First Midterm Nots
First Midterm Nots Psych 160
Popular in Social Psychology
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Popular in Psychology
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jennifer Fu on Sunday September 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 160 at University of California Berkeley taught by Serena Chen in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 71 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychology at University of California Berkeley.
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Date Created: 09/25/16
From Textbook Social Psychology: the scientific study of the feelings, thoughts, and behaviors of individuals in social situations Comparing social psychology with related disciplines - Personality psychology vs Social psychology o PP – try to find a consistent pattern in the way a person behaves across situations o SP – examine the general situation - Cognitive psychology vs Social psychology o CP – study categorization processes or memory for words or objects o SP – study social behavior and perceptions of other people - Sociology vs Social psychology o S – study of behavior of people in the aggregate o SP – more likely to bring an interest in individual behavior to the study of aggregates Dispositions: beliefs, values, personality traits, and abilities that guide behaviors (internal factors) Fundamental Attribution Error: the failure to recognize the importance of situational influences on behavior, together with the tendency to overemphasize the important of dispositions Channel Factors: situational circumstances that appear unimportant on the surface but that can have great consequences for behavior – facilitating it, blocking it, or guiding it in a particular direction Gestalt Psychology: stresses the fact that people perceive objects not by means of some automatic registering device, but by active, usually nonconscious interpretation of what the object represents as a whole - Ex. Kanizsa Triangle / Salvador Dali’s Slave Market Construal: an interpretation of or inference about the stimuli or situations people confront Schema: a knowledge structure consisting of any organized body of stored information - Schema captures the regularities of life and leads us to have certain expectations we can rely on, so we don’t have to invent the word anew all the time Stereotype: a belief that certain attributes are characteristics of members of a particular group The mind processes information in two ways when you encounter a social situation - Automatic/Nonconscious o Often based on emotional factors o Give rise to implicit attitudes and beliefs that can’t be readily controlled by the conscious mind - Conscious/Systematic o Often controlled by careful thought o Results in explicit attitudes and beliefs of which we are aware – though these may become implicit or nonconscious over time Functions of nonconscious processing - Efficiency Theory of Mind: the ability to recognize that other people have beliefs and desires - People with autism can have normal or even superior intellectual functioning, but less comprehension of people’s beliefs and desires Parental Investment: the evolutionary principle that costs and benefits are associated with reproduction and the nurturing of offspring. Because these costs and benefits are different for males and females, one gender will normally value and invest more in each child than will the other Naturalistic Fallacy: the claim that the way things are is the way they should be Social Neuroscience: focus on the neural underpinnings of social behavior - Heavy utilization of fMRI Cultural and Gender Roles - Cultural differences go far deeper than beliefs and values – they extend all the way to the level of fundamental form of self-perception and social existence, and even to the perceptual and cognitive processes people use to develop new thoughts and beliefs Hindsight Bias: people’s tendency to be overconfident about whether they could have predicted a given outcome Hypothesis: a prediction about what will happen under particular circumstances Theory: a body of related propositions intended to describe some aspect of the world (more general than hypothesis) Observational Research: research can be a matter of merely looking at a phenomenon in some reasonably systematic way, with a view to understand what’s going on and coming up with hypotheses about why things are happening as they are - Participant observation: involves observing some phenomenon at close range - Observations are often misleading, so any tentative conclusions gleaned from observation should ideally be tested using other methods Archival Research: research can be conducted without ever leaving the library by looking at evidence found in archives of various kinds to come up with a hypothesis Survey: can be conducted using either interviews or written questions Random Sampling: allows capturing a more accurate proportion of given types of people in the population as a whole Convenience Samples: can product proportions that are severely skewed away from the actual proportions in the population as a whole Correlational Research: psychologists simply determine whether a relationship exists between two or more variables Third Variable: a variable that exerts a causal influence on both variable 1 and 2 Self-Selection: the investigator has no control over the level of a particular participant’s score on a given variable - Correlational research usually can’t provide convincing evidence that there is a causal relationship because of the possibility of self-selection Experimental Research: enable investigators to make