Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide CJ 240
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Michela Spicer on Monday September 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CJ 240 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Joshua Wakeham in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 69 views. For similar materials see Juvenile Delinquency in Criminal Justice at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 09/26/16
Possible Topics -Adolescent Dilemma Erik Erikson: late adolescents (16-18 years old) experience a tension between ego identity and role diffusion oEgo identity: a full sense of self, derived from self and social sources o Role diffusion: experience of uncertainty about where one fits in; being pulled in different directions to play different social roles -Changing conceptions of childhood Ideas about family and children began changing in the 17 and th 18 centuries (1600-1700s) oRise of love marriages oRomanticizing the “nuclear family” o Age of Enlightenment: rise of humanistic values tempered older models of disciplining children -Poor Laws Starting in 1535, England passes laws about what to do with poor/neglected kids oSent to work in families Elizabethan Poor Law of 1601 oSystem of church wardens and overseers oOften sent to workhouses, poorhouses, or apprenticeships -Parens Patriae “Parent of the nation” State has an obligation to intervene in the lives of its most vulnerable citizens, especially children Concept gets used as a way to justify more and more intervention into the lives of children and families -Stubborn Child Law If a man has a stubborn or rebellious son, at least 16 years old, who will not obey the voice of either his father or mother; his father or mother brings him to the Magistrates in court and they testify against their son, their son should be put to death -The Child Savers The Progressive Era “Child Saver” movement emerges at this time oFactory Act oHouses of Refuge, Reform schools, Cottage Movement oJuvenile Courts (1899) KEY: informing these social and legal reforms is a confidence in the moral authority of the state to intervene in families on behalf of children -Legal understanding behind “juvenile delinquent” 19 century reformers fought to get juvenile delinquent recognized as distinct legal status To this day we have oSeparate institutions oDifferent terminology The separate status of “juvenile delinquent” recognizes the fact that young people are legally less responsible for their crimes -Status Offending Conduct that is illegal only because of the youths status as a minor th 19 century “Wayward Youth” Today Chins, Pins, Yins, Jins, Fins Status offenses less stigma than “juvenile delinquent” Not much difference in terms of treatment by the system -Legal reforms and dilemmas surrounding status offenses The law and courts show ambivalence about how to treat status offenders oLegal reforms have pushed to keep status offenders out of lock up oLegal exceptions and workarounds still make it possible -Value of statistics vs. anecdotal evidence Anecdotal evidence oNot necessarily generalizable Large data sets can give us a more accurate sense of the bigger picture Statistics o Quantitative measures of crime are an important criminological tool, but most measures have weaknesses or flaws -Problematic ways of presenting statistical evidence The underreporting/classification problems oOfficials often have incentives to “fudge” crime statistics Small numbers and big % change Misleading comparisons Short term vs. long term thinking Social scientists rely on multiple sources for data about juvenile crime -FBI Uniform Crime Report All arrest data reported to FBI each year Dates back to 1930 Reports Index (part 1) and non-index (part 2) offenses o8 indexed crimes: violent and property o21 non-index crimes -National Incident Based Reporting System About 6,400 law enforcement agencies in 31 states participate Basic idea is to provide brief account of incident and arrest, including oOffenders and victims information oAll offenses committed during the incident -National Crime Victim Survey Conducted annually since early 1970s Representative national sample 2011: 79,800 households and 143,120 individuals Cover personal (violent) and property crime Consistently reveals more crime than arrest data -Self-Reports Social scientists also simply ask people about their own criminal behavior oIn use since 1940s (1950s for juveniles) -Strengths and weaknesses of different data sources FBI UCR Strength oBest national arrest database out there FBI UCR Weaknesses oSome locales report voluntarily oOnly the worst crime from the incident is reported oNot all individuals involved are reported oData manipulation by police departments Problems with NCVS oOverreporting oUnderreporting oInability to report criminal activity of those interviewed oPossible sampling errors oQuestion format may lead to problems with answers Concerns with Self Reports oMiss most serious crimes (rape and murder) oValidity, accuracy issues -Decline of crime in the 1990s -Failure to predict -Incorrect hypotheses/explanations -Probable explanations -Correlates of delinquency -Gender -Race -Chronic offenders Responsible for significant amount of all crime More likely to start young (under 10) High rates of repeat offending Seem resistant to change, punishment -Aging out Most juvenile offenders “age out” of crime Why? oBrain development maturity is about 25 years old oNo longer discounting the future oBetter problem solving skills oTaking on new social responsibilities