Soc 101: Exam #2 Study Guide
Soc 101: Exam #2 Study Guide Soc 101
Popular in Introductory Sociology I
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Department
verified elite notetaker
This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hailey Hansen on Monday September 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Soc 101 at University of Mississippi taught by Dr. Miguel Centellas in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 127 views.
Reviews for Soc 101: Exam #2 Study Guide
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/26/16
THE SECOND EXAM IS ON FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 30, 2016 This exam will cover material from Chapters 4, 5, & 6. Learning Objectives Chapter 4 1. Describe the development of the self in the context of symbolic interaction. You first need to understand what self and symbolic interaction is to answer this question. Self – the sense of oneself as an object oUnderstand that there is a “you” that exists that others can see Symbolic interaction – a sociological perspective focusing on the role of symbols and how their meanings are share and understood by those involved in human interaction oFor example, hand gestures, voice, tone, and sarcasm. Development of self – In the development of self, we develop a selfimage that reflects how others see and respond to us. Based on that selfimage, we develop some sort of selffeeling, such as pride or embarrassment. oLooking Glass Self – the selfimage that reflects how others respond to a person, particularly as a child. Think about mirror selfies – we are aware of how others see us 2. Discuss the concepts of the individuals as performer, including the ideas of impression management and the front and back stages. The idea that an individual’s social life is a series of dramatic performances is known as dramaturgy. Impression management – people’s use of a variety of techniques to control the images of themselves that they want to project during their social performances oFor example, think about a classroom setting. You may act engaged and attentive, but you may really be on some social media. Front stage – the part of the social world where the social performance is idealized and designed to define the situation for those who observe it oThis is the side of your personality that you show to the world. Back stage – the part of the social world where people feel free to express themselves in ways that are suppressed in the front stage oThis is who you are behind closed doors 3. Explain the significance of socialization in childhood and adulthood. You first need to understand what socialization is to answer this question. Socialization – the process through which a person learns and generally comes to accept the ways of a group or of society as a whole oInvolves a process of interaction as those with knowledge and experience teach those with a need to acquire that knowledge or to learn from others’ experiences. Socialization during childhood sets the course for the rest of the child’s life. Perhaps the most important factors of childhood socialization are the agents of socialization, or those who do the socializing. In the case of childhood socialization, the agents of socialization are the parents or other family members. oPrimary socialization – the acquisition of language, identities, gender roles, cultural routines, norms, and values from parents and other family members at the earliest stages of an individual’s life Later in life as an adult, one can be socialized in the workplace, learning what behavior is acceptable in a professional setting. The unlearning of old behaviors, norms, and values and the learning of new ones is called resocialization. oAnticipatory socialization – the teaching and learning of what will be expected of one in the future oReverse socialization – the socialization of those who normally do the socializing An example of this would be if a child was socializing his/her parents. 4. Describe the key aspects of interaction with others as socialization. You first need to understand what interaction is to answer this question. Interaction – a social engagement that involves two or more individuals who perceive and orient their actions to one another Interaction is a rational process in which those involved seek to maximize rewards and minimize costs. That being said, perhaps the most important aspect of interaction is reciprocity, which means that those engaged in interaction expect to give and receive rewards of roughly equal value. Other key aspects are: oConversation analysis – analysis of how people accomplish conversations oInteraction order – an area of interaction that is organized and orderly, but in which the order is created informally by those involved in the interaction rather than by some formal structure oStatus – a dimension of the social stratification system that relates to the prestige attached to people’s positions within society Ascribed status – a position in which individuals are placed, or to which they move, that has nothing to do with what they have done or their capacities or accomplishments Beyond the individual’s control, such as race or gender Achieved status – a position acquired by people on the basis of what they accomplish or the nature of their capacities Such as becoming a parent or successful entrepreneur Master status – a position that is more important than any others, both for the person in the position and for all others involved Central to a person’s identity, such as sexual orientation oRole – what is generally expected of a person who occupies a given status Role conflict – conflicting expectations associated with a given position or multiple positions Such as a teacher who is expected to excel at teaching and research Role overload – confrontation with more expectations than a person can possibly handle Such as students studying during finals week Rolemaking – the ability of people to modify their roles, at least to some degree Such as reducing one’s own work hours 5. Identify microlevel social structures, including social networks and groups. Microlevel social structures include things such as interpersonal relationships, social networks, and groups. Interpersonal relationships are characterized