PSYC Exam 1 Study Guide
PSYC Exam 1 Study Guide PSYC 1000
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1 Created by Eleni McGee firstname.lastname@example.org PSYC 1000 Exam 1 Study Guide Friday September 30, 2016 Chapters 1, 2, 4, 5 Chapter 1: Introduction, History and Research Methods in Psychology General definitions to know: Psychology- the scientific study of behavior and mental processes. It is scientific and brings in new knowledge and critical thinking. Has 4 goals: 1. Describe behavior 2. Explain why behavior occurred 3. Predict why behavior would occur more 4. Apply psychological knowledge to bring about change Natural sciences- psychology, physics, chemistry, biology (generally more measurable and certain) Social sciences- economics, sociology (less direct measurements) Pseudo-psychologies are nonscientific. There is no scientific evidence for these sciences. Examples of pseudo-psychologies: -Astrology uses movements of celestial bodies to predict personality. - Palm reading - Folicology- personality related to hair color - Psychokinesis- moving objects with your mind Sample specialties of psychology: 1. Biopsychology/Neuroscience- many do rat research, which is more invasive than experiments that are cognitive. 2. Clinical/Counseling psychology- largest group of psychologists, clinical is associated with more science while counseling is more direct, hands- on techniques. 3. Cognitive psychology 4. Developmental psychology- work with schooling and maturation of children 5. School/ Educational Psychology 6. Experimental psychology (this is an older term) 7. Forensic psychology- works with patterns of critical behavior 8. Health psychology- a newer area, how psychology contributes to physical health/illness 9. Industrial/ Organizational Psychology- entering the work place 10. Social psychology- the study of people in a group setting. Ex. Hand washing experiment with hidden camera and visible monitor. 2 *Remember that clinical and counseling psychology are the largest groups!* Origins of Psychology Wilheim Wundt- “father of psychology” Start date of psychology is 1879. o Structuralism- Wundt’s brand of psychology that sought to identify structure of mind through introspection. It was a reductionist approach For example, if you see something red, round and shiny, you will say it is an apple. This was a very reductionist approach. His student, Titchener was also a key leader in this movement. The problem with structuralism is that in order to do studies, you have to train the observer first. William James- key leader in American psychology o Functionalism- James’s brand of psychology. It studies how consciousness helps us function/adapt in the world. In this branch, we can study animals and do not have to train the observer. Functionalism is closest fit we have to psychology today. Wertheimer o Gestalt psychology- emphasized perception, the notion that the whole is more than the sum of its parts (opposite of Wundt’s view) Freud o Psychoanalytical view o Emphasizes animalistic part of us Watson and Skinner o Behaviorism focuses on objective and measurable behaviors Maslow o Emphasized inner self and importance of subjective feelings Ebbinghaus o Cognitive psychology focuses on mental function and reasoning. He used himself for studies. Psychoanalytic/psychodynamic perspective- Freud was the founder of this movement. o Conflict between the conscious and unconscious mind o Older, more animalistic areas of the brain are in conflict with the modern social areas of the brain o How we resolve this conflict makes us more/less healthy. o He was very heavily influenced by Darwin More recent schools of thought: 3 Behavioral perspective o Object, observable environment influences overt behavior o Idea that the mind is a black box and we can’t really measure things in there o Strong push to move psychology towards realm of science o Watson, Pavlov and Skinner were leaders Humanist perspective o Opposite of Freudian thinking o Emphasizes the free will of the human and postulates that humans are different because we have the capacity for self- actualization o Emphasizes the growth seeking nature of humans o Humans have existential dilemmas- we know we are going to die, we also know that not all other humans have the same advantages as us. o Rogers and Maslow were leaders Cognitive perspective o Thought, perception, information processing o Reaction times often measured o Earlier theories predicted that the brain processes through a series, but cognitive psychology has shown that it processes through simultaneous parallel systems. Neuroscience/biopsychology perspective o More invasive o More animals studies o Genetics and other biological processes in the brain and other parts of neuron system. o Brain differences Overall the differences between the male and female brain are small The main difference is in hormone and reproductive systems Evolutionary o Focused on natural selection, adaptation and evolution o Mates will choose another with the most resources/money, etc. o Ex. Female spiders mate with multiple male spiders and then choose which sperm to allow into her reproductive system Sociocultural