Crm 4323 Exam 1 Study Guide
Crm 4323 Exam 1 Study Guide Crm 4323
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Juliane Notetaker on Monday September 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Crm 4323 at Mississippi State University taught by Dr. Ashley Perry in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 99 views. For similar materials see Victimology in CRIMINOLOGY at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 09/26/16
Chapter 1: The Scope of Victimology Glossary o Agent provocateur: Von Hentig’s notion of the victim in the book The Criminal and His Victim o Criminalvictim dyad: Von Hentig’s key ingredient of what makes a person a victim o Critical victimology: defined by Mawby and Walklate as“an attempt to examine the wider social context in which some versions of victimology have become more dominant than others and also to understand how those versions of victimology are interwoven with questions of policy response and service delivery to victims of crime” (1994: 21). o Deterrence: preventing future offenses o Gemeinschaft: the type of society that had close relationships, that “could rely on the individual to handle his or her own problems” (Doerner & Lab, p.5). o General victimology: the study of victims that can include, “a criminal, one’s self, the social environment, technology, and the natural environment” (Doerner & Lab, p.15). o Gesellschaft: the type of society that was less personal, that shifted focus “from making the victim whole to dealing with the criminal” (Doerner & Lab, p.5). o Lex talionis: a response system that follows the principle, “an eye for an eye” o Mala in se: “totally unacceptable behavior” (Doerner & Lab, p.4). o Restitution: “making payment in an amount sufficient to render the victim whole again” (Doerner & Lab, p.4). o Retribution: “the offender would suffer in proportion to the degree of harm caused by his or her actions” (Doerner & Lab, p.4). o Typology: “an effort to categorize observations into logical groupings to reach a better understanding of our social world” (McKinney, 1950, 1969). o Victim compensation: “state payments made to crime victims” (Doerner & Lab, p.19). o Victim precipitation: “the degree to which the victim is responsible for his or her own victimization” (Doerner & Lab, p.10). Summary o The Victim Throughout History Victims dealt with the offenders themselves through: Retribution Restitution Lex talionis The system of victims dealing with their offenders lasted until the end of the Middle Ages o The Reemergence of the Victim Most of the time, the criminal justice system is trying to control criminals When the victim reemerged, they were not people who needed sympathy, but people who brought their victimization on themselves o The Work of Hans von Hentig: The Criminal and His Victim Hans von Hentig was a German scholar and an “early pioneer in victimology” (Doerner & Lab, p.6). He wondered what made a criminal “predisposed to being a criminal” and what “made the victim a victim” (Doerner & Lab, p.7). o The Work of Beniamin Mendelsohn: Further Reflections Considered to be the father of victimology (Doerner & Lab, p.8). His victim types ranged from completely innocent victims to more guilty than the offender o The Work of Stephen Schafer: The Victim and His Criminal He focused on how culpable the victim was o Empirical Studies of Victim Precipitation Victim precipitation is either passive or active o The Work of Marvin E. Wolfgang: Patterns in Criminal Homicide Factors of victimprecipitated homicide: Prior interpersonal relationship Small disagreement that causes the situation to escalate Alcohol o The Work of Menachem Amir: Patterns in Forcible Rape Factors of victimprecipitated rape: Alcohol Revealing clothing Bad reputation and language Wrong place, wrong time Not saying “no” strongly enough o A New Approach: General Victimology General victimology includes victims of: “A criminal One’s self The social environment Technology The natural environment” (Doerner & Lab, p.15). o Critical Victimology What is most important, is “the issue of how and why certain actions are defined as criminal” and “how the entire field of victimology becomes focused on one set of actions instead of another” (Doerner & Lab, p.16 17). o The Victim Movement Movements that happened simultaneously: Women’s movement Children’s rights Concerns over growing crime Victim compensation Legal reforms o The Women’s Movement Arguments were mainly about rape and sexual assault Led to: Rape crisis centers Battered women shelters Counseling for abused women and children o Children’s Rights Shelters were created for abused children Runaway shelters were built in large cities o The Growing Crime