Anth1101 UGA ANTH 1102
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This 24 page Study Guide was uploaded by das39735 Notetaker on Monday September 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANTH 1102 at University of Georgia taught by Jason James Gonzalez in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Intro to Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 09/26/16
Exam 2 Short Answer: 1. Give me the anthropological definition for race and tell me how it is different form ethnicity. a. Race is a classification of people based on presumed biological similarities. Ethnicity is selfidentification or identification by others with an ethnic group based on culture, history, and genealogy. Ethnicity can change, race cannot. 2. Name and explain behavior difference between humans and non human apes. a. Sharing and cooperation because this is in a humans nature. The humans are the most cooperative species as shown by the fact that we are the only species that takes care of our elderly. 3. Talk about the four trends of Hominin evolution. a. Bipedalism walking on two feet b. Material culture things that are made by humans and have meaning and cultural value c. Dental changes due to dietary changes d. Increase in cranial capacity 4. What are the three most important factors that explain the Neolithic changes leading to domestication and Sedentism in different parts of the world a. Human sociability b. Population pressure c. Changes in environment 5. Archaeologists have given at least five different theories about why and how complex societies arose. Please briefly describe and name one of those theories and give the name of a specific culture that fits the theory. a. The Hydraulic system created irrigation canals to create more arable land to support a larger growing population. A civilization that did this is Rome. Bonus What is the racial term for Native Americans on the Canadian census? Aboriginals What is the full taxonomic classification for modern humans, starting with order? Primate – Anthropoid – Catarrhines – Hominoid – Hominid – Hominin – Homo – Sapien – Sapien Name all Hominin species that are direct ancestors of atomically modern humans, starting with 1 st Australopithecine. Australopithecus anamensis A. Afarensis A. harhi Homo habilis Homo erectus – Homo sapiens Multiple Choice 1. Writing never developed among the early states in Mesoamerica, so there is no reliable archaeological evidence that records these states’ histories. a. False 2. What is the most likely explanation of why early Homo left Africa and spread into Eurasia a. The pursuit of meat 3. Fossils of Australopithecus afarensis are particularly significant because a. stey comprise the 1 fossil evidence to confirm that bipedalism preceded the evolution of a human like brain 4. Indigenous highlanders living in the Andean Altiplano in South America, in the Tibetan plateau in Asia, and the highest elevations of the Ethiopian highlands in East Africa have all adapted to living in an environment of oxygen thin air. Researchers found that. a. Each population has evolved its own distinctly different biological adaption to this 5. Which of the following did NOT directly result from the increase in agricultural economies and the rise of domestication in the Middle East during the Neolithic: a. Sedentism 6. Which of the following statements about the appearance of Homo Habilis is true? a. H. Habilis exhibits a relatively rapid expansion of cranial capacity 7. Australopithecus had at least five species a. A. Anamensis, A. Afarensis, A. Africanus, A. Rubustus, and A. Boisei 8. What is the name for the first state in Pakistan and western India? a. Harrappan Civilization 9. Which of the following is a major difference between Brazilian and American racial taxonomies? a. In the United States, social race is determined at birth and does not change, but Brazilian race can change from day to day. 10. Although there is evidence now that several human groups colonized the Americas, possibly using different routes, those that crossed over through Bering Land Bridge to reach the Americas did so a. By following herds of biggame animals (woolly mammoths, especially) 11. Which of the following statement about US racial categories is true? a. US racial categories are culturally arbitrary, even though most people assume them to be based in biology 12. Ethnicity means identification with a. And feeling part of a cultural tradition and exclusion from other cultural traditions 13. In the Middle East, Sedentism developed before plants and animals were domesticated a. True 14. Archaeological anthropologists excavate sites to gain a better understanding of the regional patterning of the molecular record. a. False 15. Which of the following primate traits are believed to have been selected for life in trees? a. Stereoscopic vision and an opposable thumb 16. Unlike the Old World, plant domestication in the New World a. Occurred before the first sedentary communities 17. There is much greater variation within each of the traditional so called races than between them a. True 18. Why were the Natufians (12,500010,500 BP) able to live in year round villages prior to the emergence of domestication? a. Because they could exploit their rich local environment with broad spectrum foraging. 19. Most Americans are extremely specific and precise about distinguishing between race and ethnicity a. False 20. Bipedalism, considered a key defining characteristic that differentiated early Hominins from other apes a. Perhaps developed in the woodlands but became even more adaptive in a Savanna habitat 21. Thor Heyerdahl proposed that Egyptians could have navigated to the New World & influenced the emergence of civilizations in the Americas. Erich von Daniken suggested that major human achievements had been borrowed from beings from outer space. What do these two views, both lacking credible scientific evidence, have in common”? a. Both take the position that major changes in ancient human lifestyle were the result of outside instruction or interference rather than the achievements of the natives of the places where the changes took place. 