Intro to Info System Unit 3
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by ljackson60 Notetaker on Sunday September 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to at Georgia State University taught by Kurt Schmitz in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 37 views.
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Date Created: 09/25/16
[Intro to Info System s] [Kurt Schmitz] Unit 3 Test Study Guide] Highlight = Important Principle Highligh = Important Concept Highlight = Key Term [Unit #3] [Software and the Creative Engine of Digital Innovation] [Module 4: Categories of Software] Application software Consists of programs that end users run to accomplish tasks. Examples include word processor, powerpoint, web browsers, or email clients. System Software Consists of programs that make up the operating system. Daemons are pieces of the operating system that run in the background all of the time. [Module 4: Cloud computing and intranet] Local Applications Is software that is stored on an individual computer. Intranet A local area network that uses the Internet Protocol is known as an intranet. This is so because applications intended for Internet usage will work well internally in businesses so organization who make software applications available to employees via a LAN can use IP to manage communications between the user and app and this is referred to as an Intranet. Cloud Computing Users can access resources they normally don’t have access to, have increased processing power, software you might not have a license to, and storage in excess of their local file server or computer. [Module 4: Operating systems] What is an operating system? It is a program that allows a computer user to easily access the hardware and software of a computer system. Two ways exist to issue commands, GUI and by typing in commands. Examples include Mac, Linux, Windows, or Unix. Operating Systems for Workstations, mobile devices and servers OS for mobile devices serve the same purpose as those for a desktop computer. Such as Android or iOS. Servers are dedicated computers within a network whose function is to respond to network requests and provide a network service. Microsoft developed Windows Server is a series of operating systems that are more powerful than the desktop operating systems. They handle networking, Internet/intranet hosting, and other functions in businesses. [Module 4: Users and Administrators] User Roles and Administrator Most OSs have two types of users, which are user accounts and administrator accounts.The administrator is sometimes referred to as a root or superuser. The administrator account is the owner for all of the system software of some of the applications software, they restrict access to change programs and software. [Module 4: Server Software] Server refers to many different things, but mainly it is a computer that performs centralized tasks for other computers, workstations, and mobile devices. A file server is a computer with a large hard disk storing files that users of a network access. They also store software. A FTP server hosts files and allows clients to access those files through downloading and uploading where files are saved to disk. An email server provides email service, accepts email requests from clients, send messages out to other email servers, receive emails, and alert the user that emails have arrived. The role of a web server is to respond to hypertext transfer protocol requests, which typically come from web browsers. Proxy servers are used as giant caches of web pages. They also provide anonymity because the IP address recorded by the web server in response to the request is that of the proxy server. A database management system is software that responds to user queries to create, manipulate, and retrieve records from the database. A database server will perform data analysis, data manipulation, security, and archiving. [Module 5: Proprietary and Open Source Software] There are many different types of software available for use. Proprietary/commercial software is purchased from a vendor where you receive the software in executable form, provided a license to use the software, and the purchase gives you access to helpful resources. Shareware is a form of software that usually provides a trial version of the software, which restricts use in some way but allows you to purchase a full license to the software. Freeware is a type of free software that has become obsolete or the producer no longer wishes to support it. Public domain software is software that has been moved into the public domain and the public can use it however they want. Open source software is created by the open source community and made freely available, however people may have to abide by the copyright provided with the software. [Module 5: Software Licensing] There has been a good amount of debate about the use of patents and copyrights for software. Copywriting protects an original work (in tangible, expressed form), but not the ideas behind it. The holder has exclusive right to make copies, prepare derivative works and distribute copies of the work for the duration of the author’s life plus 70 years. Patents protect the creation of inventive concepts as well as tangible work product. To receive a patent the applicant must be able to show the idea is original, useful, and not obvious.The owner can prevent other from making, selling, or using the patented invention for 20 years from the patent filing data. [Module 5: License Agreements] When you purchase proprietary software you are provided with an end user license agreement or a software license agreement and indicates that the purchaser has a right to use the software. [Module 6: Binary Numbers as the Foundation of Machine Language] A numbering system is a writing system for expressing numbers. The decimal system is used in everyday life. It uses base 10 so symbols 09 represent numbers. In the computing world binary (base 2 system) is used where 1 means on and 0 means off. A single 1 or 0 value is called a bit.Eight bits together are called a byte, which is the smallest unit of memory. In the octal numbering system, every value is represented with some combination of 8 digits (07) base 8. In hexadecimal it is base 16 and 4bit binary numbers are grouped and converted into the equivalent hexadecimal digit. (09 and A,B,C,D,E,F) [Module 6: Programming Languages] Language translators are programs that take on program writing in a highlevel language, as input and creates a machine language program as output. Highlevel languages like Java allows programmers to write programs. The three types of language translators are assembly languages, highlevel compiled languages, and highlevel interpreted languages. [Module 6: HighLevel Languages: Compiled and Interpreted] Two ways of highlevel language conversion include compiled and interpreted language. Compiled language translates the entire program and creates an executable program, which can be run at a later time. Not portable Interpreted language takes the most recently entered instruction, translates it into machine language and executes it [Module 6: Scripting Languages] Script can refer to a small program that are typically short and the instructions are relatively simple. They have traditionally been used more for automation than for software. Script is also used to describe coding that is for a specific environment. Also, script can be defined as an interpreted program. [Module 6: Algorithms] An algorithm is a formula or procedure for solving a problem. It is a set of steps that are followed in order to complete a computer process. [Module 6: Software Architecture ( ntier)] Separation of different aspects of a system is known as multitier development and “n” indicates the number of tiers a system will have for different software development projects. The presentation tier main function is to translate tasks and results to something the user can understand. The logic layer coordinates the app, processes commands, makes logical decisions and evaluations, and performs calculations. It moves and processes data between the two surrounding layers. Data tiers stored and retrieve information from a database or file system. Information is passed back to the logic tier for processing. [Module 6: Software Architecture (MVC)] Architectural models have grown under modelviewcontrol development techniques that also separates the user interface into different components. The model in MVC is usually an actual object that is an implementation of the application. Models interact with databases and retrieve information. The controller is a part of the application that interacts with the user and passes requests to the model. The view is the part of the application that represents the user interface. It captures input from the user that is passed on via the controller to the model. In view the user interface logic is designed. Differ from ntier development model where each tier is a separate application.
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