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Gerontology Exam #2 Review

by: Elizabeth Taflinger

Gerontology Exam #2 Review GERO 1010-

Marketplace > Bowling Green State University > GERO 1010- > Gerontology Exam 2 Review
Elizabeth Taflinger

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These are a summary of chapter four, six and seven.
Aging, Indiv and Society
Cynthia Spitler
Study Guide
Osteoporosis, Vision, hearing
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Elizabeth Taflinger on Monday September 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GERO 1010- at Bowling Green State University taught by Cynthia Spitler in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views.


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Date Created: 09/26/16
Gerontology Exam #2 Review Chapter 4 : Demography of Aging  Sources of Population Data o Demographic analysis is based on census counts taken by public or private agencies  Bureau of the census is the central for all national U.S. population data  Nationals counts the population every 10 years  The information collected is: births, deaths, country of origin, health, living arrangements, and income  Measures of individuals o Life span-longest number of years any member of a species has been known to survive (life spans of humans is 120 years) o Life expectancy –  The average number of years people in a given population can expect to live  People expect to live till 78 years, women usually live up to 81 years and men live up to 76 years  Life expectancy worldwide is higher for females than for males o Sex Ratio:  Number of males for every 100 females  More male babies than female babies  For every 100 females there are 106 males being born Process of Population of Aging o A population’s age can through 3 fundamental demographic process: 1. Fertility rates- the incidence of births or the inflow of new lives into a population 2. Mortality rates- the incidences of death in a population 3. Migration- the movement of people across border Demographic Transitions o Demographic transition is a 3-stage shift from high morality to low morality and fertility rates 1sy stage of Demographic transitions o economy agricultural was that many women would marry young, have many children, high birth rates, and high death rates o due to birth rates being so high few people reached adulthood, and even fewer people survived old age o the pyramid was a perfect triangle 2 stage of demographic transition o the control of infectious and parasitic diseases produces modest declines in morality among infants and young children o as more children reach into adulthood the age structure grow younger and the bottom of the age pyramid expands o children reach childbearing age then significant population growth occurs o more medicine increased life expectancy morality among the old begins to drop and the proportion of older people in the population grows  3 stage of demographic transitions o population as a whole begins to age and more deaths are caused by chronic illness than by acute illness o when birth and death rates are both low, the demographic transition is complete  international variations o population of the elderly depends by country o oldest nations are: North America and Europe o Younger nations are: Latin America, and Africa  Parts of Africa, Asia and Latin America is still in the first stage of demographic transitions with high levels of fertility, young population profiles, and low life expectancy  Dependency Ratios o Way to measure population aging o Elderly dependency ratio: people that are 65 years and older, divided by the working class (18-64 years of age) o Child dependency ratio: ages <18, divided by 18-64 years o Total dependency ratio: 65 and <18, divided by 18-64 years  Changing Age Structure in the U.S. o 1900: 4.1% Of all Americans were over the age of 65 o 2000: 12.8% o 2030: 20% o 2040: expect the number to quadruple, nearly 14,000,000 million  changing patterns of fertility in the U.S. o 1946- started the climb which peaked in 1958 with the average 3.17 children per women o between the years of 1971 to 1980 it dropped (the lowest ever) to 1.7 children per women due to:  birth control pills  women going to school  women joining the workforce  Changing the Patterns in mortality in the U.S. o U.S witnessed dramatic improvement in morality rates o Greatest declines occurred: 1940s and the 1970s  1940s: medical advances led to major gains against infant and child morality and maternal morality  1970s: the rate from heart disease began to fall because of better preventions and treatments  heart disease is still the leading cause of death for the ages of 65 and higher  cancer deaths are increasing  Changing Immigration patterns in the U.S. o Most immigrants are young because as people age they tend to not want to move away and rather stay at home o 75% of Hispanics immigrants who arrived in the U.S. between the 1970 and 1981 were 35 o 8% total growth of the elderly population in the U.S. between 1992 to 2000 due to international immigrants o 1920 many immigrants were European today