MGT 302 Study Guide Exam 1
MGT 302 Study Guide Exam 1 MGT 304
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by May Thu on Sunday September 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to MGT 304 at University of Miami taught by Dr. Linda L. Neider in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Organizational Behavior in Management at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 09/25/16
MGT 304 Intro/ Research Methods - Evidence based management - scientiﬁc evidence - organizational evidence - experimental evidence - organizational values and stakeholders’ concerns - The scientiﬁc method - Problem Statement > Review Scientiﬁc Evidence > Hypothesis > Observations (data collection) > Evaluate and Draw Conclusions - Prediction > Observation > Measurement - self correcting (continually looking for evidence to make sure it’s up to date), empirical (collecting data), public inspection (have to be replicable, prevent fraud), precise operationalizations (deﬁne terms precisely), controlled (systematic), test hypothesis, generate theory - hypothesis: prediction - randomization: everyone in experiment is equally l likely to be in control or experiment - Control (nothing changed), Experiment (group with changes) - Intervening variable: linkage in which one variable affects another variable - Moderator variable: - Outcome variables - Performance: productivity, OCB (org. citizenship behavior: willingness to work beyond what’s required) - Motivation: Extrinsic (rewards), Intrinsic (value), Prosocial motivation (degree to which employees behave in a way that beneﬁts the society as a whole) - Employee Withdrawal: turn over intentions (thinking about quitting), absenteeism - Work Related attitudes: job satisfaction, employee engagement - Levels of analysis in OB - Individual: personality/ experiences/ behave differently - Organizational: org’s culture, characteristics (inﬂuence behavior of employees) - Industry level: comparisons are made across different industries - Types of Research Designs - Piloting: exploratory research, interview, collect own information (interviews, secondary surveys, participant observations (pretend to be employee) - (+): useful for generating hypothesis, study many variables, rich data - (-): can’t determine cause/effect because it’s not an experiment, time consuming, not generalizable, data can be biased - Lab experiment: researcher manipulates independent variable and see effects - (+): a lot of experimental control, precise measurement, case/ effect relationship - (-): limited topics to study, limited generalizability, limited number of independent variable can be manipulate - Field Experiment: going to real-life on-going situation to experiment - (+) high generalizability, manipulation of ind. variable is stronger, short/long term effects can be studied, causal inferences can be drawn - (-) extraneous variables, randomization is hard, control is limited, $$$, correlational - Field Study: observing the way it is - (+): low level intrusiveness, data on many variables, complex phenomena can be studied - (-): no cause/effect, less precise measurement of variables, sampling bias - Qualitative Research: interviewing people (collecting detailed info) - Quantitative research: collect data through surveys containing measures of OB concepts - Criteria for Evaluating Data Collection Methods - Reliability: test/retest, should get similar results, will consistently measure what you’re supposed to measure - Validity: concurrent, predictive, relevance - Practicality: can’t be too long: pop costs, can’t be too short (bias because participant ﬁgures out what it’s about and could make themselves look good) - Criteria for Evaluating Research Designs - Internal Validity: Results really from experimental treatment or extraneous variables? (+ experiment) - External Validity: results of study generalizable to other people, settings, other points in time (+ﬁeld study) - Ethical Requirements in Research - Conﬁdentiality: can’t reveal whose data is was - Informed Consent: let people know what they’re going to be exposed to, description of study, freedom to withdraw Individual Differences (Managing People) - Attributes: personality, perception, motivation, job attitudes - Personality: regularities in feeling, thought, action that are characteristic of a person (50-55% genetics) - Role of Heredity (Minnesota twin studies): 50% of variation in occupational choice is heredity, 40% variance in values related to work motivation could be heredity - Function of: Demographics (age/race), Competency (skills), Psychological (values) - The Big 5 - Openness: curious, original, creative, intellectual - Conscientiousness: organized, dependable, systematic, achievement oriented - Extraversion: outgoing, talkative, sociable - Agreeableness: affable, tolerant, sensitive, kind, trusting - Neuroticism: anxious, irritable, temperamental - Measuring Personality - Observational techniques: interviews, should be structured - Personality Inventories: cheap, quick results - Projective Technique: “What do you see in this blob?” - Requirements of Personality Test: Reliability, Validity - 2 Aspects of Self - Self Efﬁcacy (your perception about performances) - Magnitude (perform well, average, low) - Strength (conﬁdence level in performing) - Generality (can this one thing be generalized to other things?0 - Self Monitoring (how well you pick up social cues, changing behavior to suit situation) - Common Personality Tests - Type A/B Behavior (Jenkins Activity