as being dyads, twoperson groups, or triads, threeperson groups. Social networks – networks that involve two or more individuals, groups, organizations, or societies oNetworks are “interconnected nodes” that are open, capable of unlimited expansion, dynamic, and able to innovate without disrupting the system in which they exist Group – a relatively small number of people who over time develop a patterned relationship based on interaction with one another oPrimary groups – groups that are small, are closeknit, and have intimate facetoface interaction Such as a family oSecondary groups – generally large, impersonal groups in which ties are relatively weak and members do not know one another very well, and whose impact on members is typically not very powerful Such as a parentteacher association oReference groups – groups that people take into consideration in evaluating themselves Such as a group of people whose success you would like to emulate Important People: Charles Horton Cooley – developed the lookingglass self George Herbert Mead – emphasized the importance of the mind, self, and generalized other Erving Goffman – developed the idea of dramaturgy and interaction order George Simmel – developed the concept of dyads and triads Solomon Asch – Conformity Experiment REVIEW QUESTIONS FOR CHAPTER 4 (answers below): 1. How do individuals develop their sense of self? 2. What is the difference between the “I” and the “me”? 3. Give 3 examples of an ascribed status. 4. Who was concerned with the mind, the self, and the generalized other? 5. Contrast the front and back stage. Chapter 5 1. Describe the features of formal and informal organizations and bureaucracies. You first need to understand what organizations and bureaucracies are to answer this question. Organization – a collective purposely constructed to achieve particular ends Bureaucracy – a highly rational organization, especially one that is highly efficient oIdeal type – an exaggeratedly rational model that is used to study real world phenomena oInformal organizations – how an organization actually works as opposed to the way it is supposed to work oThere are several different kinds of authority, or legitimate domination, which are associated with bureaucracies. Domination, in this sense, means the probability that commands will be obeyed by subordinates. Rationallegal authority – authority that is legitimated on the basis of legally enacted rules and the right of those with authority under those rules to issue commands Such as the President of the United States Traditional authority – authority based on a belief in longrunning traditions Such as a king Charismatic authority – authority based on the devotion of the followers to what they define as the exceptional characteristics of the leaders Such as Martin Luther King, Jr. o Organizations within bureaucracies can sometimes turn into an oligarchy, which is an organization with a small group of people at the top obtaining far more power than they are supposed to have. 2. Discuss new concepts in the study of organizations such as gendered and network organizations. Gendered organizations – jobs are often designed for an idealized worker, such as nursing and teaching being a femaledominant field, while doctors are generally male. oGlass ceiling – a certain level of authority beyond which women in male dominated businesses cannot rise oGlass cage – the idea that men and women are doing similar jobs but operate in separate parts of an organization (horizontal segregation) oA major issue is sexual harassment, which is defined as unwanted sexual attention that takes place in the workplace or other settings Another organizational development is outsourcing, which is the transfer of activities once performed by one organization to another organization in exchange for money oOffshore outsourcing – the transfer of work to organizations in other countries Network organizations – a new organizational form that is flat and horizontal, is intertwined with other organizations, is run and managed in very different ways than traditional organizations, uses more flexible production methods, and is composed of a series of interconnected nodes o Horizontal Structure Fewer positions between the top of the organization and the bottom o Fuzzy Boundaries Intertwine with other organizations that have similar goals o Dispersed Decision Making Collective decision making and involvement of many people in the decisionmaking process o Flexible Production Moving away from mass production 3. Contrast gemeinschaft and gesellschaft societies. Gemeinschaft – traditional societies characterized by facetoface relations oSuch as families, rural villages, and small towns Gesellschaft – modern societies characterized by impersonal, distant, and limited social relationships Risk Society – a society in which the central issues involve risks and ways to protect oneself oThink about terrorism, pandemics, and climate change. We only tolerate the risks – we can’t prevent them, we just manage them. 4. Describe global societies in terms of nations, states, and nationstates. Nation – a group of people who share similar cultural, religious, ethnic, linguistic, and territorial characteristics State – a political body organized for government and civil rule Nationstate – the combination of a nation with a geographic and political structure; encompasses both the populations that define themselves as a nation with various shared characteristics and the organizational structure of the state Globalization – the increasing fluidity of global flows and the structures that expedite and impede those flows oLandscapes – fluid, irregular, and variable global flows that produce different results throughout the world Ethnoscapes – landscapes that allow the movement, or fantasies about movement, of various individuals and groups Technoscapes – landscapes that use mechanical and informational technologies as well as the material that moves quickly and freely through them Financescapes – landscapes that use various financial instruments to allow huge sums of money and other things of economic value to move into and across nations and around the world at great speed, almost instantaneously Mediascapes – landscapes that include the electronic capability to produce and transmit information and images around the world Ideoscapes – landscapes that include images, largely political images, often in line with the ideologies of nationstates Important People: Max Weber – developed the idea of bureaucracy, ideal type, and authority structures Lawrence J. Peter and Raymond Hull – Peter Principle Cyril Northcote Parkinson – Parkinson’s Law Manuel Castells – developed the idea of Informationalism Ferdinand Toennies – differentiated between gemeinschaft and gesellschaft Arjun Appadurai – developed the idea of landscapes REVIEW QUESTIONS FOR CHAPTER 5 (answers below): 1. What are the three types of legitimate authority? 