more Latin American, Chinese, and Mexican  The dependency ratio in the U.S. o The difference between baby boomers and baby echo is the more mixed racisms o the total dependency ratio was 82 in 1960  most of the dependents in that year were children  in the 21 century many more dependents will be old  Consequences of aging population o The expected increase in the number of older Americans has great implication for the quality of life in the 21st century o Fewer workers will pay social security taxes  One of the most pressing issue in health care in social security and who will pay for it  Another issue is economic security- many people will retire later than in the past  Life expectancy in the U.S. o Americans have experienced an enormous increase In life expectancy o Between the 1900 and 1996 the life expectancy increase from 47.3 to 76.1 o Living beyond 65 is very likely now  The sex ratio in the U.S. o The sex ratio in the U.S. declined from 90 in the 1950 to about 60 in 200  Due to a greater increase in female life expectancy o Most men will have resident caretaker when they become ill or disabled and many women will be institutionalized Chapter 6 : Biological Perspectives on Aging  Environmental Theories of Aging: Wear and Tear Theory o Views the body as similar to a machine, like an old car or truck that simply wears out. o Difficult to test because we don’t know what constitutes normal wear and tear o Idea of wear and tear implies that a more active organism should age more quickly. Yet the opposite is true in humans.  Environmental Theories of Aging: Somatic mutation theory o Over a lifetime, a person’s body is exposed to external insults from air pollution, chemicals in food and water, and radiation. o These insults cause mutations (genetic damage) to somatic (body) cells. o Will lead to an increase in pathological changes in body systems.  Developmental/Genetic Theories of Aging: Immune Function Theory o The basic function of the immune system is surveillance. o It is the body’s army, constantly on alert, programmed before birth to recognize and destroy invaders. o Based on two discoveries;  The body’s protective immune reactions decline with age  An aging immune system loses its ability to distinguish between self and non-self  Instead the immune system attacks proteins of the body as if they were invaders.  Developmental/Genetic Theories of Aging: Cross-Linkage Theory o Our cells are composed of proteins which, are in tendons, ligaments, bones, cartilage, and skin is collagen. o Collagen is the glue that binds cells together by cross- links, like the rungs of a ladder that connect the two side boards. o The accumulation of cross-linked collagen is responsible for such changes as wrinkles, hardening of the arteries, and stiffness of joints  Developmental and Genetic Theories of Aging: Free Radical Theory o Free radicals are unstable molecules that are produced when the body transforms food into chemical energy. o When free radicals try to unite with other molecules, they can damage the cell or cause cell mutation. o Most changes associated with aging result from damage caused by free radicals. o Useful for understanding why some individuals are at greater risk of certain diseases than others and for describing part of the aging process  Developmental/Genetic Theories of Aging: Genetic Control Theory o The view that the life span is programmed into the genes. o Genes do not determine whether an individual gets a specific disease or how long an individual lives.  The Aging Body o Biological aging refers to the structural and functional changes that occur in an organism over time. o What creates an increased risk of death and disability is the onset of aging-dependent diseases. o These include cancer, diabetes, heart disease, osteoporosis, and Alzheimer’s disease. o Senescence- Increased vulnerability to stress and the increased probability of death.  Active Life Expectancy o The measure of the number of years a person can expect to live without a disability. o Men have active life expectancy of 60 years, 84 percent of their whole life expectancy. o Women have active life expectancy of 58, 82 percent of their whole life expectancy.  Aging of the Exterior Body: Skin and Hair o Wrinkles and Sagging Skin  One of the most obvious signs of aging.  Lentigo- the discoloration or spotting on the face, back of hands, and forearms of older people older.  Senile purpura- sites where fragile blood vessels have ruptured. o hair  Hair turns gray because of fewer active pigment producing cells.  Balding is more common in males and occurs when testosterone acts with genes  Age-Related Illness of the Skin o Most common risk factor for skin cancer is ultraviolet radiation from the sun and tanning beds. o A person’s risk of skin cancer is related to lifetime exposure to UV radiation. o Three different medical conditions:  basal cell carcinoma  squamous cell carcinoma  melanoma  Aging of the Nervous System o As people grow older, neurons in the brain die and are not replaced.  Some lose cells which, causes decreased flexibility, slowness of movement, stooped posture. o Cerebellum is in charge of the body’s movements and balance.  