o Studies social interaction and cultural determinants o “Sociobiology” o Psychology used in this respect for the first time in Brown v. Board of Education Psychological Research 4 Basic: no designed application in mind for results, conducted to advance scientific knowledge, but still an experiment with data, intent is to apply knowledge for the future Applied: designed to solve current, practical problems, intent is to apply the knowledge right away They are both equally important and can be used together. For example alcohol abuse research is done in both basic and applied cases. The Scientific Method (know general steps) 1. Identify question of interest (review against previous literature) 2. Develop a testable hypothesis 3. Select a research method and collect data 4. Analyze the data and accept or reject hypothesis 5. Publish, replicate and seek scientific review 6. Build a theory. (a theory makes predictions) Note that psychology is a testable science! Thomas Kuhn’s paradigm shift: When scientists have a standard way of doing something but then develop a better way to study it. o Ex. Double level area instead of single to study mating habits of rats allowed for more female control in the experiment Normal science- when experiments are done and a theory is proven correct Revolutionary science- when someone rejects an old theory and a new theory finally emerges Normal and revolutionary science are in a cycle that is constantly repeating. Ethics Guidelines in Psychology Key Issues for Human Research: Informed consent- explanation of study that happens before the experiment Restricted use of deception- when you deceive subjects, you compromise informed consent Freedom to with draw and voluntary participation must be available (this can be a problem when subjects are being compensated for participation) Debriefing- explaining the study at the end of the experiment must occur Confidentiality is key Animals cannot give informed consent, so we must minimize discomfort and the research must be justified. There are more laws and regulations pertaining to animal research. 5 Major Research Methods in Psychology: 1. Experimental a. Allows cause and effect analysis, manipulates variables under controlled conditions. b. Non- human models (ex. Rats) are helpful in areas where we do not manipulate variables in humans. c. Ex. Of experimental: crack babies i. It is not ethical to give pregnant women crack to see effects on baby ii. Ethical to look at mothers who are already abusing crack, but this becomes problematic because most drug abusers abuse more than one drug. iii. In this case, it would be helpful to use rats (non-human) so that specific variables could be manipulated and controlled. d. More progress is made with animal research e. Key features of experiment: i. Independent variable (manipulated variable) ii. Dependent variable (factor that is measured) iii. Experimental group (receives treatment) iv. Control group (receives no treatment) f. Controls are important for determining causality. All other aspects except for the one being test should be the same g. Placebo affects behavioral changes relative to expectations of treatments as opposed to actual treatment. About 1/3 of people respond to placebos. h. Random assignment balances subject variables. i. Potential Researcher Problems i. Experimenter bias: researcher influences research results to try to get them into the expected direction ii. Ethnocentrism: believing one’s culture is typical of all cultures (ex. The backs will always be faster than the linemen) j. Preventing Experimental bias i. Technology ii. Blind experiment and blind subjects iii. Using random population sample iv. Prevent participant bias by only revealing as much as necessary in order to collect the data. 1. Shere Hite example: she sent out a survey about sexuality; the only people who responded cared a lot about sexuality 2. Descriptive Research a. Observing and describing behavior without interfering and does not produce causal explanations b. 3 types of observation 6 i. Naturalistic observation- go to the subjects naturally occurring environment. Ex. Jane Goodall with the apes ii. Survey- written instruments designed to sample attitudes or behaviors. You can use the Likert scale to measure degree of extremity of answers. The issue is that the survey must be representative of a random sample iii. Case Study- refers to an in-depth study of a single person or subject. 1. Freud used case study to probe anxiety 2. Often used where subjects are rare in a clinical or non-natural setting 3. Correlational Research a. Researcher observes or measures variables to find relationship between them. There is no direct manipulation. Correlations are rarely perfect and reflect ongoing phenomena. b. Stronger correlations are closer to 1 or -1 while weaker correlations are closer to 0. Strong correlations can be positive or negative. i. Weak: 0-0.2 ii. Moderate: 0.3-0.4 iii. Strong: 0.4 + c. Correlations can be seen in scatter plots and you can add the regression line of best fit. d. Typical correlations may be different for different types of sciences i. Physical- tight correlations (0.8 or better) ii. Biological- not as tight (0.5-0.7) iii. Psychological (.4 and below) e. Positive correlation i. Change in variable 1 associated with same/similar change in variable 2. Ex. Weight and height usually have a positive correlation f. Negative correlation i. Change in variable 1 associated with an opposite change in variable 2 g. No correlation i. Values of variable 1 are not related to values of variable 2 h. Note that correlation is NOT causation. 