CHM 1046, Exam 1 Study Guide
CHM 1046, Exam 1 Study Guide CHM 1046
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Tara on Monday September 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CHM 1046 at Florida State University taught by B. DePrince in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views.
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Date Created: 09/26/16
CHM1046 Exam 1 Study Guide Concept Questions ▯ ▯ Chapter 11 ▯ 1. Physical Processes involve what type of forces? Chemical Processes involve what type of forces? ▯ ▯ 2. Identify the names of the following changes of states of matter: a. Solid to Liquid b. Solid to Gas c. Liquid to Solid d. Liquid to Gas e. Gas to Solid f. Gas to Liquid ▯ ▯ 3. What is the difference between physical and chemical processes? ▯ ▯ 4. Name the physical properties of matter that depend on the strength of Intermolecular forces? ▯ ▯ 5. Define what Viscosity is? Surface Tension? Vapor Pressure? ▯ ▯ 6. What physical properties are directly related to Intermolecular Forces? What physical properties of indirectly related? ▯ ▯ 7. Are Intramolecular forces stronger or weaker then intermolecular forces? ▯ ▯ 8. What are the different types of Intermolecular Forces in order from weakest to strongest? ▯ ▯ 9. Dipole Forces are between what types of molecules? ▯ ▯ 10. Explain hydrogen bonding. ▯ ▯ 11. Define polarizability. Polaritablity increase with what? ▯ ▯ 12. When vapor pressure equals externally applied pressure what happens to the liquid? ▯ ▯ 13. As temperature increase does vapor pressure increase or decrease? ▯ ▯ 14.What can a phase diagram tell you? ▯ ▯ 15. What is a triple point on a phase diagram? ▯ ▯ 16. What equation could you use to find the pressure exerted by a vapor if all the water is evaporated and you are given the following information: 10mL of water in a 5L flask at 25°C? ▯ ▯ 17. What is the Clausius-Clapeyron Equation? ▯ ▯ 18. What units does the pressure need to be when using the Clausius-Clapeyron Equation? ▯ ▯ 19. What do heating and cooling curves tell you? ▯ ▯ ▯ Chapter 12 ▯ 20. What is a solution? Solute? Solvent? ▯ ▯ 21. What is an aqueous solution? What can an aqueous solution be classified as? ▯ ▯ 22. How can you determine if an aqueous solution is electrolytic? ▯ ▯ 23. Define solubility ▯ ▯ 24. Define Concentration ▯ ▯ 25. How do you know if a solution is saturated, unsaturated, or supersaturated? ▯ ▯ 26. In general is solubility going to increase or decrease with an increase in temperature? ▯ ▯ 27. Would polar solutes be more soluble in a polar solvent or nonpolar solvent? Would nonpolar solutes be more soluble in a polar solvent or nonpolar solvent? Ionic solutes? ▯ ▯ 28. Which would be more soluble in water? Vitamin A Vitamin C ▯ ▯ 29. Does the solubility of a gas increase or decrease with an increase in temperature? ▯ ▯ 30. Does the solubility of a gas increase or decrease with an increase in partial pressure? ▯ ▯ 31. What is Henry’s Law? What does each part stand for? ▯ ▯ 32. What is Raoult’s Law? What does each part stand for? ▯ ▯ 33. What equation do you use when working with vapor pressure depression? ▯ ▯ 34. What equation do you use when working with Boiling Point Elevation? What does each part stand for? ▯ ▯ 35. What equation do you use when working with Freezing Point Depression? What does each part stand for? ▯ ▯ 36. What equation do you use when working with Osmotic Pressure? What does each part stand for? ▯ ▯ 37. What are some colligative properties of nonvolatile solutes? ▯ ▯ 38. Describe what an ideal solution is? ▯ ▯ 39. In a reaction, when two molecules are separating is this endothermic or exothermic? What about when two molecules are forming? ▯ ▯ 40. If ΔH is zero the solution is said to be what? If ΔH is greater than zero the solution is said to be what? If ΔH is less than zero the solution is said to be what ▯ ▯ 41. When looking at a vapor pressure curve, if there is a positive deviation is the solution endothermic or exothermic? What does this say about the intermolecular forces? ▯ ▯ 42. When looking at a vapor pressure curve, if there is a negative deviation is the solution endothermic or exothermic? What does this say about the intermolecular forces? ▯ ▯ ▯ Chapter 13 ▯ 43. What is the difference between thermodynamics and kinetics? ▯ ▯ 44. What is reaction rate? What are the typical units? ▯ ▯ 45. What is instantaneous rate? ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Concept Answers ▯ Chapter 11 ▯ 1. Intermolecular Forces; Intramolecular Forces ▯ ▯ 2. a. Melting, b. Sublimation, c. Freezing, d. Vaporization, e. Deposition, f. Condensation (Boiling) ▯ ▯ 3. Physical processes proceed without breaking or forming chemical bonds, whereas chemical processes involve the formation or destruction of chemical bonds ▯ ▯ 4. Boiling (Condensation) Points, Melting/freezing Points, Enthalpy of ▯ Transition, Viscosity, Surface Tension, and Vapor Pressure ▯ ▯ 5. Viscosity: A measure of resistance to flow ▯ Surface Tension: Energy required to stretch or increase surface ▯ areas ▯ Vapor Pressure: ▯ ▯ 6. Directly Related: Boiling point, melting point, enthalpy of transition, ▯ viscosity and surface tension ▯ Indirectly Related: Vapor Pressure ▯ ▯ 7.Intramolecular Forces are stronger then intermolecular forces ▯ ▯ 8. Dispersion Forces, Dipole Forces, Hydrogen