Study Guide for Midterm!! (Chapters 1-6)
Study Guide for Midterm!! (Chapters 1-6) AAS 100
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Noopur Walia on Monday September 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to AAS 100 at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 141 views.
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Date Created: 09/26/16
AAS 100 Midterm Study Guide for Chapters 1- 6 Chapter 1: Ocean Worlds o Guam – skilled proto-Austronesian speaking mariners (perhaps from the Phillipines) came to the island of Guam o Samoa – people descended from proto-Austronesian speakers who sailed from Southeast Asia to other islands and formed a group as Polynesians o The Atlantic and Pacific Worlds – Atlantic world intruded into the Pacific with the making of the Spanish empire; Vasco Nunez de Balboa (1513); Taxonomist Ferdinand Magellan first landed on the island of Guam in 1520 and took whatever he wanted form the island and in return, he dispatched his soldiers to burn down the islanders’ homes; “Islas de los Ladrones” (name the Spanish gave to the string of islands); Following the Spanish American War, the US obtained Guam and then Phillipines (from Spain in the Treaty of Paris in 1898); James Cook accidentally found Hawaii – he was trying to find America’s west coast and see where the Atlantic meets the Pacific Chapter 2: The World System o The Atlantic world was built on exploited relationships, not on a trade based system – conquered lands and enslaved people generated the wealth o Seeking Asia – Ex: Vasco De Gama – 1498, arrived in Calicut, took the locals’ spices and came back to Portugal making a 3,000 percent profit, returned back to India in 1502 bombarding once again; Portuguese generated more income by importing African slaves to cultivate sugar and wheat which they then sold to Italy and Spain (approximately 150,000 slaves from 1450-1500) o Finding America – Christopher Columbus; He forced the local Indians in Haiti and Dominican Republic to forsake food cultivation to dig for gold which led to famine, revolts and many deaths; Spanish conquerors captured Mexico in 1521 and Peru in 1533 – they brought diseases like smallpox, measles and malaria that infected and killed millions; their brutal mission was the quest for gold and silver o Imperial Order – Conquest was ideological and material, the European taxonomies imposed on lands, peoples, plants, and animals; Europe and industrial capitalism were in large part built on profits generated from the Asian and African traffic o Asians and Pacific Islanders in America – Chinese laborers hard arrived in Mexico by way of the Manila Galleon trade; At the beginning of the 19 century, the end of the African slave trade led to a “new system of slavery” – replaced with indentured laborers; While being transported, many died from violence and introduced diseases; China became a prime source for migrant labor after losing to Britain in 1842 in the 1 Opium War; “coolies” Chapter 3: The United States o English America – Tobacco in 1624, John Smith/Massachusetts Bay Company, Racial segregation o Social Formation/Rebellion – British East India Company (1773) – dumping of company’s huge surplus of tea on the colonies tax free; 2 Revolutionary War (1775-1783) – was a settler’s war where British and European settlers who sought independence from their colonial overlords th o Sovereignty – US independence July 4 1776; 1795 – Treaty of Greenville; In 1797, the Betsy returned from China with a cargo that yielded $120,000 in profits and by 1830s, the US trade with China totaled nearly $75 million o Citizenship – the 1790 Naturalization Act affirmed Congress’s intention to limit citizenship to “free white persons” and not extend it to American Indians who were considered “aliens”; In 1924, Congress granted citizenship to American Indians Chapter 4: Imperial Republic o Manifest Destiny – John O’Sullivan “God and history had preordained the spread of the United States across the entire continent; in 1840s, manifest destiny is what drove the nation’s border westward to the Pacific; Spanish American War 1898; Louisiana Purchase; Compromise of 1850 – admitted California as a free state th o Civil War – 13 amendment 1865 (abolished slavery); Civil Rights Act of 1866 (declared African Americans as citizens), 14 amendment 1868 th (conferred citizenship on those born in the US); 15 amendment 1870 (guaranteed the right of citizens to vote) o Destiny’s Child – the second period of manifest destiny during the late nineteenth and early twentieth century; in 1897 – the annual US trade with Spanish-ruled Cuba totaled $27 million – “Remember the Maine! To Hell with Spain” o The Indian War 3 o Hawaiian Kingdom – the gold rush in California strengthened the ties between the islands and continent as the kingdom began supplying the miners with pickaxes and shovels, clothing, boots, and provisions; Agriculture was key for the Hawaiian Kingdom o Empire and Nation – Manifest destiny had changed the face of the nation, the white or “citizen” race was joined by other races who were not seen as entitled to citizenship; In 1900s, Congress formalized Hawaii as a territory; Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848 assimilated Mexicans as citizens followed by treaties in 1887 and 1917 that granted citizenship to other racial groups, etc. Chapter 5: Hawaii o Chinese – Chinese coolies came to work sugar plantations alongside Indian coolies in the Indian Ocean and Caribbean; During and after the US civil war, the sugar boom in Hawaii encouraged Hawaii planters to bring in more Chinese migrants; kidnapping was a big mean to bring indentured Chinese laborers; few restrictions were imposed on Chinese women since they were a way to pacify the men workers but the ration of men and women was very low o Japanese – In 1850s; Under the terms of Convention of 1886, 29,000 Japanese in the Hawaiian kingdom; Women also accompanied their men in the fields to work with them; “Gentlemen’s Agreement” o Korean – Around 1902, they sailed to Honolulu; low wages; period of Korean migrant labor in Hawaii ended around 1905 4 o Filipinos – Arrived in Honolulu around 1905; there was a selection process to be a laborer; the recruiters disqualified those who were educated and had soft hands; some planters wanted women to accompany the men and others thought that women and children were unproductive Chapter 6: California o Hawaiians – worked America’s west coast; they had dominated the coastal carrying trade; white men compelled Hawaiian workers to organize themselves into self-defense groups and to settle in segregated communities o Chinese – China supplied a vast pool of overseas labor; Chinese camps; they possessed no rights; railroads were a major employer for Chinese laborers and so was mining o Japanese – In California, as in Hawaii, Japanese laborers followed Chinese laborers; suffered abuse by their employers; agriculture o Koreans – initially migrated to Hawaii before moving to California; approximately 1,039 Koreans went to Mexico in 1905 o South Asians – British created a transportation infrastructure in Punjab; In 1896, approximately 19,000 South Asian indentured laborers left India to work on railroad construction in British-held Uganda; Punjabis/Sikhs worked in the Canadian Pacific Railway; When anti-Asian laws cut off Indian migration into Canada in 1908, many moved to the United States and worked in the Western Pacific Railroad; Ghadr Movement o Filipinos – In 1930s, U.S. Census counted 45,208 Filipinos and of those 19,254 had come from Hawaii 5 6
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