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aas 100 uiuc

aas 100 uiuc

Description

AAS 100 Midterm Study Guide for Chapters 1- 6  


what is samoa?



∙ Chapter 1: Ocean Worlds  

o Guam – skilled proto-Austronesian speaking  mariners (perhaps from the Phillipines) came to the  island of Guam  

o Samoa – people descended from proto-Austronesian speakers who sailed from Southeast Asia to other  islands and formed a group as Polynesians  

o The Atlantic and Pacific Worlds – Atlantic world  intruded into the Pacific with the making of the  Spanish empire; Vasco Nunez de Balboa (1513);  Taxonomist Ferdinand Magellan first landed on the  island of Guam in 1520 and took whatever he  

wanted form the island and in return, he dispatched his soldiers to burn down the islanders’ homes;  “Islas de los Ladrones” (name the Spanish gave to  the string of islands); Following the Spanish  

American War, the US obtained Guam and then  Phillipines (from Spain in the Treaty of Paris in  We also discuss several other topics like When considering a phylogenetic tree it is chosen by?

1898); James Cook accidentally found Hawaii – he  was trying to find America’s west coast and see  where the Atlantic meets the Pacific  


what are the The Atlantic and Pacific Worlds?



∙ Chapter 2: The World System  

o The Atlantic world was built on exploited  

relationships, not on a trade based system –  

conquered lands and enslaved people generated  the wealth  

o Seeking Asia – Ex: Vasco De Gama – 1498, arrived in Calicut, took the locals’ spices and came back to  Portugal making a 3,000 percent profit, returned  back to India in 1502 bombarding once again;

Portuguese generated more income by importing  African slaves to cultivate sugar and wheat which  they then sold to Italy and Spain (approximately  150,000 slaves from 1450-1500)  We also discuss several other topics like rebecca reid utep

o Finding America – Christopher Columbus; He forced  the local Indians in Haiti and Dominican Republic to  forsake food cultivation to dig for gold which led to  famine, revolts and many deaths; Spanish  

conquerors captured Mexico in 1521 and Peru in  1533 – they brought diseases like smallpox, measles and malaria that infected and killed millions; their  brutal mission was the quest for gold and silver


what are The World System?



o Imperial Order – Conquest was ideological and  material, the European taxonomies imposed on  lands, peoples, plants, and animals; Europe and  industrial capitalism were in large part built on  profits generated from the Asian and African traffic  

o Asians and Pacific Islanders in America – Chinese  laborers hard arrived in Mexico by way of the Manila Galleon trade; At the beginning of the 19th century,  the end of the African slave trade led to a “new  system of slavery” – replaced with indentured  

laborers; While being transported, many died from  violence and introduced diseases; China became a  prime source for migrant labor after losing to Britain in 1842 in the 1st Opium War; “coolies”  We also discuss several other topics like occasional criminals

∙ Chapter 3: The United States  

o English America – Tobacco in 1624, John  

Smith/Massachusetts Bay Company, Racial  

segregation  

o Social Formation/Rebellion – British East India  Company (1773) – dumping of company’s huge  surplus of tea on the colonies tax free;  We also discuss several other topics like ionian enlightenment

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Revolutionary War (1775-1783) – was a settler’s war where British and European settlers who sought  independence from their colonial overlords  

o Sovereignty – US independence July 4th 1776; 1795  – Treaty of Greenville; In 1797, the Betsy returned  from China with a cargo that yielded $120,000 in  profits and by 1830s, the US trade with China  

totaled nearly $75 million

o Citizenship – the 1790 Naturalization Act affirmed  Congress’s intention to limit citizenship to “free  white persons” and not extend it to American  

Indians who were considered “aliens”; In 1924,  Congress granted citizenship to American Indians  

∙ Chapter 4: Imperial Republic  

o Manifest Destiny – John O’Sullivan “God and history  had preordained the spread of the United States  across the entire continent; in 1840s, manifest  destiny is what drove the nation’s border westward  to the Pacific; Spanish American War 1898;  We also discuss several other topics like ▪ Objective- what do I want?

Louisiana Purchase; Compromise of 1850 – admitted California as a free state  

o Civil War – 13th amendment 1865 (abolished  slavery); Civil Rights Act of 1866 (declared African  Americans as citizens), 14th amendment 1868  (conferred citizenship on those born in the US); 15th amendment 1870 (guaranteed the right of citizens  to vote)  Don't forget about the age old question of How does the divorce rate affect society?

o Destiny’s Child – the second period of manifest  destiny during the late nineteenth and early  

twentieth century; in 1897 – the annual US trade  with Spanish-ruled Cuba totaled $27 million –  

“Remember the Maine! To Hell with Spain”

o The Indian War  

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o Hawaiian Kingdom – the gold rush in California  strengthened the ties between the islands and  continent as the kingdom began supplying the  miners with pickaxes and shovels, clothing, boots,  

and provisions; Agriculture was key for the Hawaiian Kingdom

o Empire and Nation – Manifest destiny had changed  the face of the nation, the white or “citizen” race  was joined by other races who were not seen as  entitled to citizenship; In 1900s, Congress  

formalized Hawaii as a territory; Treaty of  

Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848 assimilated Mexicans as citizens followed by treaties in 1887 and 1917 that  granted citizenship to other racial groups, etc.  

∙ Chapter 5: Hawaii  

o Chinese – Chinese coolies came to work sugar  plantations alongside Indian coolies in the Indian  Ocean and Caribbean; During and after the US civil  war, the sugar boom in Hawaii encouraged Hawaii  planters to bring in more Chinese migrants;  

kidnapping was a big mean to bring indentured  Chinese laborers; few restrictions were imposed on  Chinese women since they were a way to pacify the  men workers but the ration of men and women was  very low

o Japanese – In 1850s; Under the terms of Convention of 1886, 29,000 Japanese in the Hawaiian kingdom;  Women also accompanied their men in the fields to  work with them; “Gentlemen’s Agreement”  

o Korean – Around 1902, they sailed to Honolulu; low  wages; period of Korean migrant labor in Hawaii  ended around 1905

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o Filipinos – Arrived in Honolulu around 1905; there  was a selection process to be a laborer; the  

recruiters disqualified those who were educated and had soft hands; some planters wanted women to  accompany the men and others thought that  

women and children were unproductive

∙ Chapter 6: California  

o Hawaiians – worked America’s west coast; they had  dominated the coastal carrying trade; white men  compelled Hawaiian workers to organize themselves into self-defense groups and to settle in segregated  communities

o Chinese – China supplied a vast pool of overseas  labor; Chinese camps; they possessed no rights;  railroads were a major employer for Chinese  

laborers and so was mining

o Japanese – In California, as in Hawaii, Japanese  laborers followed Chinese laborers; suffered abuse  by their employers; agriculture  

o Koreans – initially migrated to Hawaii before moving to California; approximately 1,039 Koreans went to  Mexico in 1905

o South Asians – British created a transportation  infrastructure in Punjab; In 1896, approximately  19,000 South Asian indentured laborers left India to  work on railroad construction in British-held  

Uganda; Punjabis/Sikhs worked in the Canadian  Pacific Railway; When anti-Asian laws cut off Indian  migration into Canada in 1908, many moved to the  United States and worked in the Western Pacific  Railroad; Ghadr Movement  

o Filipinos – In 1930s, U.S. Census counted 45,208  Filipinos and of those 19,254 had come from Hawaii  

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