Problem Led to: Systematic victimization surveys Suggestions for the means of alleviating the pain and loss of victims Community programs created to provide victim services Calls for involving victims further in the criminal justice system o Victim Compensation New Zealand was the first to pass the compensation legislation in the year 1963 (Doerner & Lab, p.19). The United States victim compensation establishment: California (1965) New York (1966) Hawaii (1967) Massachusetts (1968) o Legal Reforms The intent of legal reforms is to protect the victim’s “background and character in court proceedings” (Doerner & Lab, p.20). Chapter 2: Measuring Criminal Victimization Glossary o Dark figure of crime: the amount of crime that is not reported to the authorities o Event dependency: (boost explanations) “situations in which the same offender commits another offense based on the past experiences with that victim or location” (Gill & Pease, 1998). o Forward record check: where researchers check police records for a written report after questioning participants in a victim survey o Grayarea events: “a victimization that does not conform to the usual common stereotype” (Doerner & Lab, p.39). o Hot spots: “small places in which the occurrence of crime is so frequent that it is highly predictable” (Sherman, 1995: 36). o Household respondent: a person who “relays information about crimes committed against all members of his or her household” (Doerner & Lab, p.35). o Incidence data: “the total number of offenses that are reported in the same period” (Doerner & Lab, p.44). o Memory decay: “when respondents were victimized during the survey time frame, but forgot the event and did not provide the correct answer to the question” (Doerner & Lab, p.33). o Moverstayer problem: sampling that is “built on the residence, not the individual” (Doerner & Lab, p.36). If new tenants moved in, they would be part of the sample for the study period. o Near repeat: “one in which a neighbor may be victimized in the same or a similar way as the initial victim” (Johnson & Bowers, 2005). o Panel design: a design that “surveys the same group of households or respondents at regular intervals over a period of time” (Doerner & Lab, p.3536). o Part I Offenses: (Index offenses) that consist of aggravated assault, forcible rape, murder, robbery, arson, burglary, larcenytheft, and motor vehicle theft (Doerner & Lab, p.27). o Part II Offenses: consist of simple assault, public intoxication, disorderly conduct, DUIs, embezzlement, fraud, gambling, prostitution, and other offenses. o Personal offenses: Part I offenses that “consist of murder, forcible rape, robbery, and aggravated assault” (Doerner & Lab, p.27). o Prevalence data: “the number of individuals who experience victimization over a period of time” (Doerner & Lab, p.44). o Property offenses: Part I offenses that “consist of burglary, larcenytheft, motor vehicle theft, and arson” (Doerner & Lab, p.27). o Repeat victimization: “the repeated occurrence of crime involving either the same victim or the same location” (Doerner & Lab, p.43). o Risk heterogeneity: (flag explanations) “the prior victimization or some other factor identifies the victim or location as an appropriate target for further victimization” (Gill & Pease, 1998). o Reverse record check: victims were located using police files, then contacted o Screen questions: “inquires that probe possible victimization experiences” (Dodge, 1985). o Selfrespondent: “a person who reports victimization incidents for him or herself” (Doerner & Lab, p.35). o Series victimizations: “six or more similar but separate crimes which the victim is unable to recall individually or describe in detail to an interviewer” (Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2003). o Telescoping: “when respondents mistakenly bring criminal events that occurred outside the time frame into the survey period” (Doerner & Lab, p.33). o Victimization survey: people are contacted and questioned on whether or not they have been the victim of a crime o Virtual repeat: “a followup victimization of a similar person, place, or item” (Farrell 2010; Pease, 1998). Summary o Official Police Reports Uniform Crime Reports Crime data is collected annually throughout the country Has been operational since 1931 Categorizes data into Part I and Part II offenses Problems with the UCR include: o Dark figure of crime o Hierarchy rule o Little information of victims and offenders Supplemental Homicide Reports Gives information on the victim and offender National IncidentBased Reporting System This system does not have the hierarchy rule and collects data on all offenses that take place during the crime More effective courses of action