22. In trying to determine whether a fossil is a human ancestor, we should always look for traits that make us human today? a. False Exam 1 Short Answer: 1. Please describe the controversy explained and discussed in the articles by RootBernstein and McEchron and Freed as well as from our second inclass discussion. a. The controversy was whether evolution and creationism should be taught in schools. The controversy was over the fact that most wanted to keep a separation of church and state, or in this case schools wanted to put stickers in biology books to remind students that evolution is theory, not fact and this was deterring students from fully understanding evolution and the origin of humans b. What makes scientific theory c. Evolution is scientific theory, ID is not 2. Please give the anthropological definition of culture. What are some traits that define it for Anthropologists? a. The set of learned behaviors and ideas that humans acquire through being members of society. b. Learned, shared, symbolic, all encompassing, etc. 3. What is the purpose of cultural relativism as a method of Anthropology? a. Cultural relativism explains that the world is seen differently to different cultures. It attempts to explain what is seen as unexplainable. In order to understand a culture fully, we must first u understand how people in that culture see themselves. 4. Think about the connection between language and culture, briefly describe the relationship and provide an example of focal vocabulary that is focused on a single culture’s experience and/or activity. a. Through the sapirwhorf hypothesis the relationship is described as language affecting culture and vocabulary. b. Significance of a word is different c. “snow” – many words for it up north, only one down south 5. Name all the different parts of the Modern Synthesis of Evolution, which we now think of as the whole theory of evolution. a. Darwin Evolution b. Mendilian Genetics c. Biochemical genetics d. Population genetics e. Punctuated equilibrium Bonus Pretend you are a female college student at UGA and you are visiting your cousin and the University of Missouri. During your visit, you and your cousin to a Missouri football game and you dress to the nines for the game, wearing a dress, high heels or cowboy boots. Yet, at the game you become slightly embarrassed when you realized that everyone is wearing jeans and tshirts. At this point you realized that wearing dresses to a football game is which level of culture? Sub Culture Which culture was the historical example of extreme gender languages differing male and female languages were mutually unintelligible. Caribbean Sea Who, in addition of Charles Darwin, also came up with the idea for natural selection? Alfred Wallace Multiple choice 1. What is anthropology? a. The explanation of human diversity in time and space 2. What is the term for the ability to create new expressions by combining other experiences? a. Productivity 3. The tendency to view one’s own culture as superior and to use one’s own standards and values in judging others is called a. Ethnocentrism 4. Systematic survey and excavation a. Are the two major components of fieldwork in archeological anthropology 5. Linguistic stratification can occur between dialects when one is common? Picture cut off this word) as in the case with High German and Low German or with Standard and Black English Vernacular. a. True 6. Can’t see in picture 7. ________ refers to the specialized set of terms and distinctions that are particularly important to certain groups a. focal vocabulary 8. Natural selection is the process by which forms most fit to survive in a given environment do so in greater numbers than others in the same population. But more that surviving the fittest, natural selection is the natural process that leads to a. Differential reproductive success 9. Which of the following does NOT illustrate the kinds of work that applied anthropologists do? a. Borrowing from fields such as history and sociology to broaden theoretical anthropology 10. Practice theory recognizes that the study of anthropology takes a lot of practice, resulting in accurate descriptions of culture. a. False 11. Sapir and Whorf argued that the grammatical categories of different languages taught their speakers to think about things in particular ways. However studies on the differences between male and female Americans in regard to the color terms they use suggest that a. It is also correct to argue that changes in culture produce changes in language and thought as well. 12. What is the term for the kind of cultural change that results when two or more cultures have consistent firsthand contact? a. Acculturation 13. What role do the Medellin Genetic principles of recombination and independent assortment play in environment? a. They act to create genetic variability in a breeding population 14. All of the following is true about the work of paleoanthropologists EXCEPT that they a. Do not have to worry about ethical and legal concerns because the deal with the remains of dead humans. 15. What is the term for the variations in speech due to different contexts or situations a. Style shifting 16. The intelligent design (ID) movement asserts that forms are too complex to have been formed by natural processes and must therefore have been created by a higher intelligence. Attempts have been made to teach ID as an alternative theory to Darwinian evolution in biology classes in several states in the United States. a. As a Pennsylvania district judge ruled in a 2005 case, ID violates the ground rules of science by invoking supernatural causation and making assertions that cannot be tested or falsified, and thus does not belong in pubic school’s science curriculum. 17. As humans organize their lives and adapt to different environments, our abilities to learn, think symbolically, use language, and employ other tools and products a. Rest on certain features of human biology that make culture possible, although culture itself is not biological. 18. How are the four subfields of US anthropology unified? a. Each subfield studies human and genetic variation through time and space.
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