Survey) - A: high level competitiveness, irritability, risks, loud, persistent (heart disease, stress) - B: relaxed, easygoing, likes attention, outgoing (balanced) - Locus of Control: extent to how much you believe you can control situation - Internal: you control it (direct links to effort and performance) - External: can’t control (fate, luck, religion) - Machiavellianism Test (biased) - Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) - self report, international, based of preferences, for “well” people - 16 categories - Intro (Cultural genius) VS Extraversion (Civilizing genius): shy/ outgoing - Sensing VS Intuition: practical/ “idea people” - Thinking VS Feeling: logic/ emotion - Judging VS Perceiving: make quick decisions/ more ﬂexible - Emotional Contagion: emotions spread to others (+ or -) - Affect: comprised of both emotions and moods - Emotional Intelligence (EI) (Daniel Goldman) - Self-awareness: recognizing your own emotions when you experience them - Other awareness: aware of emotions experience by others - Emotion regulation: able to require from experience emotions quickly -Perception: making sense of stimuli, highly selective (don’t see things right in front of us), learned, culturally determined, consistent over time - We assume others perceive similar to us, what’s happening is logical, others have the same feelings about the situation as we do Expat Case - Pygmalion Effect (Self-fulﬁlling Prophecy): teacher thinks he’s a bad student so treats him like one and student gets bad grade - Golem Effect: lower expectation lead to lower performance - 4 Ways to Communicate High Expectation - Create warmer emotional climate - teach more and increase challenge - invite followers to ask questions - provide feedback on performance - Attribution: judging the causes of other’s behavior - Internal: Individual is responsible (he violated the rule, it’s his fault) - External: person has no control (maybe he was in bad trafﬁc, not his fault) - Fundamental Attribution Error/Bias: managers tend to blame poor performance because employees lack ability/effort (blame others on internal causes) - Self-Serving Bias: “not my fault” “it was less support” - Kelly’s Theory of Causal Attribution • Consensus: how many people agree? • Consistency: how many times has it happen • Distinctiveness: do they behave in similar behavior with similar situation? - Performance Review Cycle: Establish standards, Record performance levels, Review performance levels in light of standards, Determine corrective actions - Evaluating Performances - Direct Indices: absences, sales volume (no perceptual bias) - Comparative Assessment: ranking, distribution curve (no perceptual bias) - Absolute Standard: Performance dimensions (rating scales) (can have bias) - Giving Feedback - Be speciﬁc VS general (give examples, detailed incidents) - Be descriptive VS evaluation - Make it well-timed - should be designed to change behavior (constructive) - Motivation and Job Attitudes - Attitudes: general beliefs/ value systems (OB doesn’t really care about this) - Job Attitudes: +/- feelings you feel about the job - Job Commitment: extend to which individual identiﬁes and is involved with his/her organization - Motivation: energy (processes that arouse, direct, maintain behavior towards goal) - Measuring Job Attitudes - Work Itself, Pay/Beneﬁts, Promotion Opportunities (growth), quality of supervision (how boss treats you), Co-worker Relationships (do you like the people you work with) - Motivation Theories - Content Views (basis needs, if you understand human needs you should be able to motivate them, everyone is similar) - Maslow’s Hierarchy: has to be activated level by level (cultural differences: the ordering of the needs aren’t precise for everyone) - Alderfer’s Theory (EGR Theory): Existence Needs, Relatedness Needs (bonding), Growth Needs (can coexist at the same time, no sequence like Maslow’s) - McClelland’s Need Theory: what is it that drives over achiever to keep achieving? (need for achievement), TAT projective device, need for afﬁliation/power - Need for Achievement (nAch): drive to succeed at high levels - Need for Power (nPow): the need to inﬂuence others to do what you want to do - Need for Afﬁliation (nAff) need for close personal relationship - very good managers are balanced - Achievers prefer jobs: moderate risk, feedback, personal responsibility - McClelland’s training: change cognition > change in behavior (think like a winner) - Climate Effect: behave the way they think managers want them to believe (if managers don’t care after training, it doesn’t matter) - Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory - Motivator: achievement, recognition, promotions, responsibility, work itself (Satisfaction, No Satisfaction) - Critical Incidents/ Content Coding - Hygienes: money, relationships with coworkers/supervisors, company policies, working conditions (No Dissatisfaction, Dissatisfaction) (related to turnovers) - Not normal Satisﬁed—Dissatisﬁed scale - motivator/hygienes are independent - Applications: job enrichment (types of tasks), autonomous work groups (work in teams, determine own work method), re-engineering (push decision down to lower levels, get rid of low- level managers), empowerment (take on more tasks, decision making) - Job design elements: job variety, task signiﬁcance, autonomy, feedback - Process Views (how do you get someone into a motivated state? Take individual differences in consideration
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