can be taken based on the information from the data collected with this system o Victimization Surveys FirstGeneration Victim Surveys National Opinion Research Center (NORC) survey o Uncovered more data on various crimes than the UCR o Issues included: Telescoping Memory decay Respondents that were selected SecondGeneration Victim Surveys Recall Problems o Ways to test accuracy include: Reverse record checks Forward record checks Panel designs Respondent Concerns o Selfrespondent vs household respondent Selfrespondents had less issues with recall Third Generation Victim Surveys National Crime Survey (NCS) o Was conducted over a period of three years o The main problem was the moverstayer problem Business Victimization Survey o Used to determine level of risk from businesses City Surveys o Surveys were conducted on both residents and businesses FourthGeneration Victim Surveys National Crime Victimization Surveys (NCVS) o Half of those interviewed were given the old questions o The other half were given new screen questions o Issues with this survey include: Bounding Difficulty examining subgroups o Redesign with the survey involved moving to computer assisted telephone interviews (CATI) This skipped questions when necessary CATIs also eliminated the problem of “miscoded data” (Doerner & Lab, p.39). o Crime Surveys Outside the United States These surveys were conducted in: The Netherlands Zurich, Switzerland Stuttgart, Germany Britain o British Crime Survey (BCS) Chapter 3: Explaining Victimization Glossary o Ageism: “stereotyping of older individuals and treating them differently because of their age” (Hudson, 1988). o Culture conflict: “by following one set of cultural (or subcultural) practices, the individual is violating the proscriptions of another culture” (Doerner & Lab, p.66). o Cycle of violence: begins with children witnessing their parents committing violent acts and committing violent acts themselves when they grow up o Differential association theory: the theory that “argues that most learning comes from interpersonal contacts that vary in frequency, duration, priority, and intensity” (Doerner & Lab, p.60). o Differential distribution of violent crime rates: “the fact that murder rates are not uniformly dispersed throughout time and space” (Doerner & Lab, p.67). o Differential identification: “personal contact is not necessary for the transmission of behavioral guidelines” (Doerner & Lab, p.60). o Egoistic: man “requires satisfaction in his endeavors in order to be happy” (Durkheim, 1933). o General strain theory: Agnew’s proposal that “strain can come from several sources” (1992). o Golden hour: “the time period in which seriously injured people need medical attention if they are to survive” (Doerner & Lab, p.70). o Index of Southernness: Gastil’s attempt to trace “migration patterns out of the South to see how state murder rates mirrored settlement origins” (1971). o Learned helplessness: “a belief that she is not in charge of the world around her and she cannot change the flow of events” (Doerner & Lab, p.64). o Masochism: “a desire to suffer” (Doerner & Lab, p.64). o Modeling: a form of learning theory that “suggests that people learn by copying or imitating the behavior of others” (Doerner & Lab, p.59). o Patriae potestas: belief of the ancient Romans that “fathers had the right to sell, kill, or allow their progeny to continue to live” (Thomas, 1972). o Patriarchy: “structured inequality that portrays women as inferior and lacking in social power” (Hunnicut, 2009). o Polyvictimization: “that maltreated children often fall prey to multiple forms, rather than a single type, of abuse and/or neglect” (Doerner & Lab, p.62). o Psychopathology: “mental imbalances within the offenders” (Doerner & Lab, p.50). o Regional culture of violence: “the idea of subcultures has taken particular hold in discussions of homicide and assaultive behavior” involving the higher rates of homicide and assault in the southern region of the United States (Doerner & Lab, p.67). o Role reversal: “the parent and the child swap positions and take on new roles” (Doerner & Lab, p.53). o Routine activities/lifestyle model: “an individual’s choice of behavior (i.e., lifestyle) influences the chances of becoming a victim” (Doerner & Lab, p.55). o “sick but slick” parents: child abusers who “go to great lengths to project an image of themselves as normal parents” (Doerner & Lab, p.52). o Social exchange theory: “parties interact appropriately as long as both sides receive something in the exchange and each side feels that the other is treating him or her fairly” (Galbraith, 1989). o Structural Poverty Index: “variables such as high infant mortality, low education, and