2. Who defined these types of authority? 3. What is a landscape? What are the 5 landscapes? 4. Who defined these landscapes? 5. Contrast the two societies defined by Ferdinand Toennies. Chapter 6 1. Define deviance. Deviance – any action, belief, or human characteristic that a large number of people who are members of a society or a social group consider a violation of group norms and for which the violator is likely to be censured or punished oCrime – deviance that is a violation of the criminal law Primary deviance – early, nonpatterned acts of deviance, or an act here or there that is considered to be strange or out of the ordinary Secondary deviance – deviant acts that persist, become more common, and eventually cause people to organize their lives and personal identities around their deviant status 2. Describe structural/functional, conflict/critical, and inter/actionist approaches to theorizing about deviance. Structural/Functional theories: Émile Durkheim believed that since deviance and crime have existed in all societies at all times, they must have positive functions for the larger society and its structures. He believed that it allows societies to define their collective beliefs. oConformists – people who accepts both cultural goals and the traditional means of achieving those goals oInnovators – individuals who accept cultural goals but reject conventional means of achieving success oRitualists – individuals who realize that they will not be able to achieve cultural goals, but who nonetheless continue to engage in the conventional behavior associated with such success oRetreatists – individuals who reject both cultural goals and the traditional routes to their attainment; they have completely given up on attaining success within the system oRebels – individuals who reject both traditional means and goals and instead substitute nontraditional goals and means to those goals Conflict/Critical theories: A major focus is the inequality that exists in those structures and the impact that it has on individuals. They believe that inequality causes at least some of the less powerful individuals in society to engage in deviant acts because they have few other ways of succeeding in society. Inter/Actionist theories: Ethnomethodologists are concerned with the everyday behaviors in which people produce deviance. That is, people can adopt methods of speech and behavior that make their deviance invisible to most others (such as transgender people passing as their preferred gender), or those who are deviant can talk and act in ways that make it clear that they are deviant (such as gang members displaying their tattoos). 3. Discuss the relationship between deviance and crime. Deviance is simply an action that others deem outside the social norm. However, a crime takes deviance a step further, and is considered deviance that is a violation of the criminal law. oCriminology – the field devoted to the study of crime There are several different types of crime. oFelonies – serious crimes punishable by a year or more in prison oMisdemeanors – minor offenses punishable by imprisonment of less than a year oViolent crime – crime that involves the threat of injury or the threat or actual use of force, including murder, rape, robbery, and aggravated assault, as well as terrorism and, globally, war crimes oProperty crimes – crimes that do not involve injury or force, but rather the theft or destruction of property oWhitecollar crimes – crimes committed by responsible and highsocial status people in the course of their work oCorporate crime – violation of the law by legal organization, including antitrust violations and stock market violations oOrganized crime – crime that may involve various types of organizations but is most often associated with syndicated organized crime that uses violence and the corruption of public officials to profit from illegal activities oPolitical crimes – crime involving either illegal offenses against the state to affect its policies or offenses by the state, whether domestically or internationally oHate crimes – crimes that stem from the fact that the victims are in various ways different from, and disesteemed by, the perpetrators oCybercrime – crimes that targets computers, uses computers to commit traditional crimes, or uses computers to transmit illegal information and images oConsumer crimes – crimes related to consumption, including shoplifting and using stolen credit cards or credit card numbers 4. Discuss the purpose and effects of the criminal justice system. The criminal justice system is involved in the apprehension, prosecution, and punishment of those who violate the law. The major components of the criminal justice system are law enforcement, the courts, and the correctional system. oParole – the supervised early release of a prisoner for such efforts as good behavior while in prison oProbation – a system by which those who are convicted of less serious crimes may be released into the community but under supervision and under certain conditions, such as being involved in and completing a substance abuse program oSpecific deterrence – deterrence from criminal behavior based on the concept that the experience of punishment in general, and incarceration in particular, makes it less likely than an individual will commit crimes in the future General deterrence – the deterrence of the population as a whole from committing crimes for fear that they will be punished or imprisoned for their actions oRecidivism – the repetition of a criminal act by one who has been convicted of a prior offense Important People: Émile Durkheim – Structural/Functional theory Robert K. Merton – developed the relationships between means and ends (Conformists, Innovators, etc.) Erving Goffman – analyzed the idea of stigmas Cesare Lombroso – father of criminology Cesare Beccaria – debated whether or not law enforcement, courts, and corrections were fair, effective, and just REVIEW QUESTIONS FOR CHAPTER 6 (answers below): 1. Contrast discredited stigma and discreditable stigma. 