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Study Guide II (PSYC 4100)

by: Leslea Motley

Study Guide II (PSYC 4100) 4100

Marketplace > University of Georgia > Psychology (PSYC) > 4100 > Study Guide II PSYC 4100
Leslea Motley
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This study guide includes all lecture and reading notes for exam two. Flash cards for exam 2 will be available on Tuesday night (09/27)
Cognitive Psychology
Kara Dyckman
Study Guide
attention, perception, exam, study, guide, Cognitive Psychology, sensation
50 ?




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This 31 page Study Guide was uploaded by Leslea Motley on Monday September 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 4100 at University of Georgia taught by Kara Dyckman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Georgia.


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Date Created: 09/26/16
PSYC  4100  Study  Guide  –  Exam  II   1   LECTURES:     09.06:  Perception     I. Definitions   • Sensation:  a  process  where  receptors  in  our  sensory  organs  (ears,  eyes,  skin,  taste   buds,  etc.)  receive  stimuli  from  the  environment;  receptor  sends  signal  to  nervous   system;  receptors  receive  and  detect  stimuli  and  pass  the  info  on  to  nervous  system   • Perception:  related  to  sensation,  but  takes  info  that  was  received,  interprets  it,   organizes  it,  and  transforms  it  into  something  meaningful;  the  process  of  interpreting   the  stimuli     II. Why  is  this  important  for  behavior?  The  way  we  act  or  behave  is  base  don  our   perception  of  some  sensation  (i.e.,  reaction  to  temperature);  the  same  raw   environmental  stimuli  can  be  perceived  in  different  ways  among  people.       III. Video:  Illusions  narrated  by  Neil  Patrick  Harris   IV. Heuristics:  not  innate,  learned  behaviors  obtained  from  the  environment;    simple,   efficient  rules,  learned  or  hard-­‐coded  by  evolutionary  processes,  that  have  been   proposed  to  explain  how  people  make  decisions,  come  to  judgments,  and  solve  problems   typically  when  facing  complex  problems  or  incomplete  information   • Below  are  examples  of  heuristics,  they  are  learned  through  experience,  and  referred   to  as  general  rules  of  thumb   • Object  Perception:   • How  do  we  determine  which  objects  are  present?   • Gestalt  Grouping  Principle   • Figures  taken  from  reading   PSYC  4100  Study  Guide  –  Exam  II   2                 ‘Closure’  –  seeing  a  ‘gapped’  circle  figure  as  a  circle       • Laws  of  common  fate   • Picture  of  the  Black/Blue  vs.  White/Gold  dress  controversy   Explanation:  Light  travels  through  eyeball,  through  retina,  to  the  very  back  –   ‘photoreceptors’,  known  as,  rods  and  cones  (allow  you  to  see  color)   What  you  see  is  ‘light  energy’,  but  colors  that  we  perceive  correspond  to  different   bands  of  wavelength;(Blues  are  shorter  wave  lengths,  reds  are  longer  wavelengths).     The  majority  of  people  have  three  types  of  cones     The  dress  in  the  picture  has  two  varying  light  sources;  one  coming  from  the  lower   right  side,  and  the  other  coming  from  the  top  right.  It  has  to  do  with  both  illumination   and  context.     IX. Ishihara  Test  for  Colorblindness   8%  males  and  1%  females       X. Video   • Humans  rely  on  vision  over  any  other  sense.     • “Rubber  hand  illusion”       09.08  Perception  (continued)     I. VIDEO  –  perception  “Which  Leg  belongs  to  who….”  Youtube   II. The  Complexity  of  Perception   PSYC  4100  Study  Guide  –  Exam  II   3   • Perception  is  unique  to  individuals  and  usually  includes  both:   • Bottom-­‐up  Processing   o Perception  based  on  pattern  of  neural  firing  to  stimulus  characteristics   o Means  that  we  get  info  from  the  stimulus  we  are  encountering  and  it  causes   our  neurons  to  fire  in  some  way   • Top-­‐down  Processing   o Experience  and  expectation  lead  our  perceptions;  these  are  things  that  we   already  have  in  our  brains   • Heuristics:  Gestalt  (the  whole  is  different  from  the  sum  of  its  parts)   o Means  that  we  start  from  where  the  stimulus  is  registered  and  move   forward  toward  more  complex  interpretation                                           I. Bottom-­‐Up  Processing:     • Physiological   o Feature  Detectors  -­‐  specialized  