Study guide for exam 1
Study guide for exam 1 BIOL 1441
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Madalyn on Monday September 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 1441 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Shawn Christense in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY in Biology at University of Texas at Arlington.
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Date Created: 09/26/16
Study Guide BIOL 1441 Thursday, September 22, 2016 9:22 PM Exam Study Guide I have put in a lot of time going over this guide making sure everything is correct which explains the reason why it is late. I apologize for any inconvenience Chapter 2 Chemical contexts Trace elements- they are required by organisms But only in small amounts. These include iron and iodine. Elements make compounds. Essential elements that are found in biology are -Oxygen -Hydrogen -Carbon -Nitrogen *radioactive tracers are used Atoms to detect cancers Protons- (+) in biological Neutrons- (0) research. Electrons- (-) Sodium Isotopes- Same elements with different mass numbers due to more neutrons Mass number Atomic number = # of protons and electrons Protons- 6 Protons- 6 Protons- 11 Neutrons- 6 Electrons- 6 Electrons- 11 Electrons- 6 Neutrons- 10 Neutrons- 12 Energy of Electrons (23-11=12) Carbon Energy absorbed Electron shells Carbon has 4 valence electrons. Carbon is in group 14. The 4 in fourteen tells us the Energy lost number of electrons. Same goes for groups Nucleus 1,2,13,14,15,16,17,18. Protons- 6 Neutrons- 6 They do NOT work for transition Electrons- 6 metals S orbitals hold 2 electrons P orbitals hold 6 electrons The S orbital must be filled first in order for it Move on to the P orbital. Fig 1. Shows that there are Two electrons in the s orbital then 4 more in the outer shell; The outer shell is also called the valence electron shell. The hold the valence electrons. Bonds Covalent Bonds Ionic Bonds They share electrons. These happen between They transfer electrons. They are usually called salts. Non-metals. Water (H2O) is a covalent bond These happen between non-metals and metals. Sodium Chloride, salt, is ionic. (NaCl) Hydrogen Bonds Van der Waals These are when hydrogen bonds to a negatively element. Or when hydrogen bonds to anything. They are weak as easily broken. These are also weak bonds. The charge of the molecule or elements are not Evenly distributed. They are stronger when they are more of them. But are still easily broken. An example of this is a gecko's feet. The sticky stuff on its feet allow it to climb walls. It is weak enough to break so it can walk up walls, but strong enough to keep it from falling, neat, huh? EXAM 1 REVIEW Page 1 easily broken. An example of this is a gecko's feet. The sticky stuff on its feet allow it to climb walls. It is weak enough to break so it can walk up walls, but strong enough to keep it from falling, neat, huh? A polar covalent bond is a bond that electrons are not shared equally. Water is polar; which is why it is drawn in a bent and V-like shape . Oxygen is electronegative And hydrogen is electropositive. A non-polar covalent bond is where electrons are shared equally. Chapter 3 Water Cohesion- basically it is breaking and sticking together again. Water is an example of this Temperature- the measure of energy Specific heat- the amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost for 1 gram of a substance to change its temperature by 1 degree Celsius. Water's specific heat is 1 gram PER 1 degree Celsius. The lower the specific heat, the faster it takes to heat it up. Iron has a lower specific heat than water, which is why it gets hotter if left out in the sun for a certain amount of time. The 3 S's SOLUTE- substance that is dissolved Hydration Shell SOLVENT- the substance doing the dissolving SOLUTION- homogenous mixture It is the sphere of water molecules around each dissolvent. (salt water- salt is the solute, being dissolved. H+ is attracted to Cl- and O- is attracted to Na+ as shown below. Water- solvent, dissolving the salt.) They break up salt this way. Hydration Shell Hydrogen; H+ PHILIC AND PHOBIC PHILIC- LOVES WATER PHOBIC- FEARS WATER Oxygen; O- ACIDS and BASES and the PH scale Acid- substance that increases The H+ concentration of a solution So basic y'all EQUATION to find pH Base- substance that reduces the H+ concentration of a solution pH= -log[H+] Strong acids and bases dissolve completely in H2O **put the exponent in the [x]** 0 EXAMPLE: [H+] = 10^-7 The scale goes from 0-14. 