4. Biological Research a. Scientific study of the brain and other parts of the nervous system b. Cajal= father of neuron research Chapter 2: Neuroscience and Biological Foundations 7 Neuroscience- interdisciplinary field studying how biological processes relate to behavioral and mental processes. Now it is more mainstream while it has previously been mainly research. Neurons- receive and transmit electrochemical information. They are characterized based on shape. Neuroglia- serve a supporting role, help produce neurotransmitters, involved in circadian rhythms and REM cycles. Dendrites- branches of the soma that receive information from other neurons and sensory receptors. Soma- cell body. Receives information from the dendrites but also has its own synapses to receive information. Synapses closer to the axon have a greater regulatory role than the dendrites. Axon- typically much longer than the dendrites. The axon carries neuron’s message to rest of body cells. Sensory neurons are unipolar but most neurons are multipolar. The function of the structure is the structure of the function. The Neuronal Membrane Lipid bilayer composed of hydrophilic (water loving) molecules and hydrophobic (water resistant) molecules. The head is hydrophilic while the tail is hydrophobic. They arrange themselves in a bilayer so that both head groups are facing aqueous interior and exterior of the neuron. Some molecules leak in and out through the sodium potassium pump (an ongoing process). The protein channels allow certain things to pass (semi-permeable) Sodium potassium pump: 1. Resting potential: inside of neuron is negative compared to outside 2. Ion channels open to allow a redistribution of ions; more Na+ moves outside and K+ moves inside. 3. Follows concentration gradient (high to low) 4. This is an ongoing process and has nothing to do with action potentials!!! Think of it as a type of homeostasis to keep the neuron charged Note that: Neurons are always active, the exchange of ions is very fast Real life example: Drugs and toxins can open and close ion channels Graded potentials- receptors opening or closing ion channels on the dendrites and somas. They are ligand gated and can be excitatory (Na+ increases rate of action potentials) or inhibitory (Cl- decreases rate of action 8 potentials) Graded potentials are relatively weaker or strong than action potentials (action potentials are all or nothing). Graded potentials summate over entire area of dendrites and cell body. Spatial summation: synapse 1, 2, or 3 did not reach threshold but because of location when they are fired all together they can reach the threshold. Because adjacent synapses are so close to each other they can either fire all together to add up or cancel each other out. Temporal summation- when a single synapse fires slowly the threshold might not be reached but when synapse is fired with less time between each firing, it is able to reach action potential. Note that electrical activity tends to sweep towards the axon hillock. Axon hillock- decision maker/initial segment, responds to voltage increase on inside of hillock. Each axon hillock has a threshold for opening the ion channels. The axon hillock has sodium and potassium ion channels. On dendrites and soma ion channels open and close in response to synapses being stimulated. On axon, ion channels open and close in response to electrical stimulation of neuron (only if the neuron crosses the threshold) Myelin- fatty white substance that surrounds the axon of some nerve cells, forming insulation. Myelin between the ion channels along the axon allows for a faster rate of conduction and is more economical (doesn’t have to use as much energy). Action potential occurs at the nodes between the myelin, while graded potential occurs under the myelin. Saltatory conduction- when the action potentials regenerate themselves at the nodes. Thus, graded and action potentials work together to get information along the neuron. Communication between neurons: Communication occurs through transmission of neural info across a synapse by neurotransmitters. Gap junctions are rare exceptions needed for fast reactions, but does not allow for as much control as the normal case. 9 Types of synapses: 1. Excitatory synapses- synapses that push the neuron past the threshold; depolarization. 2. Inhibitory synapse- slows down the rate of action potentials, hyperpolarization. 