A&M University.

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Date Created: 09/25/16
ESSM 318 Exam 1 Study Guide I. Introduction 1. What is the goal of the Social-Ecological Systems perspective? 2. What is the difference between Education, Learning, Knowledge, and Critical Thinking? 3. How do Opinion and Analysis differ? II. Welcome to the Anthropocene 1. What are Social-EcologicalSystems? What are they consequences of? 2. The Anthropocene can be described as a planetary epoch shaped by human industrialization and activity. What big event helped spark this epoch and what did it cause in regards to natural resource management strategies? 3. In regards to the world as a whole, what is the main use of land? In regards to the US, what is the main use of land? 4. T/F- Land area needed to supply resources that the human population consumes and to assimilate the associated waste refers to the Climate Change Footprint. 5. Which of the following refers to resource use to meet current needs without compromising needs of future generations? A. Resilience B. Framework C.Sustainability D. Vulnerability 6. What did the British clericand scholar Robert Mathus hypothesize about population growth? 7. What are the three stages to the Anthropocene according to Will Steffen? 8. T/F- The greatest signature of warming is Global Retreat. 9. What is the difference between Adaptation and Mitigation? 10. What are the 3 types of readers’ perspectives? III. Social-ecological Systems 1. What occurs when system behavior differs from that of its inherent parts? A. Reductionism B. Emergent Properties C.Systems D. Parameters 2. T/F- Positive or amplifying feedback regards interacting components that cause one another to change in opposite direction. 3. What are Complex Adaptive Systems? 4. Natural Capital is: A. Stocks of natural resources that provide ecosystem services to support human societies. B. Unidirectional energy transfer between trophic levels. C.Outputs of ecological processes that often occur in groups or bundles. D. Networks of relationships and trust that enable participants to collectively pursue shared objectives. 5. Cultural theory refers to four perceptions of how humans experience and interpret reality. What are the two axis’ and what do they symbolize? 6. T/F- The Individualist rational believes society should tread lightly on the earth because nature is fragile. 7. What was the major natural resource management strategy during the 20 century? 8. Natural resource institutions currently emphasize: A. Managing human impacts B. Preservation C.Maintaining current ecological conditions D. None E.All the above 9. Describe the Hierarchist Perspective. 10. Which of the following is an advantage of adaptive governance? A. Lack of attention to stakeholder perspectives B. Increasing collaboration and learning C.Transdisciplinary and resilience D. Preservation IV. Ecosystem Services 1. What are Ecosystem Services? 2. T/F- 20 of 24 ecosystem services evaluated have been regenerated in the past 50 years. 3. Aldo Leopold, and early American conservationist, promoted environmental ethics and land conservation in the US. What was he most known for? 4. What are the four categories that Ecosystem Services can fall under? 5. T/F- Ecosystem Service Tradeoffs enable an increase in one service that decreases the production of others by changing the relative rate of ecological processes. 6. The most commonly used method for aligning private and public interests for Intensive based Mechanisms is: A.Externalities B.Market Priced Method C.Willingness to Pay D.Payment for ecosystem services 7. What are Externalities? 8. What is the ultimate goal of Ecosystem Services? 9. Majority (66%) of ecosystem services have been degraded the past 50 years. How has this affected the overall human well- being? Has it increased or decreased? 10. Potential disadvantage(s) of ecosystem service approach include: A.Ignore non-economic justifications for conservation B.Emphasis often focused on a single ecosystem service C.Degradation of least valued services D.All the above ESSM 318 Exam 1 Study Guide Answer Sheet I. Introduction 1. To promote Sustainability and Human well-being. 2. Education- process of receiving and giving systematic instruction. Learning- knowledge is acquired through experience or study. Knowledge- familiarity, awareness or understanding is gained through experience or study. Critical Thinking- habit of mind characterized by comprehensive exploration of issues, ideas, and events before accepting or formulating an opinion or conclusion. 3. Opinion is a judgement formed about something, not necessarily based on fact or knowledge. Analysis is a study of a topic to learn about its parts, what they do, and how they are related to each other. II. Welcome to the Anthropocene 1.System with interacting and interdependent physical, social and biological components that affect system behavior; they emphasize humans in nature. Consequences of human impacts on ecosystems and subsequent impacts of ecosystems on humans. 2.The “Great Acceleration” caused an explosion in human activity and technology following WWII, thus creating the planetary epoch known as the Anthropocene. This caused reevaluation of current natural resource management strategies. (I = P x A x T) 3.World- 32.8% of the land that is used is forest/woodland areas. US- 32% of the land used is grassland pastures and ranges. 4.False- this refers to the Ecological Footprint of Earth (which is currently 1.2-1.5 Earths). 5.C-Sustainability 6.Hypothesized that unchecked human population growth would exceed Earth’s carrying capacity leading to overpopulation. He overlooked the adaptive capacity of humans, improvements regarding technology, and simple human ingenuity when formulating this hypothesis. 7.Stage 1- began at the start of fossil fuel use.Stage 2- the changing ‘human enterprise’, from 1750 to 2000, after The Great Acceleration many human activities began or accelerated drastically. Stage 3- sustainability or collapse; currently we are globalizing very fast and entering into a new state where self- awareness needs to be considered more. 8. True- the Greenland glacier island’s increase in melting can be used as an example; if it melts off the land, it indirectly affects sea level rising rates. 9. Adaptation modify management policies, and social systems to minimize negative impacts and exploit opportunities. Mitigation modify management, policies, and social systems to reduce GHG emissions and sequester carbon from the atmosphere into vegetation and soil. 10. Dominant, Submissive, and Critical. III. Social-ecological Systems 1. B- Emergent Properties 2. False- This definition refers to Negative or stabilizing feedback. 3. Systems whose components interact in ways that enable systems to adjust to altered conditions, such as the human body, ecosystems, and/or the Earth System.These adjustments are difficult to anticipate and manage. 4. A- Stocks of natural resources that provide ecosystem services to support human societies. 5. Group axis- feel part of larger group with shared values and beliefs. Grid axis- extent to which individuals are involved in a hierarchical social structure. 6. False- this refersto the Egalitarianrational. The Individualist believes in “the bottom lines”; nature is good and will provide for society to thrive. 7. Steady state management. 8. E- All the above. 9. Emphasizes control and authority to ensure stability; it is a technical-economicapproach associated with cost: benefit analysis. 10. B- Increasing collaboration and learning IV. Ecosystem Services 1. Benefits that humans derive from ecosystems. 2. False- They have been degraded and have shown little to no improvement. 3. He was most known for his publication “A Sand County Almanac 1949” 4. Provisioning, Regulating, Cultural, and Supporting. 5. True. 6. D- Payment for ecosystem services 7. Unintended costs incurred by a third party (society) that is not involved in the market transaction; these costs are not reflected in the price of goods i.e., spillover effect. 8. Goal is to provide economic justification for conservation; influence politicians and other decision makers to optimize the value of alternative land uses; economic rationality and home economics illustrates this point. 9. Despite the fact that over the past 50 years the majority of ecosystem services have been largely degraded, human well- being continues to increase. 10. D- All the above


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