14 being very basic and 0 being very acidic. SO, pH = 7 … or you can just take it from PURE water is neutral, it’s a 7 on the scale. The exponent … 2 Stomach acid is usually 2. Stomach Acid Buffers - buffers are a substance that minimize the concentrations of H+ and OH- in a solution Ocean acidification The main reason why Ocean acidification (O.A.) exists, or is caused by, is CO2 CO2 reacts with H2O and forms carbonic acid. Then, the carbonic acid breaks down into - 2- 7 Water H+ and HCO .3The added H+ combines with the carbonate ions in the ocean, CO , f3rming even more HCO 3 Therefore, these is less carbonate ions to help form corals and shells for crabs. The more you pollute, the less ocean there is… 13 Bleach 14 Chapter 4 Carbon accounts for over the majority Carbon and molecules Of biological compounds. Without carbon, we would Not be here Organic chemistry- the study of carbon containing compounds HYDROCARBONS- Only consist of hydrogen and carbon. Different shapes Isomers Are different hydrocarbons. They are compounds with the number of atoms, With the same elements, but with different structures. There are three types Structural Isomers EXAM 1 REVIEW Page 2 Isomers Are different hydrocarbons. They are compounds with the number of atoms, With the same elements, but with different structures. There are three types Structural Isomers They different in covalent arrangements; an example Is shown below: Cis-trans (geometric) isomers They differ by spatial arrangements due to Inflexibility of double bonds Example below~ Enantiomers They are mirrored images of each other; usually one is biologically inactive Example below~~ ~FUNCTIONAL GROUPS~ They are involved in chemical reactions There are 7 in the book… HYDROXAL Is polar due to electronegative oxygen; and hydrophilic CARBONYL is hydrophilic **I am assuming it is polar CARBONXYL Is hydrophilic and acts as an AMINO acts as a base and is acid; is also polar Hydrophilic SULFHYDRYL is actually HYDROPHOBIC PHOSPHATE is hydrophilic METHYL is hydrophilic ***PLEASE NOTE*** I am aware that google says that somethings are hydrophobic or -philic; But, I am going by the book since he teaches it from the book. ALSO, I've learned that if a polar compound goes in water, which is polar, IT WILL DISSOLVE. HOWEVER, if a non-polar enters water, polar, IT DOES NOT DISSOLVE. EXAM 1 REVIEW Page 3 HOWEVER, if a non-polar enters water, polar, IT DOES NOT DISSOLVE. Chapter 5 Molecules and larger… things Macromolecules- carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acid. Monomers make Polymersthrough the process called dehydration reaction They can make huge strands Dehydration reaction occurs when one end of a monomer,or polymer, gives An H+ and another monomer,or polymer, gives up OH- . Together, they make water; After the reaction, a bond is left between them. Hydrolysis is reserved process of dehydration. They break apart. The process is shown below~ Monomer, or polymer Monomer, or polymer New polymer Carbohydrates The simplest monosaccharides are carbohydrates Carbohydrates are polymers called polysaccharides Sugars range from 3 to 7 carbons long MONOsaccharides are 1 saccharide; CH2O; a sugar Glucose is C6H12O6 ~most sugars end in -ose and are Carbon doubled bonded O~ Disaccharides have 2 monosaccharides joined by a process Called Glycosidic linkage. Glycosidic linkage is a covalent bond formed between 2 monosaccharides Through the dehydration reaction. For example, 2 glucose molecules Form 1 maltose molecule. Glucose Glucose POLYsaccharides are more than 1 polymers; usually Ranging from a few hundred to a few thousand. They are also joined by Glycosidic linkages Shared (covalently)oxygen They are stored as starches in plants They are stored as glycogen in animals They are stored as chitin in insects, bugs, or shelled creatures; like crabs Cellulose is a polysaccharide that is a major component of the cell wall in plants; Maltose It is the most abundant organic compound on Earth. (about 100 Billion tons produced per year) EXAM 1 REVIEW Page 