When damaged, balance and muscular movements are disrupted, which can cause falls  Strength and balance training can help prevent them.  Age-Related Illness: Parkinson’s Disease o A neurological disorder that may occur as early as age 30 but is more often diagnosed in older people. o Parkinson’s is caused by the slow death of nerve cells in the central portion of the brain o Symptoms include:  trembling or shaking of a limb  slow movement and rigidity  a temporary inability to move called “freezing”  chronic constipation  drooling  uncontrollable spasm-like movements  tremors  hallucinations  Aging of the Sensory Organs o Vision  As we age, changes in various parts of the eye reduce the ability to receive visual stimulation.  Presbyopia - an inability to focus on near objects. o Hearing  Hearing begins to decline through our middle years. .  The normal loss of hearing with age is termed presbycusis, which make it harder to hear high- pitched noises  Age-Related Illness: Vision o Cataract is caused when the lens of the eye becomes cloudy and light cannot penetrate. o Glaucoma is a serious condition that can lead to blindness.  Aging of the Sensory Organs o Smell and taste  Loss of taste is caused by degeneration of the taste buds or by a change in the way the brain perceives the information from the taste buds. o Touch and temperature  Old people lose some ability to regulate heating and cooling.  They have problems staying warm because of the loss of the layer of fatty tissue beneath the skin that helps insulate the body.  Aging of the Skeletal System: Bones, Cartilage, and Connective Tissues o Bone is a dynamic tissue made up of calcium and protein. o When calcium is needed by the body, old bone is removed; then new bone is formed as calcium is added back. o Osteoporosis occurs when outside walls of the bone become thinner and inner part becomes spongy. o Symptoms include: loss of height, back pain, curving of upper back or spine. o Women 4x more likely at risk than men  Aging of the Skeletal System: Bones, Cartilage, and Connective Tissues o Arthritis:  This affect 1/3 of men and ½ of women  Joint inflammation and pain, swelling, deformity  Wear and tear at joints and cartilage degenerated with age  Aging of the Muscular System: Muscle Mass and Strength o Between the age 30 and 80 a person can lose about 30% of muscle mass o This is not dangerous, your daily activities just get harder to complete and reduces overall physical activity  Aging of the Female Reproductive System o Women go through menopause as their climacteric change. o This leads to the end of monthly menstrual flow, the cessation of ovulation, and a decline in the production of the female hormones, estrogen, and progesterone.  Aging of the Male Reproductive System o There is no male menopause o Erectile dysfunction is a common problem in older men.  Aging of the Cardiovascular System: Heart and Blood Vessels o Many age related changes occur in the heart which includes:  muscle atrophy and a reduction in the amount of blood pumped with each contraction.  Aging of the Cardiovascular System: Heart and Blood Vessels o Blood Vessel Changes:  One change that occurs with aging is the loss of elasticity of the blood vessels.  Since these veins or arteries are not as elastic the blood pressure increases. o Hypertension and Heart Attacks o Hypertension is high blood pressure. Occurs when arteries are clogged and no longer elastic.  Hypertension leading to a heart attack is called hypertensive cardiovascular disease.  Many factors lead to this; genetics, environment, stress, smoking, obesity, lack of exercise, and low socioeconomic status. Chapter 7: Psychological Perspectives on Aging  Psychological Perspectives on Aging o Cognitive psychology is the study of mental processes. o Social gerontologists are concerned with identifying and understanding patterns of change in mental processes associated with age.  Creativity o At any age people can be creativity through science, arts and literature o People nearing the end of a creative career typically produce half as much as they did in their late 30s or early 40s.  Wisdom o We often think of older people as wise o Although many are, wisdom is not a “given”. o Wisdom refers to the ability to reason, to learn from experience, to use good judgment, and to use information.  Research on Fluid Intelligence in Old Age o Some research finds a decline in fluid intelligence with age, the “classic aging pattern.” o Psychologist Schaie and colleagues challenged this idea. o Schaie measured intelligence in terms of the primary mental abilities:  Verbal Meaning- what words mean, vocab  Spatial Orientation- focusing, depth deception  Inductive reasoning-  Number  Word Fluency  Learning and Memory o Learning is the process of acquiring knowledge and skills. o Encoding - information that is learned is placed into memory and stored for later use.  Short Term Memory o Short term memory is a limited capacity system that keeps memory in consciousness


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