neurons  that  respond  only  to  certain   sensory  information   o Hubel  &  Wiesel  (1965)  concluded  that  specific  neurons  in  visual  cortex   respond  to  specific  stimulus  (i.e.,  vertical  or  horizontal  lines)   • Neurons  and  the  Environment   o Experience-­‐dependent  plasticity:  neurons  become  tuned  to  react  to  specific   line  orientations,  tuned  to  become  feature  detectors   PSYC  4100  Study  Guide  –  Exam  II   4     Blakemore  &  Cooper(1970)  -­‐  selective  rearing  experiments       II. Template  Matching   • People  used  to  think  that  we  knew  what  something  as  because  it  matched  a   stimulus  we  had  previously  stored   • This  is  a  very  inflexible  theory  that  does  not  really  work.   • Something  that  does  use  ‘template  matching’  –  checks  –  routing  and  account  #’s   –  written  in  a  particular  font  and  are  always  in  the  same  place  on  a  check   because  the  ‘check  reading  machine’     • CAPTCHA     III. Feature  Analysis   • Simpler  than  full  analysis   • Weight  features   • Fewer  templates   IV. Recognition  by  Components   • More  complex  objects   • Recognition-­‐by-­‐components  theory  (RBC)   • Biederman   • Came  up  with  36  geometric  shapes  and  concluded  that  with  the  combination  of   any  of  these  ‘geons’  will  make  any  shape   V. Top-­‐Down  Processing  (‘Constructive  Perspective’)   • Make  inferences  quickly/automatically  based  on  context   • context  used  to  supplement  info   VI. Occlusion  Heuristic     • We  have  learned  that  if  something  is  in  front  of  something  else,  you  cannot  see  it,   but  you  know  it  continues  to  exist       09.13  Perception  (continued)       Prosopagnosia  -­‐  inability  to  recognize  facial  details   Activity  -­‐     PSYC  4100  Study  Guide  –  Exam  II   5   • Finish  space  training  -­‐  space  effect  on  cognitive  processing  finished   • "The  Man  Who  Mistook  his  Wife  for  a  Hat"  activity     Most  class  time  was  spent  on  activity  and  discussion  of  the  “Man  who  mistook  wife  as  a   hat”  article     09.15  Attention        No  assigned  reading*   Attention  and  Visual  Perception:   • Attention  –  process  of  concentrating  on  specific  features   • Exogenous  attention  –  something  external  that  capture  your  attention  –  example:   fire  alarm,  ambulance/police  sirens,  flashing  lights,  etc.   • Endogenous  attention  –  voluntary  thought,  choose  your  focus  –  example:  studying   for  math  test   • Book  –  Table  4-­‐1:  Six  Meanings  of  Attention  (do  not  need  to  know  this  for  exam)   • Input  attention:  (aka  selective  attention)  cognitive  mechanism  enabling  us  to   process  relevant  inputs,  thoughts,  or  actions  while  ignoring  irrelevant  or   distracting  ones   • Controlled  attention:  spotlight  attention  and  search,  selective  attention,  mental   resources  and  conscious  processing,  supervisory  attentional  system   • Need  to  know  these  things:   • There  is  a  LOT  of  information  in  your  environment:  emotions,  thoughts,  feelings,   temperature,  weather,  etc.     • Inattentional  blindness   o Stimulus  that  is  not  attended  is  not  perceived   o If  you  are  not  expecting  it,  focused,  looking  for  it  (I.e.,  motorcycles  on  road,   deer,  etc.),  you  most  likely  will  not  see  it.     • Change  Blindness   o Original  experiments:  Simons  and  Levin  (1998)  -­‐  person  carries  door   between  conversation  and  they  replace  person  talking  to  pedestrian     o Approximately  50%  of  people  approached  in  study  did  not  notice  when  the   person  they  were  talking  to  changed  after  a  door  came  through  the   conversation.   o First  study  to  demonstrate  that  change  blindness  can  occur  outside  of  the  lab   • Continuity  errors   o Television  examples:  American  Pie   • Attention  and  Perception   • Attention  is  needed  to  perceive  objects  as  a  whole  made  up  of  various   components   • Feature  Integration  Theory  (FIT)   o Triesman  and  Schmidt  (1982)   PSYC  4100  Study  Guide  –  Exam  II   6   § Illusory  conjunctions:  when  you  pair  one  feature  of  one  item  with  one   feature  of  another  item  –  but  it  is  incorrect     • psychological  effects  in  which  participants  combine  features  of   two  objects  into  one  object.  