low income” (Gastil, 1971). o Subculture of violence: approach posited by Wolfgang and Ferracuti that “problems are solved through the use of violence” (1967). o Symbolic interactionism: “proposes that every individual develops his or her selfimage through a process of interaction with the surrounding world” (Mead, 1934). o Trauma: “in the medical sense, refers to any physical injury, without concern for the origin of the damage” (Doerner & Lab, p.69). Summary o Intraindividual Theories These theories try to determine the cause of deviant behavior Factors that cause interpersonal violence (IPV): Stress Depression Low selfesteem o Symbolic Interactionism Observing interactions between two or more people Shows how roles change over time (role reversal) o Routine Activities/Lifestyle Model How an individual’s behavior affects how likely they are to be victimized Useful for explaining personal and property offenses o Sociocultural Explanations “frequently focus on the traditional roles of males, females and children in society” (Doerner & Lab, p.57). Patriarchy Rape “an offense of power—a tool that enables men to exert power and control over women” (Doerner & Lab, p.57). Child maltreatment Fathers could do whatever they wanted to children, “children were looked at as family property” (Doerner & Lab, p.58). Lasted until the Industrial Revolution o Learning Theory Learning theories that are applied to crime: Modeling Differential association Differential identification Media and Violence There has been a lot of debate involving the impact of media violence and violent behavior o Some argue that the media influences such behavior o Others argue that it does not influence violent behavior Learning Abuse in the Family Polyvictimization Cycle of violence Learned Helplessness The three components of learned helplessness: o Information a person has about what will happen o Perception of what will happen o Behavior toward the event o Subcultural Theory In this perspective, delinquency occurs from following subcultural norms (culture conflict) Alternative cultural differences A reason for aggravated battery not leading to homicide is due to timely medical attention o Golden hour, the time that an injured person needs medical attention to survive o Situational Explanations Strain Theory “deviance as a direct result of a social situation that places value on achievement but fails to provide the access to legitimate means for being successful” (Doerner & Lab, p.71). Sources of strain: o Inability to achieve social goals o Removal of desired stimuli o Being faced with negative stimuli Stress “Some observers see stress as a leading cause of abuse and neglect” (Phillips, 1986). Social Isolation Not having social support can lead to more stress Social Exchange A caregiver may resent that their service is not being repaid Chapter 4: The Costs of Victimization Glossary o Costbenefit analysis: when victims “see exacerbated costs accruing from system participation” (Doerner & Lab, p.91). o Doublevictimization: the costs that victims sustain from both “the hands of their criminals and then by participating in the criminal justice system” (Doerner & Lab, p.93). o Intangible costs: “pain and suffering, psychological impacts, and reduced quality of life” (Doerner & Lab, p.87). Summary o The First Insult: Criminal Victimization Victims dealt with: Physical injury Property loss Emotional pain Economic Losses Tangible costs Intangible costs Hundreds of dollars are lost due to property crime Noneconomic Costs Consequences of victimization o Victims might not have insurance o Emotional consequences o Loss of a sense of security in both home and society Victims lose time to repair damage from victimization Consequences of citizens’’ fear: o High blood pressure o Anxiety o Rapid heartbeat Societal/System Costs These costs include: o Medical costs due to victim injuries o Intangible costs o Costs that used to investigate, arrest, prosecute, adjudicate and punish offenders (Doerner & Lab, p.87). o The Second Insult: System Participation “The system extracts further costs as soon as people enter the halls of justice” (Doerner & Lab, p.90). Victims had to tell their stories repeatedly and with the offender in the same room. In the end, they feel angry and frustrated Chapter 5: Remedying the Financial Impact of Victimization Glossary o Civil restitution lien: “the sentencing court, at the request of the victim, levies a claim against any real or personal property the convicted offender currently possesses or may come to own” (Doerner & Lab, p.97). o Contributory misconduct: “victims must not share any criminal responsibility for the event” (Doerner & Lab, p.112). o Defendant: offender o “Good