Study Guide II (PSYC 4100)
Study Guide II (PSYC 4100) 4100
Popular in Cognitive Psychology
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
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This 31 page Study Guide was uploaded by Leslea Motley on Monday September 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 4100 at University of Georgia taught by Kara Dyckman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 09/26/16
PSYC 4100 Study Guide – Exam II 1 LECTURES: 09.06: Perception I. Definitions • Sensation: a process where receptors in our sensory organs (ears, eyes, skin, taste buds, etc.) receive stimuli from the environment; receptor sends signal to nervous system; receptors receive and detect stimuli and pass the info on to nervous system • Perception: related to sensation, but takes info that was received, interprets it, organizes it, and transforms it into something meaningful; the process of interpreting the stimuli II. Why is this important for behavior? The way we act or behave is base don our perception of some sensation (i.e., reaction to temperature); the same raw environmental stimuli can be perceived in different ways among people. III. Video: Illusions narrated by Neil Patrick Harris IV. Heuristics: not innate, learned behaviors obtained from the environment; simple, efficient rules, learned or hard-‐coded by evolutionary processes, that have been proposed to explain how people make decisions, come to judgments, and solve problems typically when facing complex problems or incomplete information • Below are examples of heuristics, they are learned through experience, and referred to as general rules of thumb • Object Perception: • How do we determine which objects are present? • Gestalt Grouping Principle • Figures taken from reading PSYC 4100 Study Guide – Exam II 2 ‘Closure’ – seeing a ‘gapped’ circle figure as a circle • Laws of common fate • Picture of the Black/Blue vs. White/Gold dress controversy Explanation: Light travels through eyeball, through retina, to the very back – ‘photoreceptors’, known as, rods and cones (allow you to see color) What you see is ‘light energy’, but colors that we perceive correspond to different bands of wavelength;(Blues are shorter wave lengths, reds are longer wavelengths). The majority of people have three types of cones The dress in the picture has two varying light sources; one coming from the lower right side, and the other coming from the top right. It has to do with both illumination and context. IX. Ishihara Test for Colorblindness 8% males and 1% females X. Video • Humans rely on vision over any other sense. • “Rubber hand illusion” 09.08 Perception (continued) I. VIDEO – perception “Which Leg belongs to who….” Youtube II. The Complexity of Perception PSYC 4100 Study Guide – Exam II 3 • Perception is unique to individuals and usually includes both: • Bottom-‐up Processing o Perception based on pattern of neural firing to stimulus characteristics o Means that we get info from the stimulus we are encountering and it causes our neurons to fire in some way • Top-‐down Processing o Experience and expectation lead our perceptions; these are things that we already have in our brains • Heuristics: Gestalt (the whole is different from the sum of its parts) o Means that we start from where the stimulus is registered and move forward toward more complex interpretation I. Bottom-‐Up Processing: • Physiological o Feature Detectors -‐ specialized neurons that respond only to certain sensory information o Hubel & Wiesel (1965) concluded that specific neurons in visual cortex respond to specific stimulus (i.e., vertical or horizontal lines) • Neurons and the Environment o Experience-‐dependent plasticity: neurons become tuned to react to specific line orientations, tuned to become feature detectors PSYC 4100 Study Guide – Exam II 4 Blakemore & Cooper(1970) -‐ selective rearing experiments II. Template Matching • People used to think that we knew what something as because it matched a stimulus we had previously stored • This is a very inflexible theory that does not really work. • Something that does use ‘template matching’ – checks – routing and account #’s – written in a particular font and are always in the same place on a check because the ‘check reading machine’ • CAPTCHA III. Feature Analysis • Simpler than full analysis • Weight features • Fewer templates IV. Recognition by Components • More complex objects • Recognition-‐by-‐components theory (RBC) • Biederman • Came up with 36 geometric shapes and concluded that with the combination of any of these ‘geons’ will make any shape V. Top-‐Down Processing (‘Constructive Perspective’) • Make inferences quickly/automatically based on context • context used to supplement info VI. Occlusion Heuristic • We have learned that if something is in front of something else, you cannot see it, but you know it continues to exist 09.13 Perception (continued) Prosopagnosia -‐ inability to recognize facial details Activity -‐ PSYC 4100 Study Guide – Exam II 5 • Finish space training -‐ space effect on cognitive processing finished • "The Man Who Mistook his Wife for a Hat" activity Most class time was spent on activity and discussion of the “Man who mistook wife as a hat” article 09.15 Attention No assigned reading* Attention and Visual Perception: • Attention – process of concentrating on specific features • Exogenous attention – something external that capture your attention – example: fire alarm, ambulance/police sirens, flashing lights, etc. • Endogenous attention – voluntary thought, choose your focus – example: studying for math test • Book – Table 4-‐1: Six Meanings of Attention (do not need to know this for exam) • Input attention: (aka selective attention) cognitive mechanism enabling us to process relevant inputs, thoughts, or actions while ignoring irrelevant or distracting ones • Controlled attention: spotlight attention and search, selective attention, mental resources and conscious processing, supervisory attentional system • Need to know these things: • There is a LOT of information in your environment: emotions, thoughts, feelings, temperature, weather, etc. • Inattentional blindness o Stimulus that is not attended is not perceived o If you are not expecting it, focused, looking for it (I.e., motorcycles on road, deer, etc.), you most likely will not see it. • Change Blindness o Original experiments: Simons and Levin (1998) -‐ person carries door between conversation and they replace person talking to pedestrian o Approximately 50% of people approached in study did not notice when the person they were talking to changed after a door came through the conversation. o First study to demonstrate that change blindness can occur outside of the lab • Continuity errors o Television examples: American Pie • Attention and Perception • Attention is needed to perceive objects as a whole made up of various components • Feature Integration Theory (FIT) o Triesman and Schmidt (1982) PSYC 4100 Study Guide – Exam II 6 § Illusory conjunctions: when you pair one feature of one item with one feature of another item – but it is incorrect • psychological effects in which participants combine features of two objects into one object. There are visual and auditory IC's and illusory conjunctions produced by combinations of visual and tactile stimuli § Features are 'free floating' prior to attention • Attention • Can't pay attention to everything at one time • What determines what we pay attention to? • Exogenous attention o Automatic attraction of attention by stimulus o AKA: Bottom-‐up and Input attention • Endogenous attention o Consciously determined based on internal goals o AKA Top-‐down and Controlled attention • Input attention: Orienting Response o Overt: shifts of attention accompanied by eye movements § Eye movements • Saccades: 'jumping' eye movements, occurring in short pauses • Fixations: shifting vision then stopping to focus eyes on one spot § Eye-‐tracker: program used to track an individual's eye movements o Covert: paying attention without § Pre-‐cueing • Location-‐based: relationship between a location and an individual's selective attention o Experiments: Valid trial and invalid trial – much faster on valid trials than invalid trials • Object-‐based: relationship between an 'object' representation and an individual's selective attention § Physiology of Covert attention • 2 conditions o Fixation-‐only: monkeys release bar when the fixation light is dimmed o Fixation and Attention § Release bar when peripheral dimmed • They measured from a neuron that was specific to the particular field in periphery. o Neural responding increases when paying attention to something, even if the individual is not looking at something. § Studies on dichotic listening – playing two different messages in each ear • The participant was told to focus on the message in the left ear and repeat the message outloud as it comes to mind • Researchers wanted to know what happens to the info heard in the other ear PSYC 4100 Study Guide – Exam II 7 • Early studies reported that participants could not report ANY content from the ear that they were not focusing on – often they could report the gender of the person speaking • Results: cannot report content from the unattended ear, some information is processed from message § Models of selective attention • Where dies the 'attention filter' occur? • Early-‐selection model: filters info before it is analyzed for meaning, filter is set based on a physical characteristic (I.e., left vs. Right) o Broadbent's filter model – it could not explain the cocktail effect, dear aunt jane effect, or effects of practice (you can be trained to detect in unattended ear) • Gray and Wedderburn (1960) experiment • Treisman's attenuation theory o Dictionary unit – each word has a threshold for detection § Your name has a very low threshold for detection (even if it is an unattended message, your name will most likely still be