The "quick and dirty" review for Exam 1
The "quick and dirty" review for Exam 1 POS 160
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Abbey Schroeder on Sunday September 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to POS 160 at Arizona State University taught by Henry Sivak in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.
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Date Created: 09/25/16
The State System ● State piece of territory with recognized borders and boundaries that is able to enter negotiation with other countries ● Nation a large aggregate of people united by common descent, history, culture, or language, inhabiting a particular country or territory. ○ Ex of non states that are Nations Kurds, Gypsies, Palestinians, Native Americans ○ States can have more than one nation ● Nationstate a sovereign state whose citizens or subjects are relatively homogeneous in factors such as language or common descent. ○ Ex: Iceland is the only true one ○ Ex of not: Canada 3 different ones, French, English, Natives; the United Kingdom (Brexit, Scotland) ● Montevideo Convention (1933) what is needed to be a State ○ Permanent population ○ A defined territory ○ A government ○ A capacity to enter into relation with other states ■ Migration possible ● Juridical vs. Empirical Statehood ○ Juridical a state must be viewed as a formal or legal institution by other states; external basis of a state’s sovereignty ○ Empirical part of the external basis of state’s sovereignty is the extent to which a state fulfills its role as a substantial politicaleconomic organization ■ Success = state has developed efficient political institutions, solid economic basis, and a substantial degree of national unity ● Theories of war: ○ Image I: Human behavior ■ People can’t be happy unless there is authority keeping power ■ People are violent unless they are organized ■ People: Thomas Hobbes, Niccolo Machiavelli, Thucydides ○ Image II: The Internal structure of states ■ “Rally around the flag” effect ■ Pursuing war to distract from domestic problems ■ People tend to defer to authorities in times of crisis, even when the authorities created the crisis ● EX: Falkland Island (British vs Argentina) over “Sheep” ○ Media stunt to help British leadership get reelected (worked) ■ People: Immanuel Kant, Karl Marx etc ○ Image III: Anarchy ■ No supreme power governing all the states; no collective security ■ Related to the issue of collective action problems ■ Frequently, these have to do with the governance of public goods ● Public goods: can’t be open to competition, and is totally gov owned ■ Rationality will NOT save us ■ Domestic analogy: the tragedy of the commons ● Canada, Iceland, UK and SE Asian countries have all taken diff kinds of steps to deal with the “anarchy of the seas” (fight over fishing) ● Of course, what applies to the open oceans also applies to warfare, defense, arms’ buildups ● *Everyone will grab as much as possible, and will destroy the public good ■ This image focuses on the possibilities of cooperation in the international system, where there is no overarching authority ■ For Waltz, this leaves us with 2 options: ● Make all states perfect ● Impose effective control on separate and imperfect states ● Growth of the state system: ○ Colonialism the practice of acquiring full or partial political control over another country, occupying it with settlers, and exploiting it economically ■ Western states dominated much of the rest of the world (showed the supremacy of the Western world) ■ Lasted until the 20th century ○ Decolonization undoing of colonialism, where a nation establishes and maintains its domination over dependent territories ■ was undermined by antiracism and antiimperialist sentiments in Western countries ○ League of Nations Mandates compromise between the Allies' wish to retain the former German and Turkish colonies and their preArmistice declaration that annexation of territory was not their aim in WWI ● uti posseidetis juris ○ As you possess it ○ Established boarders (boarders you get when you become independent, are the ones you keep) ● The Concert of Europe ○ Napoleon Bonaparte: declared war on Europe (unsuccessful) ■ Napoleonic wars ○ InterEuropean Imperial expansion and the search for a “territorial solution” to revolutionary rivalries in France ○ Lead to Concert of Europe: system to get European countries to fight other nonEuropean countries instead of themselves (18151870) ■ Created