ARHS 3620 Exam One Image Study Guide, Part II
ARHS 3620 Exam One Image Study Guide, Part II ARHS 3620
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ARHS 1020 (Art History Survey II: Renaissance to Present)
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Catie Cullen on Monday September 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ARHS 3620 at Tulane University taught by Michael Plante in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Contemporary Art 1950 - in Art History at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 09/26/16
ARHS 3620 – Contemporary Art since 1950 Exam One Images, Part 2 Exam Format Part One: 10 identifications from image index o Must know artist, title, year o One point for each ID Part Two: two essays o Write an outline of your answer before you write o Essays have the same question - "Compare and contrast these two images." Ex.) Two abstract expressionist paintings: one is color field, the other is gestural; define abstract expressionism, NYC, Jungian psychology, materials, what do you see Need to know which comes first, which is earlier and which is later because ALWAYS start discussion with the earliest thing Pollock, Number 7, 1951 Number 7, 1951 o After Pollock began drinking again, he left drip-pour paintings behind and moved to a new method Black Enamel paintings: Pollock uses a turkey baster to apply black enamel paint to canvas Although it was an example of untraditional methods, he develops remarkable control o This painting was very influential to Helen Frankenthaler Frankenthaler, Mountains and Sea, 1952 Mountain and Sea, 1958 o Showcases Frankenthaler's new invention of the Soak-Stain technique, which is done by reducing color to a thin wash with turpentine and then dumping onto the painting Color is stained into the fabric of the canvas o Like Pollock, Frankenthaler was painting of the floor and was process-based Gendered comparisons: if Pollock's techniques are to male ejaculation, Frankenthaler's techniques are to female menstruation o Never showed the painting; it remained in her studio for years, although it became very influential in the 1950s Greenberg, Helen Frankenthaler's lover and famous critic, loved Soak-Stain technique because it reduced the very theatrical aspect of the other abstract expressionists paintings; Totally geared for eyesight, a pure painting Frankenthaler, Sun Spot, 1954 Sunspot, 1954 o A change in Frankenthaler's style in the later 1950s is visible in Sunspot Paintings became "harder"; no more pastel colors, but more earthy tones Louis, Blue Veil, 1958 Morris Louis: incredibly influenced by Frankenthaler's work o Two years after seeing her work, he begins to experiment with soak-stain technique Blue Veil, 1958 o Painted with the massive canvas on the floor Very diluted, liquid paint was poured along the edge of the canvas Canvas was then lifted up so the paint ran down o Amazing variation of color as the paint mixes and glides down the painting He does not allow the color to pool as it runs off Louis, Point of Tranquility, 1959 Point of Tranquility, 1959 o Pour of the paint starts in the middle and stains outwards o Louis calls this type of painting a "floral" because it looks like a flower o Expressionism, thick paint, and emotion are rejected, and rather Louis creates a purely optical experience for aesthetic pleasure Painters like Louis, however, painted themselves into a corner because there wasn't much to move forward with, only different colors People began to question, why shouldn't your mind or body be dazzled rather than your eyes? Rauschenberg, White Painting, 1951 Robert Rauschenberg: one of two artists that rebelled against expressionism in a different way through Neo-Dadaism o Neo-Dadaism: aesthetic and anti-beauty Dadaism: a European art movement that came out of WWI that was very untraditional in its materials and very anti-aesthetic by working against beauty White Painting, 1951 o One of many paintings with the same name from a singular exhibition o Each painting has multiple different panels, ranging from one panel to four or more The juxtaposition of the panels made lines Lighting was very imporant and was set up so that when people at the exhibition waslked up to look at the paintings, they would see their shadows on the white paintings o The idea behind these paintings were that the room is artm and the painting merely reflects it Rauschenberg, Yoicks, 1954 Yoicks, 1954 o This painting was created in the midst of the dominance of abstract expressionism o Rauschenberg took mass-produced industrial fabric (generic) and combined it with brushstroke (personal) At the time, he was struggling with who he was as an artist, a