detected) § Shocking words – low threshold § Uncommon or irrelevant words have a higher threshold and are less likely to be perceived when unattended 09.20: Attention (continued) I. Quiz Review (Questions and Answers on Reading notes for 09.20) II. Lecture Slides • Treisman's -‐ Attentuation theory o Called a "Leaky Filter" Model • Late selection model o We make the selection or determination of what we are going to attend to after we know what everyone else is doing/saying o Think about this in terms of two messages coming into separate ears, this model says that we receive all info, process it for meaning, and then decide which to pay attention to o Selection occurs after meaning o Studies that exemplify this model: § McKay (1973) -‐ separate messages in each ear • Left ear hears, "They were throwing stones at the bank" • Right hears, "-‐-‐-‐ -‐-‐-‐ -‐-‐-‐-‐ -‐-‐-‐ -‐-‐ -‐-‐-‐-‐-‐ river" or " -‐-‐-‐ -‐-‐-‐ -‐-‐-‐-‐ -‐-‐-‐-‐ money" • Heard the words "bank" and either "river" or "money" at the same time PSYC 4100 Study Guide – Exam II 8 • They concluded that the word heard in the unattended ear did influence the way that the participant interpreted the sentence. • They tested this by asking the participants [after hearing these sentences] -‐ test phase, "Which sentence of closest to the meaning of what you heard?" -‐ one sentence discussed throwing stones at a river bank, and the other discussed loans at a bank • Concluded that biasing word affected participants' choice • Participants unaware of biasing words o They could not tell the researcher the word they heard in the unattending ear. • Researchers controlled for each ear in these studies. • Which model is correct o There is NOT one answer to this question. o Sometimes we use early selection and sometimes late selection – most early studies were done with hearing because it was the easiest to control, but this applies to all sensory systems. o Focus shifted to cognitive load § Think about what 'early selection' means – it means that you decide to focus attention on one thing and not other things in the environment § 'Late selection' means that you take in all info in environment and then decide where to focus attention III. Activity • Objectives: o Demonstrate how perception is influenced by attention o Reinforce the idea that we cannot pay attention to everything in our environment o Discuss the types of stimuli that are likely to catch our attention (exogenous attention) • Explore role of attention and perception in magic tricks (each group investigates two assigned tricks) 09.22 Attention (continued) • Review • We were discussing field theories • At what point do you continue processing specific information and discontinue focus on other stimuli? • Which theory is correct? • No one answer • Sometimes we use early, sometime we use late • View shifted to focus on cognitive load: • Studied this with the Flanker Compatibility Task ("FCT") • Press left key if "A" or "B" in center OR Press right key if it is "C" or "D" in center • Examples: "BAB," "CAC," "XAX" PSYC 4100 Study Guide – Exam II 9 • "BAB" -‐ Called a compatible trial because the outside letters (aka "extractors") induce same response • "CAC" -‐ Incompatible trial, button press for extractors is different from button press for center letter • "XAX" -‐ Neutral trial – no button press associated with extractors • Results – participants were fastest at compatible, slowest to respond at incompatible trials and there was an intermediate response to neutral stimulus. Therefore, different reaction times suggests that distractor stimuli are still processes • What does this have to do with hard/easy load tasks? • The FCT is considered a 'low-‐load' task, meaning that there are still resources available for distraction • 'High-‐load' tasks refer to situations where little to no distraction is present, and you are focused on one specific task • How does task-‐load affect attention? • Task load o High load: uses almost all cognitive resources, no resources for other tasks, task requires focus without distraction o Low load: uses few cognitive resources, resources are available for other tasks • FCT • Manipulate Cognitive Load o Instructions: On each trial, X or N will be the target; If X is the target, press left key; If N is the target, press the right key. Both X, N, and O's may be pictured, but the participant is expected to focus on the target letter. o In 'high-‐load' tasks, multiple distracting stimulus are pictured, for example, if X is target, picture may include several N's, O's, and other letters, such as, Y, Z, etc. o In 'low-‐load' tasks, distracting stimuli in picture are minor compared to those in high-‐load tasks. • Class survey on cell phone use while driving • Timeline (do not need to memorize this for test) • 1973 -‐ cell phone invented • Late 1990s – cell phone use in cars is routine • 2001 – first law (NY) banning handheld use • Mid 200s – texting becomes commonplace • 2007 – first law (WA) banning texting