3. Inotropic synapse- act fast, but abruptly. Ex. They are in muscles 4. Metabotropic synapse- act slower for longer, much larger receptor molecules. Receptor uses a chemical pathway in the cell to open many ion channels and amplify the signal. The complexity of neurons allows for change and adaptability to the environment. Enriched environments increase dendritic branching according to a study that compared rats in enriched environments vs. impoverished environments. Major neurotransmitters: Serotonin- (5-HT) associated with depression and sensory experience. Serotonin also more associated with foods that we eat compared to other neurotransmitters. Also can affect sleep. (Milk and turkey are high in tryptophan which is a precursor to serotonin) Acetylcholine- movement, learning, memory. Alzheimer’s sets in when acetylcholine neurons begin to die off. Movement associated with acetylcholine is muscular and unconscious. Norepinephrine- associated with emotion and arousal Glutamate- considered the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. Also associated with learning and memory. GABA (gamma amino butyric acid)- major inhibitory neuron in the brain. Ex. When you cut off chicken’s head, chicken runs around for a bit because the inhibitory neurotransmitters are gone. General notes: o Most neurotransmitters are not associated with food because humans don’t always have access to the right foods o We have multiple neurotransmitters for every function o The neurotransmitter system can be thought of as excitatory with a lot of inhibitors to keep it in check. o All neurotransmitters have a quick method for deactivation within the synapse. o Ex. When over stimulated, the receiving neuron makes fewer dopamine receptors. This is why you get the most high off your first time on a drug like cocaine. Over time there are less receptors (tolerance), so you need more of the drug. Receptor sites are a lock and key hypothesis. Receptor site lock and key hypothesis can be applied to drugs. 10 1. Agonistic drugs- mimics shape of neuron to fit into the receptor and introduce biological action. 2. Antagonistic drug- fits into receptor but not enough to induce biological action, but blocks other neurotransmitters. Endocrine system- while neurotransmitters work locally, hormones can travel much longer and through the bloodstreams to reach a target. They tend to have rapid and longer lasting effects. Nervous System Organization: Central Nervous System (CNS) Includes the brain and spinal cord (everything encased in bone) Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) Includes all nerves and neurons connecting the CNS to the rest of the body. Divided into 2 categories. o Somatic Controls skeletal (voluntary muscles) Connects sensory receptors to CNS o Autonomic Controls involuntary bodily functions. Divided into 2 categories: Sympathetic “Fight or flight” / acute stress Causes simultaneous reaction in organs o Dilate pupil, inhibit salivation, relax bronchi, accelerate heart, inhibit digestion, relax bladder, secrete glucose, contract rectum Parasympathetic Normally active, indicates normal functioning Discrete control over organs o Constricts pupils, stimulates salivation, inhibits heart, constricts bronchi, contracts bladder, relax rectum, digestion is normal The CNS and the PNS work together. The spinal cord transmits information into and out of the brain and injuries often involve both. Spinal cord is also responsible for involuntary, automatic behaviors (reflexes). Brain structures: 3 Groupings: Forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain. Key structures of Hindbrain: Medulla- life support pons- respiration, movement, waking ,sleeping, dreaming. Also connects left and right sides of brain. 11 Cerebellum- helps produce smooth coordinated movement, balance, perception and cognition. Contains GABA neurons. Key structures of the Midbrain: Reticular formation- runs through hindbrain and midbrain and brainstem. Screens incoming information and controls arousal (not sexual). Key structures of the forebrain: Thalamus- main sensory message center, every sense except for sense of smell goes through the thalamus. People with autism may have problems with thalamus (sensory overload). Hypothalamus- responsible for emotions, sexual drive, hormone interactions and homeostasis. Drinking and eating regulation also involved. Limbic system- involved with emotion and behavior. It is an interconnected group of older forebrain structures involved with emotions, drives and memory. o Case study: destroying the septum of the limbic system in rats made them very aggressive. Amygdala- associated with fear. Psychopaths show less response to fear in the amygdala. Cerebral cortex- largest part of the brain (70%), 6 cell layer structures on surface of left and right cerebral hemispheres. Regulates complex behavior, motor control and higher mental processes. When you lose the ability of the cortex, you are considered “brain dead”. It is divided into lobes. Frontal lobe- has moved up and forward in humans, coordinates motor control, speech production and higher functions. o most important to psychologists: “makes us human” o notions of impulsivity o coordinates messages from other lobes o Phineas Gage’s mining accident in which a 13 lb. rod went through his frontal lobes altered his personality. o Lobotomies- not performed so often any more, but it is the surgery when you disconnect the frontal lobe from the rest