strong inferences about how different situations or conditions affect people’s behavior - Best way to be sure about causality Independent Variable: hypothesized to be the cause of a particular outcome Dependent Variable: hypothesized to be affected by manipulation of the IV Random assignment: ensures that participants are as likely to be assigned to one condition as to another Control condition: comparable to the experimental condition in every way except that it lacks the one ingredient hypothesized to produce the expected effect on the dependent variable Natural Experiment: events occur that the investigator believes to have causal implications of some outcome? External Validity: an indication of how well the results of a study generalize to contexts besides those of the study itself Field Experiment: conducted in the real world, usually with participants who are not aware they are in a study of any kind – one of the best ways to ensure external validity Internal Validity: confidence that only the manipulated variable could have produced the results - Researchers can help ensure that their experimental design meets the criteria for internal validity by debriefing participants in pilot studies, which are preliminary versions of the experiment Debriefing: may involve directly asking participants whether they understand the instructions and whether they find the setup to be reasonable Reliability: the degree to which the particular way researchers measure a given variable is likely to yield consistent results Measurement Validity: the correlation between some measures and some outcome the measure is supposed to predict Regression to the Mean: the tendency for extreme scores to be followed by , or to accompany, less extreme scores Statistical Significant: if the probability of obtaining the finding by chance is less than 0.5, and it is primarily due to two factors - The size of the difference between groups in an experiment or the size of a relationship between variables in a correlational study? - The number of cases the finding is based on Basic Science: science or research concerned with trying to understand some phenomenon in its own right, with a view toward using that understanding to build valid theories about the nature of some aspect of the world Applied Science: concerned with solving important real world problems Replication: the reproducing of research results by the original investigator or by someone else Institutional Review Board (IRB): approve research conducted at universities Deception Research: research in which the participants are misled about the purpose of the research or the meaning of something that is done to them Social Cognition: depends first of all on information Snap Judgment: there is a high correlation between judgments made at leisure and those made under time pressure Pluralistic Ignorance: misperception of a group norm that results from observing people who are acting at variance with their private beliefs out of a concern for the social consequences Self-Fulfilling Prophecies: the tendency for people to act in ways that bring about the very thing they expect to happen Ideological Distortion: a desire to foster certain beliefs or behaviors Distortions in the service of entertainment: overemphasis on bad news Bad-News Bias: lead people to believe they are more at risk of victimization than they really are Primacy Effect: the disproportionate influence on judgment by information presented first in a body of evidence Recency Effect: the disproportionate influence on judgment by information presented last in a body of evidence Framing Effects: the way information is presented - Order effect is one type Spin Framing: framing effect that varies the content, not just the order, of what is presented - Because negative information tends to attract more attention and have greater psychological impact than positive information, information framed in negative terms tends to elicit a stronger response Temporal Framing: we think about actions and events within a particular time perspective Construal Level Theory: a theory about the relationship between psychological distance and abstract or concrete thinking - We tend to think of distant events in abstract terms, and of events close at hand in concrete terms Confirmation Bias: tendency of people seeking out evidence that would support the proposition rather than information that would contradict the proposition – often unconsciously Motivated Confirmation Bias: people deliberately search for evidence that supports their preferences of expectations Bottom-Up Processes: data driven mental processing, in which an individual forms conclusions based on the stimuli encountered in the environment Top-Down Processes: theory driven mental processing, in which an individual filters and interprets new information in light of preexisting knowledge and expectation Schemas: direct our attention, structure our memories, and influence our interpretation Priming: the presentation of information designed to activate a concept and hence make it accessible - it will influence one’s behavior to be consistent with the stereotype unconsciously - however, activating an extreme example of the stereotyped group led participants to perform in a manner inconsistent with the stereotype Recent Activation: if a schema has been brought to mind recently, it tends to be more accessible and hence ready for use Frequent Activation and Chronic Accessibility? Consciousness of Activation: the schemas can be primed even when the presentation of the activating stimuli is subliminal? Subliminal Stimuli: stimuli that’s below the threshold of