while driving • ACTIVITY – Perception and Attention – Distracted Driving Task • Multi-‐tasking is not truly possible because on behavior will suffer or experience delay. • States allowing hand-‐free phones but not hand-‐held is not based on empirical reasearch. PSYC 4100 Study Guide – Exam II 10 09.27 Attention (continued) and Article Critiques • Review of Texting and Driving survey and discussion: • If you are texting and driving, you are affected by all three of the distractions in the above graphic. • Equivalent of drinking ~4 beers • Drinking and driving did not always have a huge stigma around it • Texting and driving is just as distracting and dangerous as being legally drunk. • Length needed to break effectively is affected by distractions: o Drink and driving: about an extra 40 feet to stop o Text and drive: ~70ft to stop • Always the chance that something unexpected could happen, effect of inattentional blindness -‐ instances where you need full attention PSYC 4100 Study Guide – Exam II 11 • Some people remain unconvinced by these studies, because they find some things like, the simulator course was not realistic. • Exam question: Design a study that did not have flaws that people use to discount current research • Article critiques (posted on ELC) • Articles will be posted on ELC by the end of this week, choose 1 of 2 of the articles • Your critique is due Thursday, October 20 at the beginning of class* • Hard copy NOT drop box or email • Format o Dbl space, typed, stapled (points taken off for no staples) o Minimum 1 page, but NO MORE THAN 3 PAGES -‐ STOP READING AFTER 3 PAGES, won't be graded after 3rd page o NO COVER PAGE just put name and title on first page o Take pride in work -‐ spell and grammar check, read, edit before turning it in • Read critically and think about the following:: a. Why did they do the study? What were they trying to figure out? b. What did they think would happen? • General -‐ sleep will lead to better insight • Specific c. How did they test their hypothesis? • How many groups/conditions? • Do you think these were sufficient? • What would you do differently? d. What did they find? • Did one group perform better? • What were significant differences? e. What were limitations? • DO NOT MENTION THAT THE STUDY SHOULD HAVE MORE PARTICIPANTS (it is okay to mention factors such as, diversity of participants in study) • Is there something that they missed? • What were the practical limitations? • If you had unlimited resources -‐ how would you test the hypothesis? f. What next step would you take? g. How did this study advance the field? • What did they do that had not been done before? • As you write the article critique -‐ Summarize and critique article: Technical details are NOT as important as your overall understanding of the article • Figure out what is important and what is not • 3 page limit is NON-‐NEGOTIABLE*** • Include ALL SECTIONS FROM RUBRIC -‐ Take note on how much each section is worth PSYC 4100 Study Guide – Exam II 12 • This is an article critique: • Limitations and next steps are worth a lot of points -‐ make sure you treat these sections this way • Don't just come up with ways in which the study could be different (ex: they used 1-‐y/o's, but you think they should have used 4 y/o's). You MUST say how your changes would improve or add to the study. • Important Tips -‐ • BE CONCISE • DO NOT USE THE WORD "PROVE" -‐ We do not actually prove anything in psychology, we collect evidence that supports certain theories that suggest things • DO NOT QUOTE DIRECTLY FROM THE ARTICLE • Be careful to avoid plagiarism o Use own words -‐ try and say in simplest possible way o Don't just change words here and there in phrases taken directly from the article o Plagiarism is an honor code violation • DO NOT CITE ARTICLE -‐ Just tell which article you are doing o May put the title of the article you critique with your title and name so that you save room in your introduction • Common Errors (examples on slides on ELC) • Proofreading fails • Incomplete sentences • Writing style • Redundancy • Plagiarism • Limitations -‐ don't discuss sample size; if you mention validity or similar terms, you must explain exactly why you say this and what you mean by saying this. PSYC 4100 Study Guide – Exam II 13 READING NOTES: 09.06: Sensation and Perception Introduction: Sensation and Perception • Emphasizes fact that rapid/unconscious process is not necessarily simple, or simple to investigate – but the opposite is probably true. • Presents basic study of perception in vision and hearing; focus on the visual and auditory sensory registers (“because they are our most prominent intersections with the world”) 3.1: Visual Sensation and Perception Examine the processes of sensation and perception PSYC 4100 Study Guide – Exam II 14 3.1.1: Gathering Visual Information • Vision is NOT the result of something (i.e., wave) coming out of your eye toward the thing you are viewing. It is triggered when a reflection of