of the brain. After a lobotomy, a person loses his/her personality. Occipital lobe- vision and visual perception. Located on back of brain. Parietal lobe- associated with somatosensory neurons, located on top of brain behind frontal lobes Temporal lobe- hearing, language comprehension, some emotional control. The hippocampus resides within the temporal lobe. Located on each side of the brain above ears. 12 *The face and hands have cortical magnification in humans, meaning that we have more sensation in our face and hands than other appendages/body parts. (represented in the homunculus figure below) Corpus callosum- connects the left and right hemispheres of the brain. If a person is born without the corpus callosum, there is not a huge effect. To treat seizures, many doctors will sever the corpus callosum in order to confine the seizures to one side of the body. Lateralization- left and right hemispheres each specialize in particular conditions. Females tend to have more cross communication between left and right brains than males. Left: language function, analytical step by step, also controls right visual fields and right side of body. Females tend to be more “left-brained” Right: nonverbal abilities, spatial and visual abilities, controls left side of body and left visual fields. Males tend to be more “right-brained” Nature vs. Nurture: Behavioral Genetics Research- studies relative affects of nature (hereditary, genes, chromosomes) versus nurture (environment) on behavior and mental processes. BOTH have influence on whom we become. Nature and nurture research often done in twins: Concordance rate- percent of twins showing the same characteristic. Many psychological variables have a greater concordance rate for monozygotic (identical) twins vs. dizygotic (fraternal) twins. 13 Hypothetically, if genetics controlled all monozygotic twins would have a 100% concordance rate. Evolutionary psychology- humans evolved from a common ancestor, studies how natural selection and adaptation help explain behavior and mental processes. Neuroscience research can cause better living. Neuroplasticity- brain’s lifelong ability to reorganize and change its structure and function Neurogenesis- division and differentiation of non-neuronal cells to produce neurons. When neurons first divide, they are “undifferentiated” then they migrate to the frontal lobe and undergo differentiation. Stem cells- precursor to cells that have yet to differentiate into a particular cell type. Chapter 4: Sensation and Perception Sensation and perception should be thought of as on a continuum. Sensation- more biological, receiving raw sensory information. Perception- conscious experience, more associated with psychology, process of selecting and organizing The Muller Lyer Illusion- the perception is often incorrect. We think the the top line is longer. This is illusion is probably based on our square building culture. Information Sensation Selective attention Perception Selective attention- filters information, gateway into conscious experience, gateway into memory system. Perception- sensations are processed in the brain, we have receptors in our sensory organs that respond to sensory information in the environment. If 14 there is no receptor there is no perception. Mechanical: movement, skin. Chemical: taste, smell, light, energy Perception example: Ultrasonic frequencies (dog whistle) may go into human ear but result in no transduction because these frequencies do not help us to survive; hence, we have no perception of this sound. 3 Types of Processing: all occur simultaneously!! 1. Transduction a. Converts energy in the environment into neural impulses 2. Sensory Reduction a. Selective attention, we filter sensations before sending them to the brain 3. Coding a. Routes particular sensory input to different parts of the brain. Doctrine of specific nerve energies- created by Johnnes Muller; incoming messages come through the same action potentials but in order to actually differentiate senses, brain routing is essential localization of function. Psychophysics- examines relationship between magnitude of stimuli, difference between perception and actual physical stimulus. Absolute threshold- determines how little of a stimulus is needed before we can detect it. o 3 methods Method of Limits Ascending and descending trials Very predictable Method of constant stimuli Randomized stimuli, no predictable order Keeps subjects more honest Staircase method Subjects response determines next stimulus value Best for testing ongoing changes in sensitivity Jumps around the stimulus threshold Difference threshold- when 2 stimuli are presented and we ask the minimum change required to detect a difference between the 2 stimuli. Just noticeable difference (JND) o Weber’s Law- Δ intensity/ original intensity= K (constant) Means that larger initial stimulus values require larger changes in intensity to make a JND (vision and audition work this way) Pain is wired the opposite way: small physical changes result in big psychological changes. 