by Klemens von Metternich ■ Wage short, fast wars ■ Flexible, changing alliances ■ Compensation for lossesno vendettas (usually to colonise somewhere else) ■ SUCCESSFUL! :) and European countries gaining more territory ○ In the European conference, totally divided up Africa (not concerning people living there) ● Feudalism ○ Overlapping forms of territorial and spiritual authority and not a lot of distinction of who leads ○ Subjects, not citizens ○ Owe allegiance, no national language, competing loyalties ○ Peace of Westphalia during this time (after 30 years war) 1648 ■ Gives sovereigns to territories in the region ■ **Right to make wars and make peace (new concept) ● And this right is to be respected ■ **Each territory can make a permanent standing army ● Usually had mercenaries, so this is new ■ **Sovereign can declare a religion of state ● BUT must tolerance minority religion (must give space to do that) = leads to diplomatic community (embassies) ■ LEADS to: ● Taxes, roads, administrations ● Institutions, centrality, clear territorial boundaries ● Monopoly on legitimate violence ○ “States made war and war made the states” (Charles Tilly) ● Conference of Berlin and the push for new colonies ○ Leads to fighting over resources in different areas ○ Boer War ■ Boer Dutch settlers wanting to be independent ■ Brits wanted to conquer them to get diamonds and gold ■ Brits courtmartialed 3 people for murdering Boer prisoners ● Concert of Europe framework breaking apart Realism ● Machiavelli Florence advisor to Princes ○ Talked about how to keep power ○ 2 views to read The Prince ■ Carefully assess your options and materials before you make decisions to defend yourself from aggressors and keep your power ■ It is better to be feared than to be loved ○ Only when you can dominate people politically, THEN you can have an ordered society ● The Melian Dialog: ○ Where was Thucydides from? ■ Greece ○ The two most powerful states (p. 50). ■ Sparta and Athens ○ Which war is Thucydides writing about. ■ The Peloponnesian War (431404 BCE) ○ The standard of justice in politics (p. 53). ■ Depends on the equality of power to compel and that in fact the strong do what they have the power to do and the weak accept what they have to accept ○ The reasoning behind the Athenians' decision (p. 54). ■ They were concerned with the islanders that were unsubdued, because they were the people who were most likely to act in a reckless manner and to bring themselves and the Athenians into the most obvious danger ○ Laws of nature (p. 55). ■ “A general and necessary law of nature to rule whatever one can” ○ The outcome of the dialog (p. 57). ■ Athenian generals, immediately commenced hostilities and built a wall completely around the city of Melos. Melians made two successful attacks on the Athenian lines, but after the second attack, they surrounded to the Athenians ● The Twenty Years Crisis ○ Global system was falling into a crisis ○ = new forms of liberalism and realism ● Mearsheimer, concept of structural realism, hegemony, strategic realism ○ Structural realism supports a bipolar system; believes a multipolar one would produce a highly undesirable return to “the bad old ways” and could even renew danger of international conflict and possible war ○ Hegemony thinks anarchy compels states to compete ■ believes states want to be regional hegemonists (defensive realism) ■ Believes these actions are to ensure that there are no others power can attack them (offensive realism). ● Fog of War and other events in the Cold War http://www.errolmorris.com/film/fow_transcript.html ○ Cuban Missile Crisis October 1528 of 1962 (13 days) ○ Vietnam 19651975 American military involvement; trying to prevent domino theory and trying to contain the spread of communism ■ Gulf of Tonkin resolution started US involvement ● Thought there were attacks on August 2nd and 4th of 1965 ○ The first one didn’t happen but the second one did (seeing and believing are often wrong section) ○ Rolling thunder bombing operation carried out starting in 1965 in Vietnam (2 or 3 times more tonnage of bombs on Vietnam than in Germany during the entirety of WWII) ● MAD Mutually Assured Destruction ○ The reason why countries are weary to use their nuclear weapons without prior warning ● Domino theory ○ The theory in which if one country falls into communism, the other surrounding countries will follow Johnson’s theory ● Containment ○ George Keenan came up with this ○ Attempting to keep communism in one area ○ Largely shaped US policy to create = structural realism ■ Structure of global politics, tendency to create or mitigate against global politics ● Contagion ○ Communism works by spreading into unsuspecting hosts ○ The reason why there is containment policies Liberalism Wilson’s Plan (key points) 1. No more secret agreements between countries. Diplomacy shall be open to the world. 