Exam #1 Study Guide
Exam #1 Study Guide HDFS 311
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by AlliSlaten on Monday September 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HDFS 311 at Colorado State University taught by Jaime Marie Rotner in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views.
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Date Created: 09/26/16
Exam # 1 Study Guide: The following information you will be responsible for, for your first exam. You may not be asked a question on every single item but you need to prepare in the event that you are. If I make any changes I will let you know immediately. Chapter 1 • Definition ofAdolescence • The period after puberty begins and before adult roles are taken on. Between the ages of 12 and 18 • How is adolescence seen as a cultural construct? • Varies from culture to culture. Though the length, content, daily experiences, roles, adult statuses, and responsibilities differ from culture to culture it is being recognized in more cultures as a life period. • Adolescence in Western Cultures o Ancient Greece ▪ What are Plato’s stages of development and what is his reasoning behind his age ranges? ▪ Infancy (birth- 7), Childhood (7-14),Adolescence (14-21) ▪ In infancy the mind is too undeveloped to learn much so education in childhood focuses on sports and music because it is still developing. During adolescence is when there is capacity to reason and allows for the study of science and math o Early Christian Times to MiddleAges ▪ How did St.Augustine and the Children’s Crusade of 1212 impact our understanding of adolescence during this time? ▪ St.Augustine determined that we experience impulse and pleasure seeking thoughts which correlates with current research. ▪ The Children’s Crusade was German students that thought their youth had power because of their innocence, but the Muslims saw them as lacking knowledge and experience so not in any position of power. o Adolescence 1500-1890 ▪ What is life-cycle service and how did it impact adolescents during this time period? ▪ Life- cycle service is when young people would engage in various trades, skills, or crafts by domestic service, farm service, or apprenticeships. It was common for this to last about 7 years and was more common for men and in the United States. ▪ The industrial revolution had a huge impact on this service because young people would choose to go work in factories and mines instead of learning a trade or service. This lead to higher rates of crime, premarital sex, and increased alcohol use. o TheAge ofAdolescence 1890-1920 ▪ What was the impact of adolescents working? ▪ Adolescents were being over worked, getting hurt, and other harmful things which lead to legislation prohibiting child labor until the age of 18 which has obviously changed over time.Arequirement for children to attend secondary schooling became a thing in places.At the beginning there were about 5% in secondary school and it took about 100 years to reach 95%. ▪ What were the three contributing factors to the “Age ofAdolescence”? ▪ Over working children, danger in the work field, and it started disrupting families in many ways o G. Stanley Hall ▪ Child Study Movement ▪ research to better the lives of children and adolescents ▪ Recapitulation ▪ development of an individual re-enacts evolution of human species. We didn’t pass down genes but we re-enact feeling and experiences that happened to those we are related to in the past ▪ Strom and Stress • The Storm and Stress Debate, what are the current viewpoints? • a mile stone that all adolescents experience upheaval and disorder is a normal part of adolescent development. This comes with conflict with parents, mood swings, and risk behavior. Current view points have to do with parenting, other influences, and whether or not the adolescent acts that way. • Emerging adulthood o What are the five characteristics of emerging adulthood according to your text? o dating, moving, friends, jobs, self focus o Other features of emerging adulthood? o time of possibilities, feeling of being in between childhood and adulthood. There are variations of when one may think they have reached adulthood. • Transition toAdulthood o When did most emerging adults feel they have reached adulthood? o When the were financially independent, in their careers, married/ had a significant other, living on their own Chapter 2 • Define Puberty • The body undergoes a biological revolution that dramatically changes the adolescent’s anatomy, physiology, and physical appearance • What is the function of the endocrine system generally? • The function is to produce hormones like GnRH which stimulate the release other hormones like FSH and LH which stimulate the development of gametes (egg cells and sperm) o Understand the detailed process of hormone production during puberty including: ▪ Fat, leptin, hypothalamus, GnRH, pituitary gland, gonadotropins, gametes, gonads, sex hormones ▪ Fat cells produces leptin which provides the hypothalamus