oPersonalities change oMore “risk averse” Not everyone ages out however- some delinquents go on to become chronic offenders -Juvenile victimization Juveniles are also highly likely to be the victims of crimes perpetrated by adults or other juveniles o15 times more likely than someone over the age of 65 Relative chances of victimization oBoys > Girls oBlack youth > white youth Victimization and criminal involvement are strongly correlated Nearly half (47%) of juvenile murder victims in 2013 were black, 50% were white, and 3% were either American Indian or Asian Violent victimization has declined for boys- roughly equally likely to be victims now -Individual theories of delinquency (Choice vs. Trait) Choice theory: people choose to engage in criminal activities oIndividuals have free will o Crime is simply the result of someone exercising their free will to rationally pursue their self-interests -Classical Criminological Theory (Beccaria) Key assumptions oFree will oHedonistic principle Criminal activity: weigh benefits of crime against the costs of punishment Intervention/policy: punishments must be sufficiently severe, swift, and certain to control crime -Rational Choice Theory Broader social scientific theory of human behavior Patterns in human behavior are the result of individuals pursuing their preferences and self-interests in a largely rational manner Crime is simply a rational choice for some individuals -Routine Activity Theory Lawrence Cohen and Marcus Felson: volume and distribution of predatory crime (violent crimes or theft) reflect the routine interaction of three variables o Capable Guardians: police officers, homeowners, security systems, neighbors, parents o Suitable Targets: unlocked homes, expensive cars, easily transportable goods o Motivated offenders: teenage boys, unemployed, drug addict gang member -General Deterrence Choices to commit crime is structured by the threat of punishment If delinquent believes they’ll get away with it they will commit crime If delinquent believes they’ll be apprehended or that they’ll be severely punished they will not commit crime Do general deterrence strategies work? oEvidence shows mixed results oPositive: Low-rate vs high-rate offenders Greater police presence vs harsher sanctions Informal sanctions/shaming oWhy don’t these strategies work with adolescents? Teens are not rational Punishments are not a deterrent for highest risk offenders Actual experience of CJS undermines threat Adaptation to deterrence strategies -Specific Deterrence Specific: targets those already apprehended Same logic: increases punishment to deter future misbehavior Does it work? o No- prior arrest, conviction best predictors of future arrest conviction -Incapacitation Basic logic: if they are locked up, they cannot commit more crime Strict incapacitation policies are not necessarily worth it o“Schools of crime” o Incarcerated criminals are replaced by the demands of criminal enterprise o Incarceration occurs too late in crime lifecycle o Expensive o Contributes to community disruption -Situational Crime Prevention Preventing crime by focusing on the key situational elements of crime oMaking crime more difficult to perform oReducing the reward oIncreasing the risks Target-hardening techniques oMake it harder to commit the crime Increasing risk of getting caught oLighting, alarms, CCTV, etc. o Diffusion of benefits: sometimes targeting one crime lowers other crimes as well Reducing rewards oLocked phones, marking property -Early Biological Theories Cesare Lombroso’s Positive School of Criminology (1878) o Criminals were born and could be distinguished by particular physical features, or atavisms “Positive” positivism or empirical study of criminals -Contemporary Biosocial Theories Vulnerability: direct link between traits and crime Differential susceptibility: people are predisposed, but environmental influences matter -Biochemical Factors Key components of these explanations o The body’s biochemistry has a direct influence over an individual’s behavior o The individual’s environment has a direct influence over the individual’s biochemistry Environment directly affects individuals’ biochemistry via two routes o Harmful chemicals exposure causes brain damage and behavioral problems o Deprivation not getting enough of the good things (vitamins, nutrients) causes behavioral problems -Neurological Dysfunction Minimal brain dysfunctions connected to aggression oInherited oInjured oIn utero oEnvironment -Genetic Influences Behavioral genetics oIdentify particular genes that might influence behavior Parent-child similarities oCriminal parents more likely to have delinquent children oNature or nurture? Sibling similarities o One delinquent sibling increases the likelihood of other siblings being delinquent (particularly for same sex siblings) o Warm sibling relationships- stronger behavioral similarities, including delinquency Twin studies oIdentical vs. fraternal shared genes vs. shared environment o Identical twins- more behavioral similarities, including delinquency, aggression, psychopathy -Psychological Theories Psychological approaches focus on oPsychodynamics (past/unconscious mind) oBehavior oCognition/developmental oPersonality oIntelligence -Psychodynamic approach Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic/dynamic approach Freudian approach: experience in early life shape the unconscious mind, driving behavior Id- impulsive, driven by pleasure oSex and aggression Superego- social rules, mores Ego- rational part of the mind that tries to balance between