Psych 334-01, Brain & Behavior
Psych 334-01, Brain & Behavior Psy 334-01
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This 2 page Study Guide was uploaded by Malika Jarrett on Monday September 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psy 334-01 at Dean College taught by Pro. Lahikainen in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Brain and Behavior in Psychology at Dean College.
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Date Created: 09/26/16
Chapter 2& 3 Study Guide 1. Structure of a neuron a. Dendrites: the tree-like branches atthe beginning of a neuron that collects neurotransmitters from the axon terminal of another neuron b. Cell body: houses the nucleus of the cell c. Axon: carries the electrical impulses from one end of the neuron to the other 2. Afferent v. Efferent a. Afferent neurons sensethings from the senses andsenda messagetothe brain through the spinal cord b. Efferent neurons receivethose messages fromthe brain and send impulses down to the limbs for the behavior to be performed 3. 5 Types of Glial Cells a. Ependymal i. Canbe found in the walls of the ventricles inthe brain making and secreting cerebrospinal fluid(CSF) b. Astrocyte i. Star shapedcells that support the neurons, transports substances between neurons and capillaries,helpform scartissueand enhance brain activity by providing furl to activate the different brain regions c. Microglial i. Originatein the blood as offshoot for the immune systemand eating dead cells d. Oligodendroglia i. Glial cells thatmyelinate the axons in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (protective covering for the electric impulses) e. Schwan i. Glial cells inPERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM thatmyelinates the axons 4. 3 Functions of Neurons a. Sensory Neurons i. Carry information from the sensory receptors inor on the body to the spinal cord b. Interneurons i. Associatesensoryand motor activity within the central nervous system c. Motor Neurons i. Send signals fromthe brain and spinal cord to muscles 5. Transcription v. Translation a. Our GENES are encoded ina certain way that allows us to make PROTEINS. i. Transcription is the earlyphase of protein synthesis inwhich DNA strands unwind and a complementary strand of messengerRNA (mRNA) is produced. ii. Translation is thelater phase of protein synthesis inwhich the mRNA travels from the nucleus to the endoplasmic reticulum where the codon (three letter chain that codes for an amino acids)is translatedinto an amino acidforming a polypeptide chainwhich is alsocalleda protein 6. Genotype v.Phenotype a. A genotype is your genetic makeup (the chromosomes the you get from your mom and your dad); whereas, your phenotype is the trait that is actuallybeing shown (blonde hair, green eyes etc.) 7. Tay-Sachs a. A birth defect that is causedby a loss ofgenes that encodes for the enzyme that breaks down fatty substances (recessiveallele) i. Appears 4-6 months after birth which canresult in mental retardation, physical changes,anddeath (normally around age5) 8. Huntington’s Chorea a. An autosomal disorder that results in motor and cognitive disturbances i. Causedby an increasednumber of CAG (cytosine,adenine and guanine) repeats on chromosome #4 ii. Buildup of an abnormal version of the huntingtin protein can kill brain cells;mainlythe basal ganglia andthecortex 9. Down Syndrome st a. When on parent (typicallythe mom) passes thechild two copies ofthe 21 chromosome rather than one copy causing mental retardation and other abnormalities 10. Phenotypic Plasticity a. The capacityof the genome to express a largenumber of phenotypes 11. Epigenetics a. The influence of the environment on the selectionof one phenotype over another
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