a signal to increase hormones which create hormonal changes.An increase of GnRH stimulates he pituitary gland to release gonadorophins which stimulate the development of gametes (egg cells and sperm). In turn, the gonads increase the production of sex hormones (estrogens, androgens, and testosterone). • What is the progression of the adolescent growth spurt for both males and females? • boys and girls generally have the same growth pattern though girls usually start earlier than boys and boys end their growth spurt later in puberty o Asynchronicity o we grow from the outside in which explains the “gangly look” in early adolescence • Sex Characteristics o What are primary sex characteristics and examples of these? o Primary sex characteristics are directly related to reproduction. For example like the growth of all of the sex organs and production of sperm and eggs o What are secondary sex characteristics and examples of these? o Secondary sex characteristics are visible indicators like deepening of voice, hair everywhere, increase of sweating, enlargement of breast, and rougher skin o Understand the difference between ovum and sperm production for males and females o Women are born with about 400,000 immature eggs and by the time puberty hits there are only about 80,000. Once a girl reaches menarche (her first period) one egg develops into a mature egg (ovum) about every 28 days. Girls release about 400 eggs over their reproductive lives. o Men have no sperm in their testes until they reach puberty which is around 12 years of age. There are between 30 and 500 million sperm in a typical ejaculation o What is the order of pubertal events for boys and girls of secondary sex characteristics? o Girls- downy pubic hair, appearance of breast buds, growth spurt, growth of reproductive organs, menarche, increased secretion of sweat and skin oil, and development of underarm hair o Boys- growth of testes, appearance of pubic hair, growth spurt, increased growth of penis, deepening of voice, increases secretion of sweat and skin oil, development of facial hair o What do we understand as to what factors may explain some cultural differences in pubertal timing? o diets and levels of nutrition, food production, access to medical care o What does the research by Ellis and Garber (2000) and Berger (2007) find about pubertal timing? o They found that early onset puberty in mothers will generally happen to their daughters. They also found that mood disorders (depression) of the mother can effect the daughter’s early onset puberty. Other things like discordant family relationships, father absence/ step father presence can create high levels of conflict which can influence mood disorders which are the leading cause of early onset puberty. • What are the impacts for early and late maturation for girls? • Depressed mood, negative body image, eating disorders, substance use, delinquency, school problems, conflicts with parents, and they are likely to get married earlier and start families earlier. They also have a greater risk of experiencing social and emotional problems. o Be able to explain why these impacts may occur. o They can experience these effects because they are not fitting in with their surroundings, feel like they don’t have anyone to turn to, may have influence from older kids that influence their decision making. • What are the impacts for early and late maturation in boys? • more favorable body image, higher popularity, substance use, delinquency, early sexual activity, emotional distress o Be able to explain why these impacts occur. o They can experience these things because boys are looking up to them and they are seen as more mature and more manly. They also may get involved with older boys who could influence their delinquent behavior. • Understand the basic premise behind the genotype-environment interactions theory o What is a Genotype? o Aperson’s inherited genes o What are the differences between, passive, evocative and active gene-environment interactions? Know an example for each one. o Passive (younger)- occur in biological families when parents provide both genes and environment ex. if the parent’s like music, they would be likely to purchase musical toys for the child o Evocative- Occur when a person’s inherited characteristics evoke responses from others in their environment ex. if the baby is easy going as a child it is likely that they will be like that later on in life o Active gene (older)- Occur when a people seek out environments that correspond to their genotypic characteristics ex. niche picking- choosing environments that you feel comfortable in Chapter 3 • Brain development in adolescence o What times do surges in synaptic development take place? o Prenatal through 18 months of age and when puberty beings (10-12) o Understand the concepts of overproduction and/or exuberance. o when connections are made they create a strong bond between the neurons. This is the thickening of the connections. o Why is synaptic pruning so beneficial