There  are  visual  and  auditory  IC's  and   illusory  conjunctions  produced  by  combinations  of  visual  and   tactile  stimuli   § Features  are  'free  floating'  prior  to  attention   • Attention   • Can't  pay  attention  to  everything  at  one  time   • What  determines  what  we  pay  attention  to?   • Exogenous  attention   o Automatic  attraction  of  attention  by  stimulus   o AKA:  Bottom-­‐up  and  Input  attention   • Endogenous  attention   o Consciously  determined  based  on  internal  goals   o AKA  Top-­‐down  and  Controlled  attention   • Input  attention:  Orienting  Response   o Overt:  shifts  of  attention  accompanied  by  eye  movements   § Eye  movements   • Saccades:  'jumping'  eye  movements,  occurring  in  short  pauses   • Fixations:  shifting  vision  then  stopping  to  focus  eyes  on  one  spot     § Eye-­‐tracker:  program  used  to  track  an  individual's  eye  movements   o Covert:  paying  attention  without       § Pre-­‐cueing     • Location-­‐based:  relationship  between  a  location  and  an   individual's  selective  attention   o Experiments:  Valid  trial  and  invalid  trial  –  much  faster  on   valid  trials  than  invalid  trials     • Object-­‐based:  relationship  between  an  'object'  representation  and   an  individual's  selective  attention   § Physiology  of  Covert  attention   • 2  conditions   o Fixation-­‐only:  monkeys  release  bar  when  the  fixation  light  is   dimmed   o Fixation  and  Attention   § Release  bar  when  peripheral  dimmed     • They  measured  from  a  neuron  that  was  specific  to  the  particular   field  in  periphery.     o Neural  responding  increases  when  paying  attention  to   something,  even  if  the  individual  is  not  looking  at  something.     § Studies  on  dichotic  listening  –  playing  two  different  messages  in  each   ear   • The  participant  was  told  to  focus  on  the  message  in  the  left  ear   and  repeat  the  message  outloud  as  it  comes  to  mind   • Researchers  wanted  to  know  what  happens  to  the  info  heard  in   the  other  ear   PSYC  4100  Study  Guide  –  Exam  II   7   • Early  studies  reported  that  participants  could  not  report  ANY   content  from  the  ear  that  they  were  not  focusing  on  –  often  they   could  report  the  gender  of  the  person  speaking   • Results:  cannot  report  content  from  the  unattended  ear,  some   information  is  processed  from  message   § Models  of  selective  attention   • Where  dies  the  'attention  filter'  occur?   • Early-­‐selection  model:  filters  info  before  it  is  analyzed  for   meaning,  filter  is  set  based  on  a  physical  characteristic  (I.e.,  left  vs.   Right)     o Broadbent's  filter  model  –  it  could  not  explain  the  cocktail   effect,  dear  aunt  jane  effect,  or  effects  of  practice  (you  can  be   trained  to  detect  in  unattended  ear)   • Gray  and  Wedderburn  (1960)  experiment   • Treisman's  attenuation  theory   o Dictionary  unit  –  each  word  has  a  threshold  for  detection   § Your  name  has  a  very  low  threshold  for  detection  (even   if  it  is  an  unattended  message,  your  name  will  most   likely  still  be  detected)   § Shocking  words  –  low  threshold   § Uncommon  or  irrelevant  words  have  a  higher   threshold  and  are  less  likely  to  be  perceived  when   unattended             09.20:  Attention  (continued)     I. Quiz  Review  (Questions  and  Answers  on  Reading  notes  for  09.20)   II. Lecture  Slides   • Treisman's  -­‐  Attentuation  theory   o Called  a  "Leaky  Filter"  Model   • Late  selection  model   o We  make  the  selection  or  determination  of  what  we  are  going  to  attend  to  after   we  know  what  everyone  else  is  doing/saying   o Think  about  this  in  terms  of  two  messages  coming  into  separate  ears,  this  model   says  that  we  receive  all  info,  process  it  for  meaning,  and  then  decide  which  to   pay  attention  to   o Selection  occurs  after  meaning   o Studies  that  exemplify  this  model:   § McKay  (1973)  -­‐  separate  messages  in  each  ear   • Left  ear  hears,  "They  were  throwing  stones  at  the  bank"   • Right  hears,  "-­‐-­‐-­‐  -­‐-­‐-­‐  -­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐  -­‐-­‐-­‐  -­‐-­‐  -­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐  river"  or  "  -­‐-­‐-­‐  -­‐-­‐-­‐  -­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐  -­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐  money"   • Heard  the  words  "bank"  and  either  "river"  or  "money"  at  the  same   time   PSYC  4100  Study  Guide  –  Exam  II   8   • They  concluded  that  the  word  heard  in  the  unattended  ear  did   influence  the  way  that  the  participant  interpreted  the  sentence.     • They  tested  this  by  asking  the  participants  [after  hearing  these   sentences]  -­‐  test  phase,  "Which  sentence  of  closest  to  the  meaning  of   what  you  heard?"  -­‐  one  sentence  discussed  throwing  stones  at  a  river   bank,  and  the  other  discussed  loans  at  a  bank   • Concluded  that  biasing  word  affected  participants'  choice   • Participants  unaware  of  biasing  words     o They  could  not  tell  the  researcher  the  word  they  heard  in  the   unattending  ear.   • Researchers  controlled  for  each  ear  in  these  studies.     • Which  model  is  correct   o There  is  NOT  one  answer  to  this  question.     o Sometimes  we  use  early  selection  and  sometimes  late  selection  –  most  early   studies  were  done  with  hearing  because  it  was  the  easiest  to  control,  but  this   applies  to  all  sensory  systems.     o Focus  shifted  to  cognitive  load   § Think  about  what  'early  selection'  means  –  it  means  that  you  decide  to   focus  attention  on  one  thing  and  not  other  things  in  the  environment   § 'Late  selection'  means  that  you  take  in  all  info  in  environment  and  then   decide  where  to  focus  attention   III.  Activity   • Objectives:   o Demonstrate  how  perception  is  influenced  by  attention   o Reinforce  the  idea  that  we  cannot  pay  attention  to  everything  in  our   environment   o Discuss  the  types  of  stimuli  that  are  likely  to  catch  our  attention  (exogenous   attention)   • Explore  role  of  attention  and  perception  in  magic  tricks  (each  group  investigates  two   assigned  tricks)       09.22  Attention  (continued)     • Review   • We  were  discussing  field  theories   • At  what  point  do  you  continue  processing  specific  information  and  discontinue   focus  on  other  stimuli?     • Which  theory  is  correct?   • No  one  answer   • Sometimes  we  use  early,  sometime  we  use  late   • View  shifted  to  focus  on  cognitive  load:     • Studied  this  with  the  Flanker  Compatibility  Task  ("FCT")   • Press  left  key  if  "A"  or  "B"  in  center  OR  Press  right  key  if  it  is  "C"  or  "D"  in  center   • Examples:  "BAB,"  "CAC,"  "XAX"   PSYC  4100  Study  Guide  –  Exam  II   9   • "BAB"  -­‐  Called  a  compatible  trial  because  the  outside  letters  (aka  "extractors")   induce  same  response     • "CAC"  -­‐  Incompatible  trial,  button  press  for  extractors  is  different  from  button   press  for  center  letter   • "XAX"  -­‐  Neutral  trial  –  no  button  press  associated  with  extractors   • Results  –  participants  were  fastest  at  compatible,  slowest  to  respond  at   incompatible  trials  and  there  was  an  intermediate  response  to  neutral  stimulus.   Therefore,  different  reaction  times  suggests  that  distractor  stimuli  are  still   processes   • What  does  this  have  to  do  with  hard/easy  load  tasks?   • The  FCT  is  considered  a  'low-­‐load'  task,  meaning  that  there  are  still  resources   available  for  distraction   • 'High-­‐load'  tasks  refer  to  situations  where  little  to  no  distraction  is  present,  and   you  are  focused  on  one  specific  task   • How  does  task-­‐load  affect  attention?   • Task  load   o High  load:  uses  almost  all  cognitive  resources,  no  resources  for  other  tasks,   task  requires  focus  without  distraction   o Low  load:  uses  few  cognitive  resources,  resources  are  available  for  other   tasks   • FCT   • Manipulate  Cognitive  Load   o Instructions:  On  each  trial,  X  or  N  will  be  the  target;  If  X  is  the  target,  press   left  key;  If  N  is  the  target,  press  the  right  key.  Both  X,  N,  and  O's  may  be   pictured,  but  the  participant  is  expected  to  focus  on  the  target  letter.     o In  'high-­‐load'  tasks,  multiple  distracting  stimulus  are  pictured,  for  example,   if  X  is  target,  picture  may  include  several  N's,  O's,  and  other  letters,  such  as,   Y,  Z,  etc.     o In  'low-­‐load'  tasks,  distracting  stimuli  in  picture  are  minor  compared  to   those  in  high-­‐load  tasks.     • Class  survey  on  cell  phone  use  while  driving   • Timeline  (do  not  need  to  memorize  this  for  test)   • 1973  -­‐  cell  phone  invented   • Late  1990s  –  cell  phone  use  in  cars  is  routine   • 2001  –  first  law  (NY)  banning  handheld  use   • Mid  200s  –  texting  becomes  commonplace   • 2007  –  first  law  (WA)  banning  texting  while  driving   • ACTIVITY  –  Perception  and  Attention  –  Distracted  Driving  Task   • Multi-­‐tasking  is  not  truly  possible  because  on  behavior  will  suffer  or  experience  delay.     • States  allowing  hand-­‐free  phones  but  not  hand-­‐held  is  not  based  on  empirical   reasearch.       PSYC  4100  Study  Guide  –  Exam  II   10       09.27  Attention  (continued)  and  Article  Critiques                                   • Review  of  Texting  and  Driving  survey  and  discussion:     • If  you  are  texting  and  driving,  you  are  affected  by  all  three  of  the  distractions   in  the  above  graphic.       • Equivalent  of  drinking  ~4  beers     • Drinking  and  driving  did  not  always  have  a  huge  stigma  around  it     • Texting  and  driving  is  just  as  distracting  and  dangerous  as  being  legally   drunk.     • Length  needed  to  break  effectively  is  affected  by  distractions:     o Drink  and  driving:  about  an  extra  40  feet  to  stop     o Text  and  drive:  ~70ft  to  stop     • Always  the  chance  that  something  unexpected  could  happen,  effect   of  inattentional  blindness  -­‐  instances  where  you  need  full  attention     PSYC  4100  Study  Guide  –  Exam  II   11   • Some  people  remain  unconvinced  by  these  studies,  because  they  find  some   things  like,  the  simulator  course  was  not  realistic.     • Exam  question:  Design  a  study  that  did  not  have  flaws  that  people  use  to   discount  current  research     • Article  critiques  (posted  on  ELC)     • Articles  will  be  posted  on  ELC  by  the  end  of  this  week,  choose  1  of  2  of  the   articles     • Your  critique  is  due  Thursday,  October  20  at  the  beginning  of  class*     • Hard  copy  NOT  drop  box  or  email     • Format     o Dbl  space,  typed,  stapled  (points  taken  off  for  no  staples)     o Minimum  1  page,  but  NO  MORE  THAN  3  PAGES  -­‐  STOP  READING   AFTER  3  PAGES,  won't  be  graded  after  3rd  page     o NO  COVER  PAGE  just  put  name  and  title  on  first  page     o Take  pride  in  work  -­‐  spell  and  grammar  check,  read,  edit  before   turning  it  in     • Read  critically  and  think  about  the  following::     a. Why  did  they  do  the  study?  What  were  they  trying  to  figure  out?     b. What  did  they  think  would  happen?     • General  -­‐  sleep  will  lead  to  better  insight     • Specific     c. How  did  they  test  their  hypothesis?     • How  many  groups/conditions?     • Do  you  think  these  were  sufficient?     • What  would  you  do  differently?     d. What  did  they  find?     • Did  one  group  perform  better?     • What  were  significant  differences?     e. What  were  limitations?     • DO  NOT  MENTION  THAT  THE  STUDY  SHOULD   HAVE  MORE  PARTICIPANTS  (it  is  okay  to  mention  factors  such  as,   diversity  of  participants  in  study)     • Is  there  something  that  they  missed?     • What  were  the  practical  limitations?     • If  you  had  unlimited  resources  -­‐  how  would  you  test  the  hypothesis?     f. What  next  step  would  you  take?     g. How  did  this  study  advance  the  field?     • What  did  they  do  that  had  not  been  done  before?     • As  you  write  the  article  critique  -­‐  Summarize  and  critique   article:    Technical  details  are  NOT  as  important  as  your  overall   understanding  of  the  article     • Figure  out  what  is  important  and  what  is  not     • 3  page  limit  is  NON-­‐NEGOTIABLE***     • Include  ALL  SECTIONS  FROM  RUBRIC  -­‐  Take  note  on  how  much  each   section  is  worth     PSYC  4100  Study  Guide  –  Exam  II   12   • This  is  an  article  critique:     • Limitations  and  next  steps  are  worth  a  lot  of  points  -­‐  make  sure  you  treat   these  sections  this  way     • Don't  just  come  up  with  ways  in  which  the  study  could  be  different  (ex:   they  used  1-­‐y/o's,  but  you  think  they  should  have  used  4  y/o's).  You   MUST  say  how  your  changes  would  improve  or  add  to  the  study.     • Important  Tips  -­‐       • BE  CONCISE     • DO  NOT  USE  THE  WORD  "PROVE"  -­‐  We  do  not  actually  prove  anything  in   psychology,  we  collect  evidence  that  supports  certain  theories  that  suggest   things     • DO  NOT  QUOTE  DIRECTLY  FROM  THE  ARTICLE     • Be  careful  to  avoid  plagiarism     o Use  own  words  -­‐  try  and  say  in  simplest  possible  way     o Don't  just  change  words  here  and  there  in  phrases  taken  directly  from   the  article     o Plagiarism  is  an  honor  code  violation       • DO  NOT  CITE  ARTICLE  -­‐  Just  tell  which  article  you  are  doing     o May  put  the  title  of  the  article  you  critique  with  your  title  and  name  so   that  you  save  room  in  your  introduction     • Common  Errors  (examples  on  slides  on  ELC)     • Proofreading  fails     • Incomplete  sentences     • Writing  style     • Redundancy     • Plagiarism       • Limitations  -­‐  don't  discuss  sample  size;  if  you  mention  validity  or  similar   terms,  you  must  explain  exactly  why  you  say  this  and  what  you  mean  by   saying  this.         PSYC  4100  Study  Guide  –  Exam  II   13   READING  NOTES:     09.06:  Sensation  and  Perception     Introduction:  Sensation  and  Perception   • Emphasizes  fact  that  rapid/unconscious  process  is  not  necessarily  simple,  or  simple   to  investigate  –  but  the  opposite  is  probably  true.   • Presents  basic  study  of  perception  in  vision  and  hearing;  focus  on  the  visual  and   auditory  sensory  registers  (“because  they  are  our  most  prominent  intersections  with   the  world”)       3.1:  Visual  Sensation  and  Perception     Examine  the  processes  of  sensation  and  perception                                                                     PSYC  4100  Study  Guide  –  Exam  II   14   3.1.1:  Gathering  Visual  Information   • Vision  is  NOT  the  result  of  something  (i.e.,  wave)  coming  out  of  your  eye  toward  the   thing  you  are  viewing.  It  is  triggered  when  a  reflection  of  light  from  an  object  hits  our   eyes   • Saccades:  fast  movements  by  which  the  eyes  sweep  from  one  point  to  another;  French   for  ‘jerk’;  can  take  anywhere  from  25ms  to  175ms   • Fixations:  movements/pauses  interrupting  saccades;  takes  up  to  200ms  just  to  plan   and  start  the  movement     • Planning  involves  area  MT  along  the  dorsal  stream  of  visual  processing   • Assumes  range  of  250-­‐300ms  for  an  entire  fixation-­‐saccade  cycle;  at  this  rate  there  are   3-­‐4  visual  cycles  per  second   • Each  cycle  registers  a  separate  visual  scene;  during  the  saccade,  there  is  suppression   of  normal  visual  processes,  even  those  that  do  NOT  involve  the  current  scene   • For  the  most  part,  we  take  in  visual  information  during  a  fixation   • Change  Blindness:    failure  to  notice  changes  in  visual  stimuli  when  those  changes   occur  during  a  saccade   • Competitions-­‐like  situation  in  visual  attention:   o On  one  hand,  attention  must  be  interruptible  so  that  we  can  react  quickly  to   unexpected  stimuli.   o On  the  other  hand,  visual  attention  should  not  be  too  interruptible.  We  cannot   constantly  switch  focus  from  one  thing  to  another;  this  would  destroy  visual   continuity.   • Inattention  Blindness:  when  attention  is  directed  elsewhere,  and  one  fails  to  see  the   object  that  she/he  is  looking  directly  at;  due  to  some  extent,  to  our  lack  of  attention  to   an  object           3.2  (read  all  except  3.2.3  &  3.2.5)   3.2:  Pattern  Recognition   Scrutinize  the  process  by  which  we  identify  patterns  and  objects   • Pattern  recognition  does  not  occur  instantly,  but  does  happen  automatically  and   spontaneously.   • In  many  ways  it  is  a  problem-­‐solving  process.   • During  perception,  person  needs  to  identify  the  nature  of  distal  objects  in  the  world   based  on  the  proximal  images  reaching  the  retina.         3.2.1:  Gestalt  Grouping  Principles   • Laid  out  in  mid20th  century   • Identify  characteristics  of  perception  in  which  ambiguities  in  a  stimulus  are  resolved   to  help  determine  which  objects  are  present;  aimed  more  at  processing  info  about  the   whole  of  an  object,  rather  than  simple,  and  only,  building  up  a  mental  representation   from  more  basic  elements.   • Supported  by  fMRI  neuroimaging  work  showing  some  parts  of  the  brain,  specifically   the  lateral  occipital  lobe  and  the  posterior  fusiform  gyrus  are  involved  in  the   processing  of  whole  objects,  apart  from  the  occipital  brain  areas  involved  in   processing  individual  elements   PSYC  4100  Study  Guide  –  Exam  II   15   • Figure-­‐ground  principle:  when  viewing  an  image,  part  of  the  image  is  treates  as  the   figure/foreground,  which  is  segregated  from  the  visual  info  upon  which  it  is  sent   (background)   • Closure  principle:  a  person  ‘closes  up’  an  image  that  has  gaps  or  parts  missing,  perhaps   b/c  they  are  being  occluded  (blocked)  by  some  other  object   • Proximity:  elements  that  are  near  to  one  another  tend  to  be  grouped  together   • Similarity:  elements  that  are  visually  similar  in  some  way,  such  as  having  similar  color   or  texture,  tend  to  be  grouped  together   • Good  continuation:  assumes  that  when  an  edge  is  interrupted  people  assume  that  it   continues  along  in  a  regular  fashion     09.08:  Auditory  Perception     Read  3.4  (EXCEPT  3.4.1)   3.4:  Auditory  Perception   Report  the  Science  of  Hearing   • Auditory  stimuli  are  sound  waves  moving  through  the  air;  human  hearing   systems  respond  to  these  stimuli  w/  various  components:  Rube  Goldberg-­‐type   mechanism   a. Sound  waves  funneled  into  ear     b. Tympanic  membrane  (‘ear  drum’)  vibrates   c. Causes  the  bones  of  the  middle  ear  to  move   d. Movement  causes  movement  of  fluid  in  the  inner  ear  cavity   e. Moving  fluid  moves  tiny  hair  cells  long  the  basilar  membrane                               PSYC  4100  Study  Guide  –  Exam  II   16   This  movement  generates  a  neural  message  (sent  along  the  auditory  nerve  into  the   cerebral  cortex)   Both  ears  project  auditory  info  to  both  hemispheres,  although  the  majority  of  input   follows  laws  of  contralaterality.   • Primary  auditory  cortex  –  region  in  the  superior  [upper]  medial  temporal  lobe   extends  somewhat  further  back  in  the  brain  into  the  parietal  lobe;  auditory  input   sent  primarily  to  this  cortex.   • Generally,  humans  are  sensitive  to  [wave]  patterns  as  lows  as  20  cps  (cycles  per   second)  and  as  high  as  20,000cps  –  although  upper  limits  decline  with  age.   • Most  sounds  (i.e.,  speech,  music)  are  very  complex,  combine  dozens  of  different   [wave]  frequencies  that  vary  in  intensity/loudness  –  these  different  frequencies   are  superimposed  and  can  be  summarized  in  a  spectrum.   3.4.2:  Auditory  Pattern  Recognition   • Templates   o Attempts  at  explaining  auditory  pattern  recognition  (how  we  recognize   sounds/interpret  them,  such  as,  language)  by  using  stored  templates  in   memory  –  ABANDONED  ATTEMPTS  –  because  in  language,  people  produce   different  language  sounds,  and  even  same  sounds  produced  by  same   speaker  vary  widely.   o Problem  of  invariance:  problem  is  that  the  sounds  of  speech  are  not   invariant  from  one  time  to  the  next;  instead,  any  particular  sound  changes   depending  on  the  sounds  that  precede  and  follow  it  in  a  word.   Feature  Detection   o These  models  paralleled  work  in  vision  are  were  more  successful;  lead  to   similar  conclusions  as  in  vision:  lots  of  evidence  that  context  [conceptually   drive  processing]  plays  a  decisive  role.   Conceptually  Drives  Processing   o Two  examples:   • Pollack  and  Pickett  (1964)  –  recorded  idle  conversations  of  volunteers   who  were  waiting  to  be  in  the  research  project,  recordings  played  to   other  people  to  see  if  they  could  identify  the  words,  which  they  could  –   but  in  a  more  interesting  condition,  individual  words  were  spliced  out   and  played  in  isolation;  here,  only  half  of  all  the  words  could  be   identified.  They  concluded  that  removing  words  from  their  original   context  made  it  extremely  difficult  to  recognize  the  words  –  by   inference,  then,  context  plays  an  important  role  on  spoken  word   identification.   • Warren  and  Warren  (1970)  –  played  speech  to  people  and  asked  them   to  report  what  they  heard;  researchers  engineered  recordings  to   remove  one  specific  language  sound  [‘phoneme’]  from  a  single  word.   People  heard  altered  sentences;  they  came  to  conclusion  that   perception  and  identification  of  speech  are  heavily  dependent  on   context,  on  top-­‐down  processing;  also  a  nice  reminder  of  the  difference   PSYC  4100  Study  Guide  –  Exam  II   17   between  sensation  and  perception  –  physical,  sensory  nature  of   sensation  but  the  overwhelmingly  cognitive  nature  of  perception.   