conscious awareness Heuristics: intuitive mental operations, performed quickly and automatically, that provide efficient answers to common problems of judgment Availability Heuristic: we rely on it when we judge the frequency or probability of some event by how readily pertinent instances come to mind - it’s important to distinguish the ease of retrieval from amount retrieved – the amount retrieved has a great effect on our judgment Fluency: the feeling of ease or difficult associate with processing information - the feeling of disfluency while processing information leads people to slow down and be more careful in making judgments and decisions Representativeness Heuristic: we use it when we try to categorize something by judging how similar it is to our conception of the typical member of the category Base-Rate Information: information about the relative frequency of events of members of different categories in a population Planning Fallacy: the tendency for people to be unrealistically optimistic about how quickly they can complete a particular project, even when fully aware that they have often failed to complete similar projects on time in the past Illusory Correlation: the joint effect of availability and repetitiveness heuristic creating the belief that two variables are correlated when in fact they are not Anchoring and Adjustment: people make judgment by using a suggested reference point, “an anchor” and make adjustments to reach an estimate Regression Effect: the statistical tendency, when two variables are imperfectly correlated, for extreme values on one of them to be associated with less extreme values on the other Regression Fallacy: the failure to recognize the influence of the regression effect and to offer a causal theory for what is really a simple statistical regularity Causal Attribution: how people understand why others, as well as themselves, behave the way they do – linking an event to a cause Attribution Theory: a set of concepts explaining how people assign causes to the events around them and the effects of people’s causal assessments Explanatory Style: a person’s habitual way of explaining events, typically assessed along three dimensions - internal/external - stable/unstable - global/specific - An explanation that mentions an internal cause implicates the self, but an external cause does not. / a stable cause implies that things will never change, whereas an unstable cause implies that things may improve/ a global cause is something that affects many areas of life while a specific cause applies to only a few Gender and Attributional Style? Covariation Principle: the idea that behavior should be attributed to potential causes that occur along with the observed behavior - Consensus - Distinctiveness - Consistency - Situational attribution – high consensus, distinctiveness, consistency - Dispositional attribution – low consensus and distinctiveness with high consistency Discounting Principle: the idea that people should assign reduced weight to a particular cause of behavior if other plausible causes might have produced it Augmentation Principle: the idea that people should assign greater weight to a particular cause of behavior if other causes are present that normally would produce a difference outcome Counterfactual Thoughts: thoughts of what might have, could have, or should have happened if only something had occurred differently - The most common determinants on whether a counterfactual event seems like it almost happened are time and distance - Another determinant of how easy it is to imagine an event not happening is whether it resulted from a routine action or a departure from the norm Emotional Amplification: an increase in an emotional reaction to an event that is proportional to how easy it is to imagine the event not happening Self-Serving Attribution Bias: the tendency to attribute failure and other bad events to external circumstances, and to attribute success and other good events to oneself Fundamental Attribution: the failure to recognize the importance of situational influences on behavior, and the corresponding tendency to overemphasize the importance of dispositions on behavior Just World Hypothesis: the belief that people get what they deserve in life and deserve what they get Perceptual Salience: how much the cause stands out perceptually Actor-Observer Difference: a difference in attribution based on who is making the causal assessment – the actor or the observer Culture and Attribution - Asians and Westerners differ in how much attention they give to context, even when perceiving inanimate objects - Americans were better at the absolute judgment, which required ignoring the context, whereas Asians were better at the relative judgment, which required paying attention to the context Social Class and Attribution: lower-class or working-class individuals resemble individuals from interdependent cultures in their attributional tendencies Fixed or Flexible Dispositions: Asians considered personalities to be more changeable than the Americans did. The belief in the flexibility of personality is consistent with the view that behavior is substantially influenced by external factors From Lecture Social Psychology: the study of individuals, and their thoughts, feelings, desire/motives, and behaviors within social contexts using scientific methodology Central Themes in Social Psychology - People Construct Their Own Reality: everyone has their own interpretation - Social Influence is Pervasive and Often Invisible - Motivational Principles o Need for understanding and control (need for accuracy) o Need to feel good about themselves o Need for