Bonds, Ionic Forces ▯ ▯ 9. Two polar molecules ▯ ▯ 10. A very strong dipole-dipole force existing between molecules with the following: One H (Hydrogen) atom Bonded to either: F, O, or N molecule ▯ ▯ 11. Polarizability- the ability to form instantaneous dipoles. ▯ Atomic Size ▯ ▯ 12. The liquid boils ▯ ▯ 13. Increase ▯ ▯ 14. Phase change points, stable phases at a given temperature and pressure, triple point, critical point ▯ ▯ 15. The pressure and temperature where all three phases are equally stable ▯ ▯ 16. PV=nRT ▯ ▯ 17. Ln (p1/p2) = (ΔHvap / R)(1/T1 – 1/T2) ▯ ▯ 18. The pressure values can be anything as long as P1 and P2 are the same, they cancel out ▯ ▯ 19. The total heat required to heat a substance from T1 to T2; melting point, boiling point ▯ ▯ ▯ Chapter 12 ▯ 20. Solution: Homogenous mixture of two or more substances Solute: The component present in lesser amounts Solvent: The component present in greater amounts ▯ ▯ 21. Aqueous solution: A solution with water as the solvent Classification: o Electrolytic- Conducts electricity (Contains ions) o Non-electrolytic- Does not conduct electricity ▯ ▯ 22. Electrolytic solutions: All ionic solutions are electrolytic (ex. NaCl) Molecular solutions that are acidic or basic o Non-electrolytic if the molecular solution is not acidic or basic ▯ ▯ 23. Solubility- Amount of solute that can dissolve in a given amount of solvent at a given temperature ▯ ▯ 24. Concentration- Amount of solvent that is dissolved ▯ ▯ 25. Saturated if: solubility = concentration Unsaturated: solubility > concentration Super Saturated: solubility < concentration ▯ ▯ 26. Increase ▯ ▯ 27. Polar solutes are more soluble in polar solvents. Nonpolar solutes are more soluble in nonpolar solvents. Ionic solutes are more soluble in polar solvents. ▯ ▯ 28. Vitamin C ▯ ▯ 29. Decrease ▯ ▯ 30. Increase ▯ ▯ 31. Henry’s Law: C g= KP gas C g= solubility of gas K= partial pressure of gas above the solution P gas= Henry’s Law Constant (function of solvent, solute) ▯ ▯ 32. Raoult’s Law: P A = X AP A° P A= Partial pressure of A in vapor above liquid X A= Mole fraction of A in liquid P A°= Equilibrium vapor pressure of pure A ▯ ▯ 33. Raoult’s Law ▯ ▯ 34. ΔT B = T Bsolutio– T Bsolvent OR ΔTB= iK Bm i= Van’t Hoff Factor (# things after solution / # things before solution) K B= Boiling point elevation constant m= molality ▯ ▯ 35. |ΔT F|= iK Fm i= Van’t Hoff Factor (# things after solution / # things before solution) K F= Freezing point depression constant m= molality ▯ ▯ 36. Π=iMRT Π = Pressure required to stop flow of water i= Van’t Hoff Factor (# things after solution / # things before solution) M=molarity R=constant T=temperature (Kelvin) ▯ ▯ 37. Vapor pressure depression, boiling point elevation, freezing point depression, osmotic pressure ▯ ▯ 38. A solution with the liquids having the same intermolecular forces ▯ ▯ 39. Exothermic when separating; endothermic when forming a compound ▯ ▯ 40. ΔH= 0 (Ideal) ; ΔH>0 (Endothermic) ; ΔH<0 (Exothermic) ▯ ▯ 41.Endothermic; The intermolecular forces are weaker in the solution ▯ ▯ 42. Exothermic; The intermolecular forces are stronger in the solution ▯ ▯ ▯ Chapter 13 ▯ 43. Thermodynamics focuses on answering the questions: Will a process proceed? and how much will a process proceed? ▯ Kinetics focuses on answering the question: How fast will a process proceed ▯ ▯ 44. How much reactants and products change as a function of time. Typical units (concentration/time) (pressure/time). Reaction rates are scalar quantities (no direction, magnitude of change, only positive numbers) ▯ ▯ 45. Slope of Tangent of curve at any given point ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Additional Topics to Master before Exam: ▯ ▯ Chapter 11 Be able to use the Clausius-Clapeyron Equation, and know how to solve for each variable in the equation Be able to sketch a typical heating curve and identify various aspects of it Be able to calculate the amount of heat required to carry out a phase transition or raise the temperature of a substance Be able to read and interpret phase diagrams ▯ ▯ ▯ Chapter 12 Know how to predict relative solubility’s based on intermolecular forces Use the “like dissolves like” rule of thumb to predict relative solubility’s Be able to use Henry’s Law to determine the solubility of gases in liquids Use Raoult’s law to find vapor pressures or concentrations of solutions Be able to predict the plot of vapor pressure versus mole fraction for an ideal solution Know how to perform calculations involving boiling-point elevation, freezing-point depression, Kf, Kb and molality ▯ ▯ ▯ Chapter 13 Differentiate between average and instantaneous rates of chemical reactions Be able to sketch the rate of reaction versus concentration of reactant for zero and first order reactions Know how to use rate data to determine rate laws and rate constants Be able to use the integrated forms of the differential rate laws to determine the time required for the concentration of a reactant to change a desired amount given the initial concentration and the rate constant for zero first, and second order reactions Be able to use the integrated forms of the differential rate laws to derive mathematical expressions for the half-life of zero, first, and second order reactions
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