2. International seas shall be free to navigate during peace and war. 3. There shall be free trade between the countries who accept the peace. 4. There shall be a worldwide reduction in weapons and armies by all countries. 5. Colonial claims over land and regions will be fair. 6. Russia will be allowed to determine its own form of government. All German troops will leave Russian soil. 7. German troops will evacuate Belgium and Belgium will be an independent country. 8. France will regain all territory including the disputed land of AlsaceLorraine. 9. The borders of Italy will be established such that all Italians will be within the country of Italy. 10. AustriaHungary will be allowed to continue to be an independent country. 11. The Central Powers will evacuate Serbia, Montenegro, and Romania leaving them as independent countries. 12. The Turkish people of the Ottoman Empire will have their own country. Other nationalities under the Ottoman rule will also have security. 13. Poland shall be an independent country. 14. A League of Nations will be formed that protects the independence of all countries no matter how big or small. a. Read more at: http://www.ducksters.com/history/world_war_i/fourteen_points.php b. This text is Copyright © Ducksters. Do not use without permission. c. 14 points 1, 3, 5, 12, 14 and any others that have big pictures principles ● Natural law (Genest, Liberal Theory, p.125). a. A universal law of reason and of conscience, and ‘natural rights’ (aka human rights) which everyone must respect ● Comparative Advantage lecture on liberalism a. If countries specialize and trade, then they will be able to have more overall ● Four types (or subtheories) of liberalism a. Sociological liberalism ■ Sense of community ● Social media, technology to easily communicate ■ Travel and deregulation ● Students studying abroad ■ 3 revolutions b. Interdependence liberalism ■ Trading state and the DoL ■ Modern comparative advantage ■ Spillover theory of cooperation ● Math is the same universally ■ Complex interdependence ● International flights have to communicate ■ States rely on each other the less likely they are to go to war with one another (McDonalds) c. Institutional liberalism ■ Rules, regimes, institutions ● Mossack Fonseca law firm orchestrating tax evasion ○ Shows we live in a liberal world, and need to be more liberal ○ The power is in the institutions ● Nevada and Wyoming have loose regulatory regimes in collecting taxes ■ Fear and negotiation d. Republican liberalism ■ Democratization and (non)conflict Body of thinking that goes w/ more democracies in the world > the more peace we will have (pg. 113) ● Michael Doyle ● Promoting democracy which is promoting peace ■ 3 conditions of peace ● Democratic norms of peaceful resolution of conflict ● Peaceful relations between democratic states, based on a common moral foundation ● Economic cooperation between democracies: ties of interdependence ● The League of Nations: what it tried (and failed) to do, who created it a. Isaiah bouman (? in slides) and Woodrow Wilson worked on creating it ● The six organs of the UN a. General Assembly ■ Put forward the ICC b. Security Council c. Trusteeship Council d. Economic and Social Council e. International Court of Justice f. Secretariat ● Some basic information on the UN (the last quiz will help you a great deal here). ● ICC v ICJ a. ICC war crimes, crimes against humanity, genocide PEOPLE COMMITTING THESE ■ US. vs Nicaragua (1986) court concluded Nicaragua was guilty of helping the contras and placing mines in harbors ■ NOT A PART OF UN ■ European judges can persecute cross borders b. ICJ International court of justice COUNTRIES COMMITTING THERE ■ Part of UN ■ Can decide cases between nations, not individuals ● European court of human rights ECHR ● Peacekeeping a. A peaceful, nonpartisan effort to help civilians and refugees between two warring countries ● Humanitarian Intervention a. Humanitarian intervention is NOT the same as peace keeping ● Chs. 1, 6, 7, 6.5 of the UN Charter. a. CH.1 ■ Based on the principle of sovereign