connectedness and belonging Formulating Hypothesis: states a prediction about the relationship between 2 variables Correlational Research Designs: the strength of the relationship between 2 variables that vary in quantity or amount Correlatird doesn’t mean causation because potential - 3 Variable - Reverse Causality Advantages of Correlational Research - Allow assessing behavior in everyday life - Allow studying variables that can’t be manipulated - Serves as a first step Conceptual Definition: variables of interest Operational Definition: translations of conceptual variables Mind the Gap: the gap between conceptual and operational definition Internal Validity: refers to degree to which one can be sure that IV causes DV in experiment - High internal validity requires high control and random assignment External Validity: extent to which results can be generalized to other situations and people Trade-Off: increasing external validity is often associated with decreasing internal validity Types of Schemas: - Types of groups of people - Traits - Situations - Ourselves - Objects Basic Characteristics of Schemas: - we have schemas for most of what we’ve encountered in our lives - schemas are functional - variations within individuals in the nature of schemas - variations between individuals in the nature of schemas Effects of Schema - influence memory and attention - allow filling in the gaps (making inferences) - shape interpretations of ambiguous information - speed up processing of information and making of judgment Availability: schemas can only be used if they are available Accessibility: the more accessible a schema, the more likely it will be activated - temporary: accessibility that arises from a recent event in the environment - chronic: accessibility that arises from the frequent past activation of a schema Applicability: relevance or “fit” of a schema to the to-be-interpreted info Schema Maintenance: 4 confirmation biases - primacy effect - perseverance effect: tendency to maintain one’s beliefs even after they have been discredited - confirmatory hypothesis testing: tendency to selectively seek info that confirms our beliefs - self-fulfilling prophecy How can our impressions be changed? - Debiasing instructions - Increasing the cost of being wrong - Accountability - Outcome dependency Two Key Dimensions - Motivation - Ability Automatic vs Controlled Thinking - Automatic thinking: top-down (schema-driven) o Nonconscious o Effortless o Unintentional o Involuntary - Controlled thinking: bottom-up (data-driven) - Controlled thinking when first learning/ automatic thinking after awhile Langer: Mindless Behavior - Behavior is often mindlessly enacted, guided by scripts - Mindful behavior occurs when the script is somehow inadequate for the situation Bargh: Automatic Social Behavior - Social behavior is often triggered by mere presence of relevant situational features What functions do attributions serve? - Help predict and control environment - Help determine thoughts, feelings and behaviors - Influence expectations for future - Impact on own performance When do we make attributions? - Unexpected - Negative Fritz Heider: 2 basic types of attributions - Internal/personal attributions - External/situational attributions Jones & Davis: correspondent inference theory (CIT) - we often infer that behaviors correspond to the people who engage in them (internal attribution) - look for cues indicating whether behavior is or is not due to the person (checking if the correspondent inference is warranted) - cues that people are looking for o social desirability: if socially undesirable, internal attribution is more likely) o choice: if there are choices, internal attribution is more likely o social role: if incongruent with the role, internal attribution is more likely From Articles They Saw a Game by Hastorf & Cantril - IV – attend Princeton vs attend Dartmouth - DV – perceived fairness - Internal validity concerns o Participants from both schools were undergrads o All Ps viewed identical video clips and answered identical survey questions - External o Good psychological realism o Need to generalize to non-game situations and other populations - Conclusions o The game was viewed differently to make one’s home team appear more favorable o Differences in attitudes and beliefs begin early (before the game even began) – at perception of events - Limitations o Uncontrolled, individual differences between participant samples (fraternities vs clubs) o Is there something unique about football games and football spectators? § Really competitive § Really investing in the teams o Pressures to respond in a certain way? § Taking the survey in the school may result in pressure to favor the home team Automaticity of Social Behavior: Direct Effects of Trait Construct and Stereotype Activation on Action by Bargh - Focus: effects of priming on the individual’s subsequent impressions of others - Conduct 3 experiments o #1: IV: primed rudeness / DV: frequency of interruption o #2: IV: primed with elderly stereotype/ DV: walk more slowly o #3: IV: primed with African American stereotype/ DVL level of aggressiveness - Conclusion: social behavior can be triggered automatically by features of the environment Situational Salience and Cultural Differences in the Correspondence Bias and Actor-Observer Bias by Choi - Conclusion o when the situational constraints were made salient, Korean participants, unlike American participants, were able to recognize their influence on behavior o Koreans were less prone to the actor-observer bias than the American participants
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