the two Disturbances in the unconscious problematic behavior in adolescence or adulthood Psychodynamic and delinquency o Alchorn (1935): exposure to stressful social environment does not automatically lead to delinquent/criminal behavior Not all kids from poor neighborhoods, broken homes become delinquents o Latent delinquency: inadequate socialization leads to impulsivity, lack of empathy, lack of guilt o Delinquents id dominated -Attachment Theory Basic idea: how a parent responds to an infant’s needs forms the emotional foundation for the child’s future relationships Attachment problems lack of trust, respect oSecure Parental style: aligned with the child, in tune with the child’s emotions Resulting adult characteristics: able to create meaningful relationships; empathetic; able to set appropriate boundaries oAvoidant Parental style: unavailable or rejecting Resulting adult characteristics: avoids closeness or emotional connection; distant; critical; rigid; intolerant oAmbivalent Parental style: inconsistent and sometimes intrusive parent communication Resulting adult characteristics: anxious and insecure; explosive; abusive; untrusting even while craving security -Mental Disorders and Delinquency Psychodynamic approach: delinquent behavior is the result of unconscious disturbance/conflict Disorders related to delinquency oPsychosis (schizophrenia) oMood disorders oDisruptive Behavior Disorder Oppositional Defiant Disorder Conduct Disorder -Behaviorism Social learning theory: delinquent/criminal behavior is learned oDelinquent behavior is not appropriately punished oDelinquent behavior is rewarded (criminal family) oGood behavior is punished -Cognitive Psychology Cognitive development oPiaget: stages of cognitive development oKohlberg: stages of moral reasoning Delinquents often “stuck” at early stages in moral development Information processing oKEY: environment shapes how people process information People develop scripts to deal with daily problems Distorted thought processes- rationalization, minimization of harm, exaggerated sense of victimization, etc.- are very common among chronic juvenile offenders -Cognitive-Behavioral Approach Combines insights of cognitive psychology and behavioral approach Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) focuses on helping delinquents change patterns of thinking and action Significant amount of empirical evidence that CBT is effective in short and long term -Personality and delinquency Personality: a set of stable traits- attitudes, values, predispositions- that people exhibit in most situations Recent research: there may be some traits associated with delinquency o Less agreeable; less conscientious; hostility; self- centeredness; spitefulness; lack of empathy Situational factors seem to play a larger role in negative feelings, reactions by delinquents and criminals -Intelligence and delinquency Early 20 century: criminal behavior is the result of low intelligence oStanford-Binet Intelligence Test oEmpirical testing giving test to those in institutions o Early research: as many as 50% of delinquents “feebleminded” (IQ < 75) Later 20 century: IQ test controversy oLow IQ and delinquency connection confirmed oIssues of race and class based differences Emerging critique: IQ as a fixed characteristic is problematic, IQ changes oBetter nutrition, schooling, environment increase in IQ oSociology not biology -Trauma perspective Different types of traumatic events affect the brain differently at different times Traumatic exposure, delinquency, and school failure are related Complex trauma is associated with risk of delinquency -Structural theories of delinquency Consistent correlation between lower SES and serious crime Delinquency emerges from socioeconomic conditions oLack of opportunity oEnculturation -Social stratification -Social Disorganization Theory Organized communities have trust, police themselves through informal social control Disorganized communities oLack trust oIncapable of policing themselves Shaw and McKay (Chicago, 1940s)- crime concentrated in disorganized neighborhoods Contemporary social ecology oPhysical disorder oPoverty concentration oFear of crime (siege mentality) oCommunity change Collective efficacy: ability of a community to regulate resident behavior informally, through social institutions (family, churches, schools, sports leagues) o Disorganized neighborhoods rely on formal institutional social control (police, courts) -Merton’s Strain/Anomie Theory Robert Merton’s Theory of Anomie (1957) o American culture’s shared ends: all value success, respect, and material wealth o Not everybody has equal access to legitimate means to success o Those who lack legitimate means to success experience strain or anomie Drives them to illegitimate means (crime) Criticism of Merton’s theory oCritiques People do not share the same cultural goals- ex: American culture is not monolithic Many have opportunities, but fail to take advantage of them Doesn’t explain many types of crime (white collar crime) -Agnew’s General Strain Theory Multiple sources of strain oFailure to achieve oExpectations vs. Achievements oLoss of positively valued stimuli oIntroduction of negatively valued stimuli -Cultural Deviance Theories Walter Millers lower-class culture theory oTwo structural elements Female-headed households Financial strain o Boys growing up under female control, eventually resent it seek out male peers o Six focal concerns shape young boys’ behavior Autonomy Excitement Fate Smartness Toughness Trouble Cohen’s subcultural theory o Albert