during adolescence? o It is beneficial because by pruning the connections away that the person does not need or use, the connections that they do make can flourish and become stronger o Why is myelination so beneficial during adolescence? o It allows the signals from neuron to neuron travel faster o What have we learned about the Cerebellum in terms of growth and function during adolescence? o It continues to grow during adolescence and is very important for higher functions. It plays a role in math, humor, and social skills • Emotion regulation and the brain o What part of the brain do adolescents primarily use to process emotions? Adults? Why? o Adolescents use the amygdala because they are more impulsive and don’t have the capacity to fully understand consequences and their emotions and adults rely more on the frontal cortex because it is more developed during this time and that is why adults are more likely to not make impulsive decisions o What is the impact on cognitive thinking and behavior for adolescents? o Adolescents tend to me more impulsive withe their behavior and generally make decisions based on their “gut” feelings. They also tend to act on their “gut” emotional responses. • Piagetian stages o Formal operations ▪ allows adolescents to reason about more complex tasks and problems involving multiple variables ▪ Define and understand hypothetical-deductive reasoning and abstracting thinking ▪ the ability to arrive and defend an answer. When addressed with a problem or situation o Complex thinking ▪ Metaphors, sarcasm, metacognition o Postformal thinking ▪ What is pragmatism? Why is it unique to adult thinking? ▪ What is reflective judgement? What are Perry’s four levels? • Dualistic thinking- right or wrong, no in between • Multiple thinking- two or more sides and not just one right answer • Relativism- after being open to multiple views, were are not starting to analyze and critique certain views and question others • Commitment- usually by the end of college years when we have chosen a view or stance but have an open view about other sides • Keating on Critical Thinking o How is critical thinking different from retaining information? o Critical thinking is thinking in depth about a concept rather than just knowing the information which is what retaining information is o Why are we able to now critically think in adolescence? o We have a wider range of knowledge and cognitive strategies are more available to gaining knowledge and applying the information • What is social cognition? • The way we think about other people, social relationships, and social institutions o How does egocentrism impact social cognition? o as we get older egocentrism decreases so we are more aware of others emotions which increase our social cognition ▪ Explain through the personal fable, imaginary audience and optimistic bias. ▪ imaginary audience is the belief that we’re are the focus of others and that everyone around is directly aware of all of our actions ▪ personal fable is the belief that we are something special which diminishes over time. ▪ Optimistic bias is the belief that we are “untouchable” and that nothing bad can happen to us. Chapter 5 • What is the difference between gender and sex? • Sex is what you are biologically and gender is what you personally identify with • What are the patterns for gender development in traditional cultures? • Girls tend to maintain a close relationship with their mother and are somewhat sheltered to learning what their mother does, and not having a lot of interaction because sexual activity is very restricted • Boys tend to have less contact with their families and peers as they grow older. Manhood is achieved by standards in their own cultures • Gender inAmerican History o Girl to Woman o Focused on physical appearance and maintaining their virginity and innocence. in the 18th and 19th century women were seen as fragile and biologically/ intellectually less capable to doing things compared to men o Three Manhood Transformations o Communal manhood- focus on preparing to assume adult role responsibilities in work and marriage o Self made manhood- males were increasingly expected to become independent from their families in adolescence and emerging adulthood o Passionate manhood- self expression and self enjoyment replaced self control and self denial as the paramount virtues • What is the Gender Intensification Hypothesis? o psychological and behavioral difference between genders become more pronounced at adolescence. o Why does it happen? o physical appearances and increases influence from friends and family o What are some negative impacts of this process? o influence that doesn’t necessarily describe them and feel as though there are stereotypes that they don’t fit • Understand the general progression of the Cognitive Developmental Theory of Gender • What is androgyny? • combination of masculine and feminine traits in one person o What does some of the research say that supports androgyny? o children that experience