equality of all its Members ■ You shall not go to war outside of specific reasons as specified in UN charter ■ UN can’t intervene with social domestic jurisdiction within a country b. CH.6 ■ Before you go to war, there must be an attempt to make peace between nations c. CH. 6.5 ■ Humanitarian intervention; peacekeeping ● Somalia first peacekeeping intervention by the UN with force d. CH.7 ■ Go to security council to use force ■ Traditionally, to invoke this chapter, you must have an issue that crosses international boundaries ■ 4 crimes: ● Genocide ● Crimes against humanity ● Ethnic cleansing ● War crimes ● BUT UN has intervened in Libya (Benghazi) ○ Protecting Libyans from Gaddafi e. Composition of the UNSC & budgetary details of the UN, as per articles. ● UNSC Resolutions a. 665 ■ Ch.7 of the UN charter Provides authorization for a collective security action to push Hussein out (Korea) ■ 527,000 troops drive Iraq out of Kuwait = did it in less than 100 hours; only 24 casualties ■ Public pressure to do something, even though no one knows why we are there in the first place; Bush admin needs to fix everything? ■ HUGE Iraqi casualties, UN is held accountable b. 794 ■ Authorizes intervention in Somalia ■ First situation where Security Council sent in troops without countries actually fighting each other ■ Under Ch. 7 ■ Operation Restore Hope ■ 1st peacekeeping operation to intervene in a sovereign member state that was not presenting a military threat to its neighbor c. 819 ■ Adopted in 1993, UN sent Dutch peacekeepers to Srebrenica but went bad because the Serbs managed to killed tons of Muslims ● Massacre that didn’t do any good d. 1441 ■ Disarmament of Iraq 2002 2nd Iraq war ● Under the suspicion of weapons of mass destruction e. 1973 ■ 2011 intervention into Libya by NATO forces to protect civilians from Gaddafi (sp) ■ Pg. 147 ● The Responsibility to Protect. adopted by UN in 2001 a. UN voted in in in 2005 b. Canada c. 3 pillars: ■ Protection ■ Provention ■ Delegation engagement agencies ● Srebrenica. ● Review the video on int'l law, posted to BB. Social Constructivism ● Ontology reality or claims about what is and how things really are ● Epistemology how things mean or how we understand; how they take on meaning (social constructivists are the most concerned with this) ● Three major claims ○ (1) states are the principal units of analysis for international political theory ○ (2) the key structures in the states system are conscious rather than material ○ (3) state identities and interests are constructed by these social structures, rather than given from external sources to the system by human nature [as (neo)realists maintain] or domestic politics [as neoliberals favor]. Behaviouralism ● The behavioralist formula (pp.28283), when compared to the traditional approach (see box, p. 285; this does a nice job of summing things up). ○ Formula: formulate hypotheses; construct a verifying experiment or gather empirical data other ways; observe, record and analyze; discard, modify, reformulate or confirm hypothesis ○ Traditional focus: understanding of norms and values, judgement and historical knowledge ■ Theorists attempt to get inside the role of states people in attempt to understand the moral dilemmas in their foreign policies, and appreciating the basic values involved, like security, order, freedom, and justice ○ Behavioralist focus: explaining hypothesis, collection of data and scientific knowledge ■ Theorists are outside by following the scientific method and attempting to remain detached and morally neutral ● Quantitative Resolution probability led calculations (1960s) ○ Generated heavy use of stats and efforts at regression analysis (using the past to extrapolate trends towards the future) ○ A lot of the more modern forms of realism are pretty informed by statistical analysis ● Not simply stats but relies on the use of models and the ability to generate simulations of possible outcomes (538.com) ● The basics of the behavioural method: the scanned readings (pp. 28283 esp.) are useful here. ● Positivism ● John von Newman and Alan Turing. ● The Prisoners' dilemma explained on slides (not in book but possibly a PDF) ○ If they both betray each other both get 2 yrs. In jail ○ If they both stay silent both get set free ○ If one rats on the other Rat gets 1 year and the other gets 3 ■ I.e. U.S. and Russia in the Cold War ■ It’s a reason for armament not disarmament
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