2. How is crime different from deviance? 3. Give an example of a moral panic. 4. Who was the main theorist behind the Structural/Functional theory? 5. How are rebels different from Retreatists? Important Terms These are terms that were not mentioned above. Be sure to know these. Chapter 4 Game stage – a child develops a self in the full sense of the term, because it is then that the child begins to take on the roles of a group of people simultaneously rather than the roles of discrete individuals Generalized other – the attitude of the entire group or community taken by individuals in the process of developing their own behaviors and attitudes Gesture – a movement of one animal or human that elicits a mindless, automatic, and appropriate response from another animal or human “I” – the immediate response of an individuals to others; the part of the self that is incalculable, unpredictable, and creative “Me” – the organized set of others’ attitude assumed by the individual; involves the adoption by the individual of the generalized other Micromacro continuum – the range of social entities from the individual, even the mind and self, to the interaction among individuals, the groups often formed by that interaction, formally structured organizations, societies, and increasingly the global domain Mind – an internal conversation that arises in relation to, and is continuous with, interactions, especially conversations that one has with others in the social world Play stage – children learn to take on the attitudes of specific others toward themselves Significant symbol – a gesture that arouses in the individual the same kind of response, although it need not be identical, as it is supposed to elicit from those to whom the gesture is addressed Total institution – a closed, allencompassing place of residence and work set off from the rest of society that meets all of the needs of those enclosed within it Chapter 5 Bounded rationality – rationality limited by, among other things, instabilities and conflicts within most, if not all, organizations, as well as by the limited human capacity to think and act in a rational manner Bureaucratic personality – a type of bureaucrat who slavishly follows the rules of the organization to such an extent that the ability to achieve organizational goals is subverted Informationalism – the processing of knowledge Chapter 6 Criminalization – the process by which the legal system negatively sanctions some form of deviant behavior Differential association – a theory that focuses on the fact the people learn criminal behavior and therefore that what is crucial is whom a person associates with Discreditable stigma – a stigma that the affected individual assumes is neither known about nor immediately perceivable Discredited stigma – a stigma that they affected individual assumes is already known about or readily apparent Interaction – a social engagement that involves two or more individuals who perceive, and orient their actions to, one another Labeling theory – theory contending that a deviant is someone to whom a deviant label has been successfully applied to Moral entrepreneurs – individuals or groups who come to define an act as a moral outrage and who lead a campaign to have it defined as deviant and to have it made illegal and therefore subject to legal enforcement Moral panic – a widespread and disproportionate reaction to a form of deviance Rule creators – individuals who devise society’s rules, norms, and laws Rule enforcers – individuals who threaten to or actually enforce the rules Social control agents – those who label a person as deviant Social control – the process by which a group or society enforces conformity to its demands and expectations Stigma – a person’s characteristic that others find, define, and often label as unusual, unpleasant, or deviant Symbol – a word, gesture, or object that stands in for something (a “label”) Answers for Review Questions Chapter 4 1. We develop a selfimage that reflects how others see and respond to us. Based on that selfimage, we develop some sort of selffeeling, such as pride or embarrassment. Remember the lookingglass self. 2. The “I” is the immediate response of an individual to others, and is unconscious, incalculable, unpredictable, and creative. The “me” is the organized set of others’ attitudes and behaviors adopted by the individual, and involves the acceptance and internalization by the individual of the generalized other. 3. Race, social class, gender. 4. George Herbert Mead 5. Front stage is where the social performance tends to be idealized and designed to define the situation for those who are observing it. Back stage is where people feel free to express themselves in ways that are suppressed in the front. Chapter 5 1. Rationallegal authority, traditional authority, charismatic authority. 2. Max Weber 3. A landscape is a fluid, irregular, and variable global flow that produces different results throughout the world. Ethnoscapes, Technoscapes, Financescapes, Mediascapes, Ideoscapes. 4. Arjun Appadurai 5. Gemeinschaft societies are characterized by facetoface relations. Gesellschaft societies are characterized by impersonal, distant, and limited social relations. Chapter 6 1. Discredited stigma assumes one’s differentness is known about already or is evident on the spot. Discreditable stigma assumes one’s stigma is neither known about by those present nor immediately perceivable about them. 2. Deviance is any action that is considered a violation of social norms. Crime is deviance that is a violation of the law. 3. Salem Witch Trials. 4. Émile Durkheim 5. Retreatists reject both cultural goals and the means to reach them. Rebels substitute nontraditional goals and the means to reach those goals.
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'