Study Guide for Quiz #2
Study Guide for Quiz #2 ANEQ 305-001
Popular in Large Animal Anatomy and Physiology
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emily Bergmann on Monday September 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANEQ 305-001 at Colorado State University taught by Dr. Hyungchul Han in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Large Animal Anatomy and Physiology in Animal Science at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 09/26/16
Study Guide #2: Quiz 2 Types of Synapses A(n) (electrical/chemical/voltage) synapse signals via direct transfer, or through gap ctions, whereas a(n) (electrical/chemical/voltage) synapse signals via neurotransmitters released in the ______________ cleft. __________________- slower than an electrical synapse, and only goes in one direction. Chemical Synapse Steps: 1. Action potential reaches the ___________ ____________. 2. ________ enters the synaptic knob through ____________ gated channels and stimulates the ______________. 3. __________________ is released by (exocytosis/endocytosis). 4. __________________ binds to receptors on the post-synaptic cleft via _____________ channel 5. Channel opens. Inhibitory Synapse- ____________________________________________________________________ Excitatory Synapse - ___________________________________________________________________ Neurotransmitters are quickly removed from the synaptic cleft through _______________, __________, and ________________. Functions of Acetylcholine 1. 2. 3. 4. Temporal summation is summation from (one/multiple) neuron(s) and spatial summation is from (one/multiple) neuron(s). The ________ _____________ has a high density of Na channels and is where the action potential begins. Presynaptic Inhibition-___________________________________________________________ Presynaptic Facilitation-__________________________________________________________ ________________- many axons coming to one neuron _________________- axon terminals going out to multiple neurons Most _____________ alter synaptic transmission. Nervous Systems Material Energy Hypothesis: 1. Carnivores are __________ brained and have a __________ quality diet with a _________ intestinal tract. 2. Herbivores are __________ brained and have a __________ quality diet with a ___________ intestinal tract. ORGANIZATION The ________________________ is made up of the brain and spinal cord. The _________________________ is made of nerves extending to other parts of body. Afferent neurons send information from the (PNS/CNS) to the (PNS/CNS), whereas the efferent neurons send information from the (PNS/CNS) to the (PNS/CNS). The arasympathetic nervous system originates from the _____________ and _____________ regions, and is in charge of (fight or flight/rest and digest) and has a ______________________ preganglionic nerve fiber where _______________ is released and a _____________________ postganglionic nerve fiber where __________________ is released. The sympathetic nervous system originates from the _____________ and _________________ regions, and is in charge of (fight or flight/rest and digest) and has a ______________________ preganglionic nerve fiber where _______________ is released and a _____________________ postganglionic nerve fiber where __________________ is released. Parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems work together to coordinate ________________ in mammals. Receptor Types Cholinergic receptors 1. Nicotinic: _________________________________________________________ 2. Adrenergic Receptors: ________________________________________________________ Glial Cells 1. _________________- the most abundant type that supports the neurons. 2. Oligodendrocytes - ___________________________________________________________ 3. 4. Muscle Cells Muscle Cells are specialized to produce ___________ and do ______________. Types (include if striated or unstriated and if it is voluntary/involuntary) 1. 2. 3. Myofibril-____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ They make up (20/60/80/90)% of the muscle cell. The greater the density of the myofibrils in the cell, the ___________ the force. Thick Filaments are made up of _________________ and have _______________ and ______________ binding sites. Thin filaments are made up of __________________, ________________, and _________________. Action potentials begin at the _________ _______________ where there is an abundance of _______ channels. The signal travels down the axons where it is insulated by ________ ________________ and the action potential jumps from one ________ _____ ____________ to another until it reaches the ___________ _____________. Here, _____ ions enter the cell and stimulate the proteins to release ______________________ by ________________. The (voltage/chemically/mechanically) gated channels open and the action potential travels through the muscle cell to a ____-___________ which is attached to the (endoplasmic reticulum/sarcoplasmic reticulum/golgi body) which releases _____ ions through a ____________ gated channel. This enacts the _____________ ________________ mechanism where ____ ions bind with (troponin/actin/myosin/tropomyosin). When the myosin is attached to the thick filament, it must be aided by ________ and bind to the _______________________ binding site to allow it to slide. When the muscle is ready to be relaxed, ______ must return back to the (endoplasmic reticulum/sarcoplasmic reticulum/golgi body) through (active transport/diffusion/endocytosis) and 2+ + + through (vesicles/Ca ATPase/Na -K pumps). Uses of ATP in muscle contraction 1. 2. 3. Repetitive Summation Twitch summation-_____________________________________________________________ tetanus - _____________________________________________________________________ Imagine you are in a high-intensity workout, and your muscles require ATP to contract, where is your body most likely to get it’s source of ATP from? (Phosphagens/Oxidative Phosphorylation/Glycolysis). Muscle Structure Tendons attach ______________ to ______________ and ligaments attach _____________ to _____________. Flexors _____________ a limb and extensors ________________ a limb. Skeletal Muscle Fiber Types 1. Slow-oxidative fibers (Type I)-_____________________________________________________ 2. Fast-oxidative Fibers-____________________________________________________________ 3. Fast-glycolytic fibers-____________________________________________________________ Endurance improves _____________ capacity whereas high-intensity improves ______________. Smooth Muscle Types of Filaments 1. 2. 3. Explain the difference between phasic and tonic smooth muscle.
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