very unhappy marriage, and his love/hate relationship with abstract expressionism Duchamp, Fountain, 1917 Duchamp: master of the Dada movement in America and France; loved brilliant young artists o Moved to US during WWI and had a brilliant idea about authorship, authenticity, and originality o Conceptualized in the Readymades, or premade items that Duchamp slightly altered and called art Fountain, 1917 o Turned a urinal on its side, used a pseudonym to sign and date it o By signing a urinal he thought was beautiful, Duchamp created a piece of art Duchamp, In Advance of the Broken Arm, 1917 In Advance of the Broken Arm, 1917 o By signing a snow shovel that he thought was beautiful, Duchamp created a piece of art He has taken it out of the world of utilitarian usefulness and given it an art use Installation is key, because if the shovel was simply left outside of a hardware store, it would be a simple shovel again o The shovel is suspended in midair at the MoMA; the shovel cannot touch the ground, and is therefore not a shovel Rauschenberg, Erased de Kooning Drawing, 1953 Erased de Kooning Drawing, 1953 o Reassigned the authorship over the original de Kooning drawing Like Duchamp, questioning the meaning of originality, authorship, and authenticity o After purchasing a de Kooning drawing, Rauschenberg erases it over the course of a month Rauschenberg feels that he can't "get past" de Kooning, so rather he completely erases him o In addition to erasing the drawing, he carefully titles and dates it, puts it into a nice frame, to show the intention behind the work Rauschenberg, Charlene, 1954 Charlene, 1954 o An example of Rauschenberg's combines, which were three-dimensional collage paintings o Very large painting o Highly varied medium T-shirts, fabrics, stamps, umbrella, art postcards, posters, and lots of paint are all included in the piece Rejection of Abstract Expressionism by exploring new materials Rauschenberg, Bed, 1955 Bed, 1955 o Combine image exploring how Rauschenberg is coming to terms with his gay/homosexual identity Critics found this image highly upsetting It is "figurative in its absence", meaning that it is clear that a figure once lay in the bed and is no longer there but is still the true subject of the painting o Around 1953, Rauschenberg realized he was gay, at a time when homosexuality was not accepted For example, at this time, being found in a gay bar could lead to your name being published in the NY Times and losing your job o Bed is an example of a coded message: only those who knew Rauschenberg was gay could truly understand the painting, while others could not There is a drawing on the pillow by Cy Twombley, Rauschenberg's lover Majority of viewers wouldn't be able to identify his gay identity, but some would Rauschenberg, Odalisk, 1955-58 Odalisk, 1955-58 o Big, tall wooden box; collaged and painted on three of the four sides; stuffed rooster on top; held up by a foot standing on a pillow on a base o There is a nude female figure and a chicken, which in French is a slang term for a prostitute The title is a nod to Odalisque with Slave by Ingres, which is a painting of a sex slave in a Turkish harem This painting would have been familiar to Rauschenberg because it resided in New york Obelisk (shape of the work) + odalisque = Odalisk Rauschenberg, Canyon, 1959 Canyon, 1959 o Materials: postcards, fabric, paint, naked photo of Rauschenberg's son Christopher, stuffed painted bald eagle protruding from the painting, pillow suspended by a rope hanging from the painting Another example of untraditional medium o Rauschenberg making a joke through this painting by alluding to Rembrandt's Ganymede in the Talons of Zeus Naked picture of Christopher is Ganymede, stuffed eagle is Zeus, pillow hanging is the baby's buttocks Almost like a pun on the painting, which Rauschenberg knew because it hung in New York o This is an example of a somewhat coded image, because in order to understand Canyon, you need to know the Rembrandt piece Rauschenberg, Monogram, 1959 Monogram, 1959 o Depicts a goat stuck inside of a tire on a platform Combine o Different theories about the meaning of this combine One theory is that because goats are known to be very sexually active, the tire around the goat could represent some sort of orifice Sexually charged goat gets a little "too excited" and falls right in Another theory that Professor Plante prefers is that the title is a nod to the Brooks Brothers monogram The symbol of the company is a sheep suspended in the center by a long ribbon This may be making a joke (like Canyon) of that logo by instead depicting a goat caught in a tire
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