androgyny are more flexible and creative and men and women who experience this are more emotionally intelligent o Is it best for adolescents? Why or why not? o Yes, because it allows those people to grow and become flexible, less judgmental, and intelligent in other areas like emotions and social competence • Understand some of the differing gender roles inAmerican minority groups for both males and females • What differences exist today? Changes? - African American Women Female role contains a variety of characteristics due to challenging historical circumstances • like self reliance, assertiveness, and perseverance • Have higher self esteem and are less concerned with physical appearance - African American Men • Have been frequently subjected to insults to their manhood also due to historical circumstances • Economic conditions in many American cities make it difﬁcult to ﬁll the traditional “provider” aspect of the male role • Young Black men may adopt extreme characteristics of the male role in order to declare masculinity Alternate ideals of manhood have recently been provided • • One school of thought- adopting extreme characteristics to compensate and ensure that they are seen as masculine, correlates with criminal behavior and emotional disconnect which effect romantic relationships - Latino Women - Gender roles have been highly traditional until recently - The role of women was concentrated on caring for children, taking care of the home, and providing emotional support for the husband - Women have been taught to emulate the Virgin Mary by being submissive and self- denying - Latino Men - The role of men has been guided by the ideology of machismo - Men are expected to be the undisputed head of the household and to demand respect and obedience from their wives and children - The traditional aspects of manhood are strong; provide, protect, and procreate Chapter 6 • What is self-reflection in adolescence? • trait focused, personality, and characteristic “I am sensitive” • Be able to compare self-conceptions in childhood vs. adolescence • Childhood are terms related to traits “I have a dog names Fred” o What is the actual self vs the possible self? o Actual self- Who am I o Possible self- Who might I become ▪ Feared self, ideal self ▪ Feared self- Who I dread coming ▪ Ideal self- Who I would like to become • How does self-understanding become more complex? • The recognition that they may act and feel differently around different people or in different situations . • What is the difference between self-esteem and self-concept? • Self esteem- refers to a person’s overall sense of worth and well being • Self concept- refers to the way a person views and evaluates herself or himself o What is the pattern of self-esteem in adolescence? o Self esteem tends to fluctuate in adolescence which is called barometric self esteem because it changes based on experiences throughout the day o Understand baseline self-esteem vs barometric self-esteem o Baseline- stable, enduring sense of worth and well being (when we are older) o Barometric- fluctuating sense of worth of well being as one responds to different thoughts and experiences and daily occurrences change this (adolescence) o What are Harter’s Eight Domains of Self-Esteem? ▪ Scholastic competence ▪ social acceptance ▪ athletic competence ▪ physical appearance ▪ Job competence ▪ Romantic appeal ▪ Behavioral conduct ▪ Close friendships o Define global self-esteem o Each domain of self image influences this because it is our overall behavior o What domains impact self-esteem most? o athletic competence, physical appearance, and social acceptance—> scholastic competence is affected by these o What influences self-esteem? o feeling accepted by others, warm and loving relationships with parents, school success • What do self-esteem and emotional states look like in EmergingAdulthood? • is consistently increases over time and males tend to have higher self esteem compared to women • Understand Identity Crisis inAdolescence according to Erik Erickson • Each life period is characterized by a particular development and what is important at that time in their development o What is identity vs. Role Confusion? Identity exploration? o identity confusion- failure to form a stable and secure identity o role confusion- not understanding exactly what your role is o identity exploration- exploring different identities to see what fits you and your personality and makes you grow ▪ What are the domains of identity? ▪ gender, sexuality, culture, religion, ethnic, occupational, political ▪ According to Marcia, what are the four statuses of identity exploration? ▪ Diffusion- choices are brief and not a concern to define self ▪ Moratorium- actively searching and struggling with major changes, relationships and tend to have lots of temporary commitments ▪ Foreclosure- identify with parents and their values ▪ Identity achievement- completed exploration and commitments are more permanent
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