15 For judging length of lines however, there appears to be a 1:1 ratio Sensory adaptation- decreased response to continuous stimulation, sometimes at receptor, sometimes due to attention. Smell adapts the most quickly and pain adapts the slowest and the least. Vision Electromagnetic energy that moves in waves. We can only transduce some of the wave length spectrum to light. Ultraviolet and infrared rays do not enter our eyes but we don’t need to see them. (Insects and spiders can see UV) Light waves can vary in length (determines frequency/color) and height (determines amplitude of wave/brightness) Shape of the eye is very important. The cornea bulges out and begins to bend the light based on its shape. The shape of the eye allows us to focus our attention. The danger is that damage to the eye coud result in damage to cornea. Stigmatism- irregularly shaped cornea; blurred vision in the eye; can be reshaped. Duplex theory- represents an animal that has a well-developed day system and a well-developed night system. Most animals with duplex theory have the most advantage at dusk and dawn Structures of the Retina 1. Cones a. High degree of visual acuity b. Wired to brain in one-to-one fashion, brain knows exactly where on retina stimulation occurred and where stimulation stops c. Located in the center of the retina (in fovea in macula lutea) d. Dominant in normal viewing conditions e. Associated with color vision 2. Rods a. High degree of visual sensitivity b. Wired to brain in several to one fashion c. Located in the periphery of the brain d. Associated with black and white vision When you walk from a light to dark environment, you switch from cone to rod vision. Hyperopia- farsighted, can’t see close up, light falls behind the retina Myopia- nearsighted, can’t see far away, light falls in front of retina Both are refractive errors 16 Audition Sound results from movement of air molecules in a wave pattern (compression and refraction) We respond the fastest to auditory stimuli. Sound waves can vary in: 1. Wavelength: frequency, pitch 2. Height: loudness/intensity, measure on a decibel scale (logarithmic) a. Prolonged exposure above 40 decibels can cause permanent nerve damage Mechanical energy passes from outer to mid to inner ear. Hair cells (located in cochlea) are receptors. When receiving a signal, the hair cells physically bend allowing ion channels to open. Olfaction Human olfaction is not that well developed. Human receptors are embedded back in skull in olfactory epithileum Gustation Sense of taste Receptors are the taste buds located in the papillae of the tongue Humans have a much more developed sense of taste than most animals because we store food rather than eating it right away Tongue has 2 main nerves o Glossopharyngeal nerve- older, more sensitive to bitter tastes, tends to initiate gag reflex o Chorda lympani nerve- more sensitive to sweet tastes The Body Senses Skin senses: 3 basic sensations: touch, pain, temperature Receptors for skin occur in dermatones and various concentrations and depts. In skin. Vestibular sense: sense of balance, involves vestibular sacs and semicircular canals located in the inner ear. Kinesthesia: provides brain with information about bodily posture and bodily movement. Illusions: false or misleading perceptions o ex. Ponzo Illusion (parallel lines converge in the distance) o ex. Ames Room Illusion- mismatch of depth that interferes with depth formation; tricks us into thinking that there is no depth. Perception 1. Selective attention a. Filtering out and attending only to important sensory messages. 2. Feature Detectors 17 a. Responding only to certain sensory information 3. Habituation a. Brain’s tendency to ignore environmental factors that remain constant i. Hubel and Weisel did an experiment where they sewed the eyelids of cats shut until they were adults; when they were adults, their vision was compromised. ii. Input is necessary for brain areas to properly develop! Organization of Visuals Form Constancy Depth Color Form perception Gestalt principles o The whole is greater than the sum of the parts Perpetual constancy- our ability to perceive a stimulus as being consistent even with changes to environment. This brings stability into the world. The four best known constancies are size, shape, and color. Ex. When a light becomes dimmer we don’t perceive a neon orange object as dull. Depth perception- monocular and binocular. Binocular depth perception is always better than monocular. Depth perception is probably innate. o Binocular cues for depth: Retinal disparity- separation of the eyes causes different images to fall on each retina. Retinal disparity is connected to how far away/how close something is. Closer to us there is more retinal disparity, while farther away there is less. Convergence- as something gets closer to your face, eyes tend to turn inward Painters use 6 monocular cues: 1. linear perspective (parallel lines appear to converge) 2. interposition (one thing blocks another) 3. relative size (smaller is perceived as farther away) 4. texture gradient (close up texture is obvious while far away is harder to perceive) 5. Aerial perspective (haziness in air) 6. Light and shadow Color Vision Color perception is a combination of 2 theories: 18 1. trichromatic- 3 colors: red, green and blue for 3 types of cones in eyes. This theory is correct at the eye level, but not at the brain level. Yellow is a factor. 