Cohen’s Delinquency Boys describes the different values, attitudes, and behavior among delinquent boys, including: Maliciousness Negativism Non-Utilitarianism Short-run hedonism Group autonomy against authorities oReaction formation against middle-class measuring rods oStatus frustration- those in authority treat them poorly Code of the Streets oElijah Anderson’s work (1994) detailed the “code of the streets” Key distinctions: “street vs. decent” Historical, social, and economic conditions produce this aggressive oppositional culture oKeys to the code Issue of respect: a zero sum game Role of aggression and violence in maintaining respect Role of conspicuous displays of wealth in maintaining respect Centrality of “manhood” Slipping back and forth between “decent” and “street” behavior -Social Process Theories Shift in analytic focus: looking at the social process of becoming a delinquent oIndividual-level traits are downplayed or ignored oMotivation to delinquency is fluid and dynamic Not where you live, but how you live Socialization: the process of becoming a member of a community Key elements oFamily oSchool oPeers oReligion Assume people are inherently good: social learning theories oPeople have to learn how to become criminals Assume people are inherently bad: social control theories oPeople have to be prevented from becoming criminals -Social Learning Theories Differential Association Theory oEdwin Sutherland’s differential association theory Crime is a learned behavior Learned from peers and family Delinquents “differentially” associate themselves with criminal behavior, attitudes oEdwin Sutherland’s Nine Propositions Delinquent behavior is learned Learned in interactions with others Primarily learned in intimate personal groups Learning includes both techniques and motives, drives, attitudes, rationalizations, etc. Motives are learned in response to legal codes Delinquency when breaking the law seems more favorable than not These “differential associations” vary in frequency, duration, priority, and intensity Learning criminal behavior involves the same mechanisms involved in other kinds of social learning Criminal behavior cannot be explained by general needs and values Drift/Neutralization Theory o Matza and Sykes (1957;1964): youth often drift in and out of delinquent behavior Assumption: most delinquents are good, want to conform to the rules Perceived injustices drives them to lash out in anger Because most delinquents are good, they have to explain away their bad behavior o Neutralization techniques Denial of responsibility Denial of injury Denial of victim Condemnation of condemners Appear to higher loyalties -Social Control Theory Containment theory oProposed by Walter Reckless (1961,1967) oBasic idea Push and pulls of delinquency vs. constraints (containment) External Internal Social Bond theory oTravis Hirschi (1969): Social Control or Social Bond Theory o4 components of bonding Attachment: identify with representatives of institution (parent, teacher) Belief: hold conventional beliefs consistent with the law Commitment: how important is success in the institution? Involvement: how much time and energy is spent in the institution? -Labeling Theory Basic idea: those given a label by others tend to act more like the label Labels can have positive or negative effects Labeling Theory and Delinquency o Once a young person is labeled delinquent, authorities treat him/her differently The Labeling process o Deviant act: getting caught and having the matter handled formally o Status degradation ceremony: semi-public event in which deviance is denounced by authorities o Master status: primary ways of seeing individual o Retrospective interpretation: seeing the past in the light of the new label o Internalization of the label o Deviant career: the label becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy -Developmental/Life Course Theories Propensity theory: some individuals have a underlying propensity or latent trait that drives them to crime oFocus on latent trait Examples: psychological/neurological disorder, genetic abnormalities, brain damage Assumed to be stable over lifetime oSource of variation: opportunities in environment Trajectory theory: different pathways to different types of criminal behavior oNot an underlying trait, but a kind of pathway oMultiple pathways to delinquency oAdolescent limited Begin criminal career mid-to-late adolescence Delinquency/crime social reasons Eventually turn away from crime oLife Course persistent Anti-social behavior begins in early childhood Verbal, cognitive, neuropsychological deficits Trouble with social relationships Delinquent trailblazers Life Course Theory: an interaction of individual traits and social factors determine life of crime or not o An integrated theory- includes personal, social, and developmental factors o Sampson & Laub’s age-graded or “turning points” theory Interaction between individual traits and key social institutions at particular times in a person’s life Emphasize free will Turning points Those who desist Experiences with social institutions become motivation to leave criminal life behind Marriage, military, school, reform schools, steady job all potential sources for change Those who persist Struggle with authority, across institutions Choose to resist potential institutional experiences Those who zig-zag Some leave crime behind, only to fall back in again Establish some positive relationships with positive social institutions, but the effects are not enduring
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