light from an object hits our eyes • Saccades: fast movements by which the eyes sweep from one point to another; French for ‘jerk’; can take anywhere from 25ms to 175ms • Fixations: movements/pauses interrupting saccades; takes up to 200ms just to plan and start the movement • Planning involves area MT along the dorsal stream of visual processing • Assumes range of 250-‐300ms for an entire fixation-‐saccade cycle; at this rate there are 3-‐4 visual cycles per second • Each cycle registers a separate visual scene; during the saccade, there is suppression of normal visual processes, even those that do NOT involve the current scene • For the most part, we take in visual information during a fixation • Change Blindness: failure to notice changes in visual stimuli when those changes occur during a saccade • Competitions-‐like situation in visual attention: o On one hand, attention must be interruptible so that we can react quickly to unexpected stimuli. o On the other hand, visual attention should not be too interruptible. We cannot constantly switch focus from one thing to another; this would destroy visual continuity. • Inattention Blindness: when attention is directed elsewhere, and one fails to see the object that she/he is looking directly at; due to some extent, to our lack of attention to an object 3.2 (read all except 3.2.3 & 3.2.5) 3.2: Pattern Recognition Scrutinize the process by which we identify patterns and objects • Pattern recognition does not occur instantly, but does happen automatically and spontaneously. • In many ways it is a problem-‐solving process. • During perception, person needs to identify the nature of distal objects in the world based on the proximal images reaching the retina. 3.2.1: Gestalt Grouping Principles • Laid out in mid20th century • Identify characteristics of perception in which ambiguities in a stimulus are resolved to help determine which objects are present; aimed more at processing info about the whole of an object, rather than simple, and only, building up a mental representation from more basic elements. • Supported by fMRI neuroimaging work showing some parts of the brain, specifically the lateral occipital lobe and the posterior fusiform gyrus are involved in the processing of whole objects, apart from the occipital brain areas involved in processing individual elements PSYC 4100 Study Guide – Exam II 15 • Figure-‐ground principle: when viewing an image, part of the image is treates as the figure/foreground, which is segregated from the visual info upon which it is sent (background) • Closure principle: a person ‘closes up’ an image that has gaps or parts missing, perhaps b/c they are being occluded (blocked) by some other object • Proximity: elements that are near to one another tend to be grouped together • Similarity: elements that are visually similar in some way, such as having similar color or texture, tend to be grouped together • Good continuation: assumes that when an edge is interrupted people assume that it continues along in a regular fashion 09.08: Auditory Perception Read 3.4 (EXCEPT 3.4.1) 3.4: Auditory Perception Report the Science of Hearing • Auditory stimuli are sound waves moving through the air; human hearing systems respond to these stimuli w/ various components: Rube Goldberg-‐type mechanism a. Sound waves funneled into ear b. Tympanic membrane (‘ear drum’) vibrates c. Causes the bones of the middle ear to move d. Movement causes movement of fluid in the inner ear cavity e. Moving fluid moves tiny hair cells long the basilar membrane PSYC 4100 Study Guide – Exam II 16 This movement generates a neural message (sent along the auditory nerve into the cerebral cortex) Both ears project auditory info to both hemispheres, although the majority of input follows laws of contralaterality. • Primary auditory cortex – region in the superior [upper] medial temporal lobe extends somewhat further back in the brain into the parietal lobe; auditory input sent primarily to this cortex. • Generally, humans are sensitive to [wave] patterns as lows as 20 cps (cycles per second) and as high as 20,000cps – although upper limits decline with age. • Most sounds (i.e., speech, music) are very complex, combine dozens of different [wave] frequencies that vary in intensity/loudness – these different frequencies are superimposed and can be summarized in a spectrum. 