HIS 315L STUDY GUIDE TERMS
HIS 315L STUDY GUIDE TERMS HIS 315L
Popular in THE UNITED STATES SINCE 1865
Popular in History
This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Mariah Arevalos on Sunday September 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HIS 315L at University of Texas at Austin taught by Michael Stoff in Fall 2014. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see THE UNITED STATES SINCE 1865 in History at University of Texas at Austin.
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Date Created: 09/25/16
US HISTORY TERMS: patents – legal document issued by the government giving the holder exclusive rights to use, make, and sell a process, product, or device for a specified period of time Stock Exchange – market at which shares of ownership in corporations are brought and sold consumer goods – products such as food and clothing that fill the needs and wants of individuals horizontal combination – (horizontal integration) strategy of business growth that attempts to stifle competition by combining more than one firm involved in the same level of production, transportation, or distribution into a single firm trust – business arrangement in which owners of shares in a business turn over their shares “in trust” to a board with power to control those businesses for the benefit of the trust socialism – (socialist) philosophy of social and economic organization in which the means pf producing and distributing goods are owned collectively or by government injunction – court order requiring individuals or groups to participate in or refrain from a certain action “new” immigrants – called “new” because they differed from earlier arrivals from northern and western Europe; these newcomers came from eastern and southern Europe and were largely non President: Catholics, Jews, and Russian Orthodox Christians tenements – building often in disrepair and usually five or six stories in height, in which cheap apartments were rented to tenants political machine – hierarchical political organization developed in the nineteenth century that controlled the activities of political party and was usually headed by a political boss settlement house – social reform effort that used neighborhood centers in which settlement house workers lived and worked among the poor, often in slum neighborhoods temperance movement – reform movement, begun in the 1820s, to temper or restrain the sale and use of alcohol normal schools – schools that trained teachers, usually for two years and mostly for teaching in the elementary grades plurality – in elections, a candidate who receives a plurality wins more votes than any other candidate but less than half of all votes cast. Receiving more than half of the votes cast is called a majority Populism – political outlook that supports the rights and powers of the common people in opposition to the interests of the privileged elite imperialism – acquisition of control over the government and the economy of another nation, usually by conquest navalism – theories of warfare and trade the rely on a nation’s navy as a principal instrument of policy yellow journalism – brand of newspaper reporting that stresses excitement and shock over evenhandedness and dull fact sphere of influence – geographic region beyond its border over which a nation exerts political or economic control Election of 1876 – crucial to the final overthrow of Reconstruction, Tilden vs Hayes(wins), Investment Banks – developed financial networks to track down money at home & abroad, funded railroads, advised companies about their business affairs, helped to reduce competition &impose order & centralization on railroads & other corporations Samuel J. Tilden – governor of NY, nominated by democrats Rutherford B. Hayes – Ohio governor, nominated by republicans, wins election of ’76, 1 of the “Ohio dynasty”, split his party into “Stalwarts” & “HalfBreeds”, tried to woo southern democrats with promises of economic support US HISTORY TERMS: Joseph Schumpeter. “Theory of Creative Destruction” – Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations – 1776, focused on economy, free market economy Laissezfaire – hands off the economy, let the economy work itself out Free market economy – the allocation for resources is determined only by the supply and the demand for them, balance of supply and demand Andrew Carnegie – led the way in steel, Scottish immigrant, superintendent of Pennsylvania’s Railroad, owned locomotive and iron factory, built the biggest steel mill in the world corporations – limited liability, cornerstone of big business, separates ownership & management stocks – own a piece of the business (certificate) (access to capital) vertical integration – the combination in one company of two or more stages of production normally operated by separate companies rebate – amount paid by way of reduction, return, or refund on what has already been paid or contributed Michigan Salt Association (1869) – nation’s first pool, too many salt producers so they formed this org, decided to allocate production, divide markets, & set prices Sherman AntiTrust Act (1890) – right to regulate interstate commerce, too many trusts used, outlawed every contract, combination in the form of a trust in restraint of trade or commerce U.S. Steel Corporation (1901) – control by northern interests, produced 2/3 of American steel, value of $1.4 billion, 1st billion dollar corporation “Shock City” – Chicago, 2 largest city, architects playground Philip A. Payton – AfroAmerican Realty Co., sold many apartments (most African Americans), Harlem becomes black capital of America AfroAmerican Realty Co. (1904) – created by Philip A. Payton Dumbbell tenement – dumbbell shaped, more windows, more air, sunlight, better, poor areas of city, garbage built up in the middle lead to microbes & sickness John & Washington Roebling – German immigrant and son, built bridge symbol of urban of growth, Brooklyn Bridge Lincoln Steffens – Tweed Days Richard Croker – boss of NY George Washington Plunkitt – politician in NY, Tammany Hall machine member, uneducated William Tweed – 3story courthouse in Manhattan, spent $13 million, 60% lined the pockets of Tweed and his cronies (collected salaries from employees(dead/alive)), control of contracts Patronage – the power to control appointments to office or the right to privilege “Boodle” – graft, corruption in money, obtain money dishonestly Padrone/ Enganchista – labor contract Jewish Daily Forward – foreign language newspaper, advice columns for Jews, transitional device Family migration chains – male (usually) comes to the country, if it’s sustainable he will bring other family members to the country Chinese Exclusion Act (1882) – no Chinese laborer can enter the US, if they leave they can’t return The “Nadir” – Africans move from south to north for freedom Knights of Labor – 1869, founded by Uriah Stephens & textile workers, first secret, want to abolish wage system, no more child labor, prohibitions, regulate business, cooperative economy of worker owned business, supported 8hr work days and regulations of trusts. Labor republicanism – workers are citizens of obligation – deserved/needed to be informed US HISTORY TERMS: American Federation of Labor – takes place of Knights of Labor, only organized skilled workers (gave them power) Terence Powderly – Irishman, elected by Knights of Labor as Grand Master Workman, made the knights known, biracial organizations with all genders, natives and immigrants Haymarket Square Riot (1886) – Chicago, workers on strike for labor hours, violent riots, bomb Homestead Steel Strike (1892) – part of labor activism, strike in Carnegie steel mill Pullman Strike (1894) – labor vs management, George Pullman laid off workers & cut wages, refused to discuss grievances, workers got ARU to boycott all trains that used Pullman cars L. Frank Baum – author of The Wonderful Wizard of Oz and the series Croplien system – legal claim of one person over the property of another for loans Patrons of Husbandry (Grange) – 1867, social & educational institution, competitions (who could grow/raise/make the best…), founded by Oliver Hudson Kelly, lectures to learn new farming techniques, small group of farmers & families, nonpolitical Farmers’ Alliance – focus on economics, cooperated w/ each other economically, soon political, teaching finance & cooperative businesses People’s (Populist Party) –1892, founded by labor, feminist, farm & other reform delegates, St. Louis(1 convention), railroads regulated better, political reforms(power into people’s hands), free & unlimited coinage of silver, supported inflation Subtreasury Plan – warehouses for harvested crops and lowinterest loans to tide farmers over til prices rose Pendleton Act (1883) – (Civil Service Act), civil service reform, created a bipartisan civil service commission to administer competitive examinations for some federal jobs Sherman Silver Purchase Act – 1890, obligated the gov to buy 4.5 million ounces of silver a month, rise in silver discovery prices go down, William McKinley – from Ohio, republicans nominate him, supported gold plank, high tariffs to protect American Industry William Jennings Bryan – from Nebraska, democrats nominate him, unknowns, charismatic speaker, powerful voice, in favor of silver, great speeches, “You shall not crucify man on a cross of gold”,
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