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First test of the semester

by: Mary Jo Davison Gould

First test of the semester ANT 301

Marketplace > University of Texas at Austin > ANT 301 > First test of the semester
Mary Jo Davison Gould

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About this Document

Everything that has been important and covered in the first 4 weeks
Edward Kirk
Study Guide
Anthropology, Anthro, test, monkeys, primate
50 ?





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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Mary Jo Davison Gould on Sunday September 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANT 301 at University of Texas at Austin taught by Edward Kirk in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views.


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Date Created: 09/25/16
Hey y’all, So this is the google doc that everyone can access to add their notes! Any/all information you  would like to share would be much appreciated! :)  Introduction to Primate Diversity Primate characteristics Order Primates ● Group of mammal species ○ Prosimians, monkeys, apes, humans ● Carolus Linnaeus: ○ Systema naturae 1758 ○ Father of the word primates ○ Order #1: Primates (Primary) ■ 1. Homo­­originally put humans and orangutans in  same genus Linnean Taxonomic Hierarchy 1. Kingdom 2. Phylum 3. Class 4. Order: Primates Suborder: Anthropoidea infraorder: Catarrhini superfamily: Hominoidea family: Hominidae Subfamily: Genus: Homo Species: sapiens  Primat  shared characteristics:  ● (found in last common ancestor 65 mil years ago) 1. Forward facing eyes 2. Wide binocular field and stereoscopy a. Binocular: simultaneous view b. Stereoscopy: sense of three dimensionality due to mental fusion  of slightly different images from right and left eyes c. Critical for fine­depth perception 3. High visual acuity 4. Orbit surrounded by bone a. Postorbital bar b. Isolates eyes from chewing muscles 5. More/larger brain areas a. Occipital lobes b. Cortical visual areas in cerebral cortex process visual information 6. Grasping/Prehensile hands and divergent thumb a. Exception to divergent thumb: spidermonkey 7. Grasping/Prehensile feet and divergent toe 8. Flattened nails instead of claws 9. Large apical pads on tips of digits (filled with touch receptors) 10. Small litter size (usually have 1) 11. Relatively long period of gestation and infant dependency a. 1­16 yrs b. Vulnerable for extinction ● Not present: claws, non­prehensile features, poor vision or non binocular field,  large litters, short infant dependency Why did Evolution Occur? ● Arboreal Hypothesis: (1700s) ○ Sir Grafton Elliot Smith: Australian anatomist ○ Most live in trees, need to move from tree to tree→ need for binocular stereoscopic vision and prehensile traits ○ States: primates unique traits are adaptations to living in trees ○ Need for binocular stereoscopic vision: greater depth perception for moving between trees ○ Prehensile traits: holding onto branches ○ Greater intelligence: navigating 3D space ○ No longer need a strong sense of smell ○ Problem #1: nor all arboreal animals have forward facing eyes ○ Problem #2: not all arboreal animals have grasping hands and  feet instead of claws  ○ Conclusion:: ■ Insufficient to account for the extn of typical primate characteristics ■ Comparative method for hypothesis testing  ●  In contrast to Experimental method where you test variables ● P otential falsifiability is necessary of a legitimate hypothesis (must be testable) ● Repetition is also necessary to prove a hypothesis: with enough duplication of results a scientific theory can be developed ■ Once rejected/falsified, we must construct *Look over notes for Scientific Method of the above ● Visual Predation Hypothesis ○ Matt Cartmill: American Physical Anthropologist ○ States: Primate traits arose as adaptations to preying on insects  and small animals ○ Last common ancestor lived in microhabitat with small diameter  supports  ■ Small, nocturnal, visual abilities ■ Problem: original primate adaptation was about getting  fruit, not predation Primates: Prosimians found in old world only Order: Primates Suborder: Anthropoidea suborder: prosimii (lemurs, lorises and tarsiers) Suborder: haplorrhini (tarsiers, monkeys, apes, humans) Suborder: strepsirrhini (lemurs, lorises) ● Taxonomy: Science of naming and classifying organisms started by Ernest  Linnaeus ● Ecology: the study of organisms interaction with its environment (niche, lifestyle) Prosimian...Haplorhini Tarsier/Tarsiiformes Only to Prosimian and Haplorhini ● Genus: Tarsus ● SE Asia: ● Tarsier derived from Tarsus: long feet ● Vertical clinger , leaper, huge eyes (nocturnal), 100% Faunivorous,  pairl living  (unlike other nocturnals) ● Most similar to humans Characteristics: ● Derived/Apomorphic features with anthropoids ● Reduced size and complexity of nasal activity in comparison to primates ○ Loss of rhinarium: moist patch of tissues around nostrils ● Filtrum: split upper lip not visible; present inside mouth instead ○ Collectant surface for chemical analyses ● Retinal Fovea ○ Area inside eye that determines lights ○ Creates pit/dip in retina that increases acuity by opening to bottom layer Strepsirrhini Order: Primates Suborder: strepsirrhini Infraorder: lemuriformes (lemurs) Infraorder: lorisiformes (lorises, galagos) ● Asia and Africa ● Lorisiformes­­divided into 2 families: ○ Galagidae (galagos) ■ ex.) bushbabies ■ Only in africa ■ Nocturnal ■ Arboral → vertical clingers and leapers ■ Diet: insects, fruit, gums (tree scap made of  complex sugars) ● Fat­tailed baby, needle clawed baby ○ Lorisidae (lorises) ■ Nocturnal and arboreal ■ Africa and Asia ● Slow lorises: only venomous  primate, defensive dance ● Slender loins: only primate besides  prosimians to be 100% carnivorous, 2nd biggest eyes on primates ● Lemuriformes (lemurs) ○ Only found in Madagascar (Mozambique Channel, isolation­ unique animals) ○ Cheirogaleidae ■ Mouse lemur (Smallest living primate, sister  bonds), fat­tailed dwarf lemur (eat ripe fruit to fatten tail then hibernate) ■ Nocturnal ○ Lemuridae ■ Day active lemurs ■ Ring­tailed lemur, gentle bamboo lemur (scent  marking) ○ Indriidae/Indri ■ Leaping lemurs: largest group of living lemurs,  vertical climbers/leapers, live in female/male pairs, duet to mark territory ■ Sifaka: large social groups, short forelimbs, strong  hindlimbs ○ Daubentoniidae ■ Aye­Aye ● Ever growing front teeth, long middle finger contains ball and socket joint, re­evolved claws, wood  boring grubs Characteristic features: grooming adaptations ● Tooth comb: comb­like lower front teeth ● Grooming claw: re­evolved claw­like nail on 2nd toe of hind legs Primates: Monkeys Anthropoidea Infraorder: Platyrrhini (new world monkeys) Subfamily: callitrichinae Subfamily: cebinae Infraorder: catarrhini (old world monkeys, humans) Superfamily: cercopithecoidea (old world monkeys) Superfamily: hominoidea (apes, humans) Catarrhini ● Differences between cercopithecoids and platyrrhines ○ Cercopithecoids:  ■ Location: old world ■ No ear tube, 3 premolars ○ Platyrrhines:  ■ Location: new world ■ Ear tube, 2 premolars Platyrrhini ● Subfamily: Callitrichinae ○ Marmosets and tamarins ○ Pygmy Marmoset: diet: gums; claws ○ Mating system:  ■ Only one female that breeds ■ Chimerisms: receive different hereditary traits from  multiple fathers at once. ● Subfamily: Cebinae ○ Squirrel monkey (diet: insects, fruits), Capuchin (tool use, biggest  brain relative to body size) ● Subfamily: Aotinae ○ Owl monkeys ■ Male­female pairs ■ Male care for infants ■ Only nocturnal monkeys ● Subfamily: Pitheciidae ○ Titi monkeys (monogamous pairs) ● Subfamily: Atelidae ○ Spider Monkeys ■ Suspensory arboreality: prehensile tail (5th  appendage to hold on to trees) ■ Diet: ripe fruit ■ 7­10 kg, biggest kind of platyrrhini ● Superfamily: Cercopithecoidea (Old world monkeys) ○ Subfam: cercopithecinae (cheek pouches) ○ Subfamily: colobinae (leaf eaters) ● Colobinae  ○ Diet: leaves ○ Teeth cusps ○ Complex stomach ● Cercopithecinae ○ Diet: fruits ○ Cheek pouches ○ Low cusps ○ ex.) Guenons (tell each other by color), Patas monkey (fastest  living primates, most of the time on ground of African Savannah, bigger of ____),  Japanese Macaque (don't live in tropical area, only one that can live in snow),  baboons (facial coloration according to social standing, terrestrial) ● Super family: Hominoidea ○ Sub family: hylobatidae (gibbons) ○ Sub family: pongidae (orangutans) ○ Sub family: hominidae (african apes and humans) cercopithecoids hominoids Bilophodont molars Simple molars tail