3.4.2: Auditory Pattern Recognition • Templates o Attempts at explaining auditory pattern recognition (how we recognize sounds/interpret them, such as, language) by using stored templates in memory – ABANDONED ATTEMPTS – because in language, people produce different language sounds, and even same sounds produced by same speaker vary widely. o Problem of invariance: problem is that the sounds of speech are not invariant from one time to the next; instead, any particular sound changes depending on the sounds that precede and follow it in a word. Feature Detection o These models paralleled work in vision are were more successful; lead to similar conclusions as in vision: lots of evidence that context [conceptually drive processing] plays a decisive role. Conceptually Drives Processing o Two examples: • Pollack and Pickett (1964) – recorded idle conversations of volunteers who were waiting to be in the research project, recordings played to other people to see if they could identify the words, which they could – but in a more interesting condition, individual words were spliced out and played in isolation; here, only half of all the words could be identified. They concluded that removing words from their original context made it extremely difficult to recognize the words – by inference, then, context plays an important role on spoken word identification. • Warren and Warren (1970) – played speech to people and asked them to report what they heard; researchers engineered recordings to remove one specific language sound [‘phoneme’] from a single word. People heard altered sentences; they came to conclusion that perception and identification of speech are heavily dependent on context, on top-‐down processing; also a nice reminder of the difference PSYC 4100 Study Guide – Exam II 17 between sensation and perception – physical, sensory nature of sensation but the overwhelmingly cognitive nature of perception. Quiz on CH 3 Two people can hear the same song and perceive lyrics differently. True Auditory input to the left ear is processed primarily in the ____ lobe of the brain. Right temporal lobe The fact that context plays a large role in how we perceive certain sounds reflects the role of which type of processing? BOTH Top-‐down processing and Conceptually-‐ driven processing The same person can say the same word differently from one time to the next. This is referred to as the ________ and is problematic for the _______ theory of auditory perception. Problem of invariance; template Older adults often lose their sensitivity to sounds in the 100-‐120cps range. False (Generally, humans hear in the range of 20-‐20,000cps – losing the higher levels of cps with age.) 09.13 Recognition and agnosia 3.3 Review the science of object recognition and agnosia 3.3.1 Recognition by Components • Biederman's (1987-‐1990) Recognition by Components theory (RBT) o The idea is that we recognize objects by breaking them down into their parts, and then look up the combination in memory to see which object matches it o Pattern Recognition here has a small number or basic primitives – simple 3D geometric forms called geons: combined form of geometric ions PSYC 4100 Study Guide – Exam II 18 o Theory argued that mental representations of 3D objects are composed of geons; when we recognize objects, we break them down into their components and note where the components join together; the pattern then matcher too info stored in memory to yield recognition – two important aspects of these patterns: § Find the edges of objects, enabling us to determine which edges maintain the same relationships to one another regardless of the viewing orientation § Scan vertices (regions of the pattern where lines intersect) -‐ usually places where deep concave angles are formed Evidence for RBC • In Beiderman's further investigations of this model he discovered: o Emphasis on vertices is critical § If a pattern is degraded, your perception will depend on where it was degraded. § If segments on smooth, continuous edges are missing, it is relatively easy to fill out the missing parts and recognize the pattern. § Found using drawings with deletions and determining which deletions caused impaired perception among participants (examples of these images are in the book Figures 3-‐13 and 3-‐14) Shortcomings of RBC and Embodied Perception • It is tied to bottom-‐up processing o Issue b/c object recognition is strongly influenced by context and prior knowledge o Example: Tanaka and Curran (2001) tested 'bird' and 'dog' experts (people with more than 20 years experience with local dog and bird organizations); these people showed enhanced, early recognition in their areas of expertise, compared to how they recognized objects outside of their areas. o Also, Evidence that retrieval of an object's identity occurs as fast as identifying that something is there at all § Dell'acqua and Job (1998) -‐ data indicate that object recognition is automatic, given that judgments of a perceptual feature were strong. • Perceiving components is the first major step ion object recognition – thus, claiming that the whole is perceived by first identifying the components of the overall shape and global pattern (aka the Gestalt or overall form) 3.3.2 Context and Embodied Perception • Embodied processes: how the structure of our bodies and how we interact with the world influence the way that we think • Neural systems programming neural activity – including motor cortex and mirror neurons o These areas are activated under a variety of circumstances when people are lookin
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