4 (alpha) (beta) FATS are not polymers; constructed from glycerol and fatty acids. They are HYDROPHOBIC UNSATURATED FATS has 1 or more double bonds, with 1 fewer hydrogen on each double bonded carbon. These are A fatty acid has a long carbon chain; usually 16-18 carbon atoms. At the end of Oils since they are not packed together close enough to The fatty acid, is a carboxyl group. solidify. SATURATED FATS have no double bonds between carbon atoms. Catalysts speed up chemical reactions without being consumed by the These are solid at room temperature; like butter. **if butter is even solid in the texas heat… haha** reaction Unsaturated fat are cis-trans compared to saturated fats Phospholipids has only 2 fatty acids attached to the glycerol Steroids are lipids; cholesterol is a steroid. SATURATED FATS AND TRANS FATS EFFECT HEALTH NEGATIVELY PROTEINS Amino acid is the monomer in proteins; they have the amino group and a carboxyl group Polypeptides are formed through the process of dehydration reaction, like with sugars, they form A polymer of amino acids are called polypeptides peptide bonds and are covalently bonded as well. Structures There are 4 structures to proteins. Primary structure- Secondary structure- Shows the linear chain of the protein. It is the sequence of amino acids. They are They come in 2 forms; alpha and beta. Very long Alpha is the helix formation. Beta is the pleated, wavy formation. They differ by how the hydrogen bonds are formed. Alpha hydrogen bonds bond every other fourth hydrogen. Beta hydrogen bonds between parts of another beta formation. The hydrogens are bonded with oxygen Tertiary structure (3rd) This shows the overall shape of a polypeptide resulting From a reaction between the side chains. Covalent bonds called Disulfide bridges help reinforce the overall shape. Quaternary structure (4th) Basically the overall shape… I really cannot further explain this. I have failed you… dishonor on my cow… Beta, pleated EXAM 1 REVIEW Page 5 This shows the overall shape of a polypeptide resulting From a reaction between the side chains. Covalent bonds called Disulfide bridges help reinforce the overall shape. Quaternary structure (4th) Basically the overall shape… I really cannot further explain this. I have failed you… dishonor on my cow… Beta, pleated Alpha, helix More protein shapes When a protein loses it's fold-y shape, it is called denaturation. This is caused when the temperature, Amount of salt, weak chemical bonds, or its environment have been altered. It becomes a ribbon in the end instead of a curled ribbon. They can regain their shape, or re-folded, with the help of chaperonins. These are called chaperone proteins. They look like this: x-ray crystallography helps determine the 3-d structure of many other proteins. Sort of… The orange thing is called a cap that basically closes it … that is the purpose of a cap… In goes a polypeptide, an un-folded protein, and out comes a correctly folded protein. The cap helps create a hydrophilic environment for the polypeptide to fold properly. NUCLEUTIDES Nucleic acids are polymers of nucleotides. Nucleic acid makes DNA/RNA and then genes Nucleotides are made up of - 5 carbon sugars DNA - provides directions for its own replication and RNA RNA - controls protein synthesis - A nitrogenous base - And one or more phosphate group(s) ADENINE PAIRS WITH THYMINE ADENINE AND GUANINE ARE PURINES GAUNINE PAIRS WITH CYTOSINE CYTOSINE AND THYMINE ARE PYRIMIDINES THYMINE IS ONLY FOUND IN DNA URACIL IS ONLY FOUND IN RNA EXAM 1 REVIEW Page 6 END IMPORTANT Okay, I said I would do questions are the end of the notes. HOWEVER; I am choosing to send them separately. YOU MUST TEXT OR EMAIL ME ASKING FOR THEM. The reason for this is because I am carefully making them to make sure I do not screw them up. I realize this guide is waayyy overdue; I have a lot of going on in my personal life; which shouldn’t be an excuse. I am very sorry. ~~I advise you read the book instead of just going off of this~~ it will help you greatly Any questions and comments are greatly appreciated. Contact me via email or phone. 214-766-0010 firstname.lastname@example.org I hope I have helped you in some form or fashion Thank you :) EXAM 1 REVIEW Page 7
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