2. Opponent Process theory- higher level of processing than trichromatic. In this theory, color reception results from 3 systems of color opposites. Adds yellow into the mix. a. Negative after images can be explained by the opponent process Interpretation- how we explain sensations. 1. perceptual adaptation (brain adapts to changed environments) 2. Perceptual set (reflects top down processing, we have a readiness to perceive items based on past experiences) 3. Frame of reference 4. Bottom up or top down processing (information either stars with raw sensory data or with thoughts, expectations and knowledge. Subliminal perception- reaction to a stimulus without perceived consciousness or perception. There is little to no evidence of subliminal persuasion Extrasensory perception (ESP)- supposed ability to perceive things that go beyond the five normal senses. ESP research is criticized because of the lack of control. Chapter 5: States of Consciousness Consciousness- an awareness of our self and our surroundings; it is centered around the cerebral cortex. Awareness is based upon a continuum. High: attentive, focused Middle: daydream Minimal: unconscious Alternate states of Consciousness (ASC)- found during sleeping, dreaming, psychoactive drug use, hypnosis, etc. Circadian rhythms- biological changes occurring under a 24 hour cycle. Our energy, level, mood, learning, body temperature (highest in early afternoon and lowest at night) and alertness all vary throughout the day. Sections of the hypothalamus called the suprachiasmatic nucleus and pineal gland regulate these changes. Disrupted circadian rhythms can cause mood alterations, reduced concentration and motivation, lapses in attention. Sleeping doesn’t involve REM cycle (deep sleep) while dreaming does. Brain activity in sleep is divided into REM and non-REM (4 stages) sleep. Sleep and Dreams Research: 19 EEG can measure waves in the brain If you selectively remove REM cycles it is proven that you do not feel as well rested Alcohol and barbiturates inhibit the REM cycle. If you stay up for a long time you will try to “catch up”; REM cycle will last longer for a REM rebound effect During REM sleep, the body can become paralyzed (atonia) Most people tend to have 4-5 dreams tonight but only remember the last one Duration of sleep needed and REM cycles decreases as we age In general prey-type animals seem to sleep less while predatory animals sleep more. Awake: wave amplitude is short, fast activity Asleep: wave amplitude is longer, slower activity, electrical activities coordinate in brain Why do we sleep? Theories: 1. repair/ restoration: physically and cellular repair; however, protein synthesis slows down at night so that is evidence against this theory 2. Evolutionary/circadian rhythm- sleep evolved for us as a form of conserving energy and protection from predators 3. Cognitive theory: dreams are an important part of information processing of everyday experience (ex. In rats, the very same neurons used in learning processes are used for dreaming) Why do we dream? Theories: 1. Psychoanalytical activity: Freud believes that there is a constant conflict between the conscious and unconscious mind. 2. Biological theory: dreams are simply by products of random stimulation of brain cells Sleep Disorders Dyssomnias (problems with the amount and quality of sleep) o Insomnia- waking up too early or trouble falling asleep o Sleep apnea- repeated interruption of breathing during sleep o Narcolepsy- sudden and irresistible onsets of sleep during normal waking hours Parasomnias o Nightmares- anxiety arousing dreams at end of REM cycle o Night terrors- abrupt awakening from NREM sleep Psychoactive drugs- drugs that have an effect on our thinking/consciousness 20 Abuse: emotional/physical pain to oneself or others; when the drug becomes maladaptive Addiction- compulsion to use a specific drug or engage in a certain activity Psychological dependence- when you emotionally need the drug Physical dependence- when you physically need the drug; withdrawal symptoms give you the opposite effect of the drug Tolerance- decreases sensitivity to the drug because of brain counteracting the drug and changes in the number of receptors Depressants- slow actions of the nervous system, increase GABA (main inhibitory neurotransmitter) in order to suppress bodily functions. Few depressants have a strong physical addiction. Complete depressants- if you take enough of them, you die. Ex. Alcohol. Note that GABA drugs are synergistic; effects multiply, not add. Stimulants- act on the central nervous system to increase bodily functions (increase action potentials in the brain) ex. Caffeine, nicotine, cocaine. Many stimulants have a strong physical addiction. Opiates- act as analgesics or pain relievers (ex. Heroin, morphine) Hallucinogens- produce sensory or perceptual distortions, not a strong physical addiction. Note that mirajuana is a hallucinogenic that won’t make you hallucinate but is classified as such because of its shape.