No tail Larger brain Primates: Apes Old world: isolated patches of tropical Asia and South­east Asia ● Hylobatidae: Gibbons ○ Location: ○ Great Apes vs Lesser Apes ○ Monomorphic ○ Lesser apes ○ Social group: male, female, offspring ○ Diet: ripe fruit ○ Highly territorial ■ Form alliance/duet to defend territory ○ Arboreal ○ Long arms, short legs ○ Mode of locomotion: brachiation ○ Bipedal on ground/large branches ● Pongidae: Pongo  ○ Location: northwestern sumatra, indonesian and malaysian  borneo ○ Great apes ○ Sexual dimorphism ○ Social group: solitary ■ Loud calls to mark territory ■ coloration ○ Diet: ripe fruit ■ Distribution contributes to inability to live in group ○ Dimorphism (2nd puberty): adult male cheek flanges ○ Males engage in forced copulation (non­bimorph sized), females  shadow flanged males for protection ○ Tool used: tool use learned from caretaker (culture) ○ Arboreal, knuckle walking ● Gorillas ○ Western lowland and eastern low land ○ Great apes ○ Lowland: short hair ○ Highland: shaggy coat ○ diet:  ■ Highland: herbaceous veggies (leaves, stems, pith) ■ Lowland: fruit ○ Social group: harem ■ One adult male, multiple females ■ Dominant male: silverback ○ Terrestrial ○ Nesting common among lowland gorillas ● Chimpanzee ■ Two species: ● Common chimpanzee (pan  troglodytes) ● Rying chimpanzees or bonobos (pan paniscus) ■ Location: Tropical africa ○ Common chimps ■ Mainly terrestrial knuckle walkers ■ More sexually dimorphic than humans ■ Core of social group:  ■ band of related males defend a large area that  contains smaller female ranges ■ Weak female bonds ■ Diet: ripe fruit, monkeys ● Hunting done by males ■ Tool use: learned with regional variation (=culture) ● termite ○ Bonobo (pan paniscus) ■ Body mass: f 31 kg, m 39 kg (smaller than common chimp) ■ Knuckle walker, bipedal when carrying things (more bidepal than common chimp) ■ Core social group: band of unrelated females  cooperate to collectively dominate males ● Hierarchy status inherited from  mother ● Female bonds reinforced by sex ● Sex is the currency of bonobo  society and occurs between all group member ○ “Penis fencing” Primate Behavior and Ecology Primate Ecology:  study of how primates interact with their environment  (including other organisms) ● Location: tropical habitats ○ Diverse range of primate habitats: more rainfall → less rainfall ■ Altitude, seasonality, soil, etc ■ Not tolerant of cold ○ Key factor: mean actual temperature higher in tropics (less  seasonal variation) ○ Only tropical habitats not occupied: deep desert ○ Fundamental concept in ecology: niche: ecological role of a  species within a larger community of organisms ■ Lifestyle, what does it do?: what are the  conditions necessary for species persistence and the species  impact on the environment ■ Multidimensional; total range of environmental  parameters that allows a species to survive= niche axis ● Niche axis: variables that allow you to avoid competing directly with other  species ■ diet, locomotion, activity pattern, predator,  ranging pattern, etc ○ Competitive exclusion: No two species that occupy the same niche can coexist over time ■ One species will eventually outcompete each  other ■ Two different species cannot coexist  indefinitely off the same limiting resource(s) (food, nesting) ■ Grey vs Red Squirrels: same niche in different  continents ● 1945: red squirrels invade the UK ○ Major implication: if species are to coexist in the same  habitat they must differ in their niche to avoid competition ○ Corollaries: ■ Often strongest competitors are your closest  phyletic relatives (evolutionary relatives) ■ Most intense competition for resources is  usually intraspecific (members of your own species) ○ Niches can be overlapping when food is abundant, but tend  to become discrete in times of food scarcity (species shift behavior to  avoid competition) ■ Howler (leaves and ripe fruit) vs. spidermonkey (ripe fruit) ○ Ecological release: In areas where range doesn't overlap  same species may be much more generalized in their niche ■ Niche expansion following the removal of a  constraining variable ● E.g. owl monkeys and harpy  eagles in peru vs uruguay Primates (Order of Mammals) → Chart *Make sure to memorize this chart for the test! 


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