Quiz  on  CH  3   Two  people  can  hear  the  same  song  and  perceive  lyrics  differently.  True   Auditory  input  to  the  left  ear  is  processed  primarily  in  the  ____  lobe  of  the  brain.   Right  temporal  lobe   The  fact  that  context  plays  a  large  role  in  how  we  perceive  certain  sounds  reflects   the  role  of  which  type  of  processing?  BOTH  Top-­‐down  processing  and  Conceptually-­‐ driven  processing   The  same  person  can  say  the  same  word  differently  from  one  time  to  the  next.  This   is  referred  to  as  the  ________  and  is  problematic  for  the  _______  theory  of  auditory   perception.  Problem  of  invariance;  template   Older  adults  often  lose  their  sensitivity  to  sounds  in  the  100-­‐120cps  range.  False   (Generally,  humans  hear  in  the  range  of  20-­‐20,000cps  –  losing  the  higher  levels  of  cps   with  age.)       09.13  Recognition  and  agnosia     3.3  Review  the  science  of  object  recognition  and  agnosia       3.3.1  Recognition  by  Components   • Biederman's  (1987-­‐1990)  Recognition  by  Components  theory  (RBT)   o The  idea  is  that  we  recognize  objects  by  breaking  them  down  into  their  parts,   and  then  look  up  the  combination  in  memory  to  see  which  object  matches  it     o Pattern  Recognition  here  has  a  small  number  or  basic  primitives  –  simple  3D   geometric  forms  called  geons:  combined  form  of  geometric  ions                                     PSYC  4100  Study  Guide  –  Exam  II   18   o Theory  argued  that  mental  representations  of  3D  objects  are  composed  of   geons;  when  we  recognize  objects,  we  break  them  down  into  their   components  and  note  where  the  components  join  together;  the  pattern   then  matcher  too  info  stored  in  memory  to  yield  recognition  –  two   important  aspects  of  these  patterns:   § Find  the  edges  of  objects,  enabling  us  to  determine  which  edges   maintain  the  same  relationships  to  one  another  regardless  of  the   viewing  orientation   § Scan  vertices  (regions  of  the  pattern  where  lines  intersect)  -­‐  usually   places  where  deep  concave  angles  are  formed       Evidence  for  RBC   • In  Beiderman's  further  investigations  of  this  model  he  discovered:   o Emphasis  on  vertices  is  critical   § If  a  pattern  is  degraded,  your  perception  will  depend  on  where  it  was   degraded.     § If  segments  on  smooth,  continuous  edges  are  missing,  it  is  relatively  easy  to   fill  out  the  missing  parts  and  recognize  the  pattern.   § Found  using  drawings  with  deletions  and  determining  which  deletions   caused  impaired  perception  among  participants  (examples  of  these  images   are  in  the  book  Figures  3-­‐13  and  3-­‐14)   Shortcomings  of  RBC  and  Embodied  Perception   • It  is  tied  to  bottom-­‐up  processing   o Issue  b/c  object  recognition  is  strongly  influenced  by  context  and  prior   knowledge   o Example:  Tanaka  and  Curran  (2001)  tested  'bird'  and  'dog'  experts  (people  with   more  than  20  years  experience  with  local  dog  and  bird  organizations);  these   people  showed  enhanced,  early  recognition  in  their  areas  of  expertise,  compared   to  how  they  recognized  objects  outside  of  their  areas.   o Also,  Evidence  that  retrieval  of  an  object's  identity  occurs  as  fast  as  identifying   that  something  is  there  at  all     § Dell'acqua  and  Job  (1998)  -­‐  data  indicate  that  object  recognition  is   automatic,  given  that  judgments  of  a  perceptual  feature  were  strong.   • Perceiving  components  is  the  first  major  step  ion  object  recognition  –  thus,  claiming   that  the  whole  is  perceived  by  first  identifying  the  components  of  the  overall  shape   and  global  pattern  (aka  the  Gestalt  or  overall  form)       3.3.2  Context  and  Embodied  Perception   • Embodied  processes:  how  the  structure  of  our  bodies  and  how  we  interact  with  the   world  influence  the  way  that  we  think   • Neural  systems  programming  neural  activity  –  including  motor  cortex  and  mirror   neurons   o These  areas  are  activated  under  a  variety  of  circumstances  when  people  are   lookin


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