Samaritan” provisions: “a person who is hurt or killed during an attempt to prevent a crime from taking place or while attempting to capture a suspected criminal is entitled to compensation” (Doerner & Lab, p.111). o Macrolevel effects: “a change in some group or organizational characteristic” (Doerner & Lab, p.114). o Microlevel effects: “any changes in a person” (Doerner & Lab, p.115). o Monetarycommunity restitution: “payment by the offender to the community rather than to the actual victim” (Doerner & Lab, p.98). o Monetaryvictim restitution: “offender makes direct monetary repayment to the victim for the actual amount of harm or losses incurred” (Doerner & Lab, p.98). o Offender restitution: “the transfer of services or money from the offender to the victim for damages inflicted by the offender” (Doerner & Lab, p.96). o Outcome evaluations: “studies that look at the impact of restitution on victims and offenders” (Doerner & Lab, p.100). o Plaintiff: victim o Process evaluations: “the emphasis was on the number of offenders handled, the amount of time participants took to make restitution, the completion rate for restitution orders” (Doerner & Lab, p.99). o Servicecommunity restitution: the perpetrator is required “to perform a specified number of hours or types of service (or both) in lieu of making cash payments” (Doerner & Lab, p.99). o Servicevictim restitution: the perpetrator is required “to perform a specified number of hours or types of service (or both) in lieu of making cash payments” (Doerner & Lab, p.99). o Social contract: the government is responsible for “the safety and wellbeing of its citizens” (Doerner & Lab, p.110). o Social welfare: “government attempts to provide a minimum standard of living for its disabled, deprived, and unfortunate citizens” (Deorner & Lab, p.110). o Source of last resort: “all other avenues for compensation must be exhausted before compensation benefits are forthcoming” (National Association of Crime Victim Compensation Boards, 2007). o Thirdparty civil suit: “a victim sues a government entity, business, or corporation, such as a landlord, the managing corporation of a shopping center, or any other responsible body” (Carrington, 1981; Castillo et al., 1979). o Tort: “a wrongful act that the defendant has committed against the plaintiff” (Doerner & Lab, p.103). o Victim compensation: when the state “reimburses the victim for losses sustained at the hands of the criminal” (Doerner & Lab, p.107). Summary o Offender Restitution Before a formal system was created, victims had to deal with their offenders themselves Restitution laws were outlined in: Code of Hammurabi Justinian Code Now judges “make offender restitution a mandatory part of sentencing unless there are extraordinary circumstances to suggest otherwise” (Doerner and Lab, p.97). The Rationale for Restitution Involves victims’ needs Can hopefully deter offenders from committing crimes Types of Restitution Monetaryvictim restitution Monetarycommunity restitution Servicevictim restitution Servicecommunity restitution Problems and Concerns with Restitution Victim’s failure to request compensation Inability of offenders to pay restitution Calculating the loss and the appropriate level of restitution o Civil Litigation Advantages: Civil action can still be taken even if the offender is not found guilty Offenders cannot refuse to testify Disadvantages Victims are not aware that they have the option to file a civil suit Victims may not know how to contact an attorney that knows how to handle civil suits Victims suffer more damage Offenders may not have the income to pay the victim with o Private Insurance A way to alleviate losses caused by crime o Victim Compensation Federal efforts in the US began in 1964 Victims of Crime Act (VOCA) Put money into state compensation programs Helped “standardize state crime compensation laws” (Doerner & Lab, p.110) Compensable Acts Programs restrict compensation to three categories of victims: o Personal injury victims o “Good Samaritans” o Anyone injured while trying to aid law enforcement Eligibility Restrictions Contributory misconduct Concerns of how available other forms of assistance are Awards Crime compensation covers: o Lost wages o Medical bills o Prosthetics o Mental health counseling o Forensic medical examinations Funding o Funding can come from: Taxes Fine levied on offenders Offender restitution payments to the state o Does Victim Compensation Work? It “amounts to an economic incentive that serves to entice the victim back into the legal process” (Doerner & Lab, p.114). Microlevel effects Compensated victims were more satisfied than noncompensated victims
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