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UA / Science / COGS 170 / Does each human has the same ecological footprint?

Does each human has the same ecological footprint?

Does each human has the same ecological footprint?


School: University of Arizona
Department: Science
Course: Intro Environmental Science
Professor: Monica ramirez
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Environmental Ethics, Environmental Studies, environmental science and sustainability, sustainability, and Introduction to Environmental Studies
Cost: 50
Name: Exam 1 Study Guide
Description: This study guide covers intro to environmental science, environmental ethics, sustainability, environmental policy, essential chemistry, and water pollution.
Uploaded: 09/26/2016
5 Pages 41 Views 1 Unlocks

Intro to Environmental Science Exam 1 Study  Guide  

Does each human has the same ecological footprint?

Introduction to Environmental Science  

o Environmental science: the study of how our planet functions and how  people interact with it

o Environmentalism: environmental activism

o Natural resources: renewable and non-renewable  

o Natural resources: substances/energy sources essential to  human survival

o Renewable resources: constantly renewing themselves (sunlight,  win energy, wave energy, geothermal energy) Don't forget about the age old question of What is the meaning of labanotation?

o Non-renewable energy: can be depleted (oil, natural gas, coal,  metals)  Don't forget about the age old question of What is the meaning of big-oh?

o Ecological Footprint: the ecological impact of an individual or an entire  population  

What is the name for the movement to protect the environment that john muir was a part?

o The Nature of Science: a way of learning about and gaining a deeper  understanding of the world around us

o Scientific Method: a process of observation, testing, and discovering  results that lead to new conclusions and questions  

o Observations→Questions→Hypothesis→Predictions→Testing→Res ults  

Environmental Ethics

o Ethics: the study of good vs. bad and right vs. wrong  We also discuss several other topics like Who is robert “fighting bob” la follete?

 o Environmental ethics: application of ethical standards to the  relationships between humans and their environment  

What did aldo leopold say about ethical behavior?

o Three ethical perspectives

o Anthropocentrism: the perspective that only humans have rights  o Biocentrism: the perspective that all life has ethical standing  o Ecocentrism: the perspective that entire ecological systems have value  

o Preservation Ethic: the idea that nature should be protected for its  intrinsic value (supported by John Muir)  

o Conservation Ethic: natural resources should be used wisely in a way  that will benefit the most people in the best way (supported by Gifford  Pinchot)  

o Land Ethic: all people should treat nature as a member of the same  community because all parts of an ecological system must be  protected in order for it to be healthy (supported by Aldo Leopold) o Intrinsic Value: the value that an object has “in itself” We also discuss several other topics like How did immigrants assimilate to and change american culture?

o Environmental Justice: ALL people should be able to live in healthy  environments no matter what  

o Poor/minorities are more commonly exposed to polluted and  hazardous environments

 o Tragedy of the Commons: written by Garret Hardin, people will simply  continue to consume as many resources as they can until they are all  gone because they have no limitations or regulations-could be solved  with private ownership or the establishment of government regulations


o Sustainability: guiding influence for environmental science, “the  endurance of systems and processes”

o Living sustainably: meeting our current needs without compromising  the availability of resources for future generations If you want to learn more check out What is andare a cavallo in english?

o Reusing/recycling

o Utilizing renewable resources for their energy  

o Ecosystem Services: ecosystems provide humans with services that  benefit them  

o Provisioning of food, water, timber, etc.  

o Regulation of climate, disease, water flow, pests, etc.  

o Cultural value of beauty, aesthetics, recreation, etc.  

o Sustainable Management: taking into consideration the costs/benefits  for the environment as a whole when making sustainable  decisions/actions  

o Piece thinking: focuses on individual parts of a system, gives  little attention to their association with other parts  

o Systems thinking: recognizes the connections among pieces of a  larger integrated system  

o Triple bottom line: accounting for social, environmental, and economic  profits rather than purely financial profits  Don't forget about the age old question of What is the meaning of abnormal psychology?

o Ecosystem Rules:

1. Something cannot be created from nothing, everything goes  somewhere  

2. Ecosystems are open, matter and energy flow in and out 3. Ecosystems are self-regulating through feedback  

4. Change is inevitable and essential  

o 2005 Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: the most comprehensive  scientific evaluation of the worlds current ecosystem conditions o Findings: humans have made enormous change to the  

environment, this change has benefitted humans and costed the  planet  

Environmental Policy  

o EPA (Environmental Protection Agency): creates regulations and laws  that keep the environment’s get interest in mind  

o Clean Water Act: people cannot pollute into surface waters, people  should be able to swim and fish in lakes and rivers

o Safe Drinking Water Act: the protection of drinking water with  standards for more than 90 identified contaminants-maximum  contaminant levels  

o Challenge: balancing the risks from pathogens and carcinogenic  disinfection byproducts  

o Toxic Substance Control Act: EPA’s list of hazardous chemicals  o Endangered Species Act: made to protect/recover imperiled species  and their habitats  

o Pollution Prevention Act: made to reduce pollution through guidelines  for prevention, recycling, treatment, and disposal  

o CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and  Liability Act): also known as the superfund, the government’s program  made to clean up the nation’s uncontrolled hazardous waste  

o Silent Spring: written by Rachel Carson, it gave warning about the  danger of pesticides and how they affect a variety of species, was a  large influence in the environmental movement of the 1960s/1970s Essential Chemistry  

o Most Abundant Elements in the Universe: hydrogen and helium  1. Hydrogen  

2. Helium  

3. Oxygen  

4. Neon  

5. Nitrogen  

6. Carbon  

7. Silicon  

8. Magnesium  

9. Iron  

10. Sulfur  

o Most Abundant Elements in Earth’s Crust  

1. Oxygen  

2. Silicon  

3. Aluminum  

4. Iron  

5. Calcium  

6. Sodium  

7. Magnesium  

8. Potassium  

9. Titanium  

10. Hydrogen  

o Gases in Atmosphere:  

1. Nitrogen

2. Oxygen

3. Argon  

o Trace gases include: carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, and  ozone

o Most Abundant Greenhouse Gases in the Atmosphere:

1. Water  

2. Carbon dioxide  

3. Methan  

4. Ozone

5. Nitrous oxide  

o Building Blocks of Matter: atoms  

o Protons: positive charge  

o Neutrons: no charge  

o Electrons: negative charge  

o Periodic Table:

o Atomic number: number of protons  

o Mass number: number of neutrons and protons  

o Isotopes: elements with the same atomic number but different  masses or elements with the same number of protons but a  different number of neutrons  

o E-Waste (Electronic Waste): one of the most rapidly growing streams of trash, poses a serious threat to the health of the societies that  generate it and those that receive it


o Water Pollution and Management:  

o Consequences of water pollution include health hazards, loss of  biodiversity, and loss of aesthetic beauty  

o Pollution can be contained by reducing/removing the source or  by treating/purifying contaminated water  

o Point source pollution v. Non-point source pollution  

o Point source pollution: “any single identifiable source of pollution  from which pollutants are discharged such as a pipe, ditch, ship  or factory smokestack” (EPA)

o Non-point source pollution: rain/melted snow that runs over the  ground, picking up pollutants along the way, very difficult to  control  

o Types of water pollutants  

o Pathogens  

o Organic waste  

o Chemical pollutants  

o Sediments  

o Nutrients  

o Private wells v. public water systems  

o Private: not regulated by the EPA  

o Public: about 155,000 public water systems in the US, regulated  by the EPA  

o Gold King Mine Spill: the Animus River in Colorado turned yellow due to the oxidation of dissolved iron in the water that came from a spill from  the Gold King Mine (2015)  

o Flint Water Crisis: the lead contamination of drinking water in Flint,  Michigan

o Tucson International Airport Area: home to many sources of  groundwater contamination, Superfund site  

o Sediment/Sedimentation  

o Sediment is transported through all streams, large amounts can  “choke the stream”

o Sedimentation: the accumulation of sediment, sediments act as  a surface area for other pollutants (the higher the amount of  sediment, the higher the pollutant concentration)

o Eutrophication: occurs when an aquatic/marine ecosystem has too  many nutrients which increases the plant growth and is dangerous to  animals in the ecosystem due to a lack of oxygen

o Dead Zone: area of hypoxic (depleted of oxygen) water, stretches  along the Gulf Coast, caused by drainage from the Mississippi River  which carries water from 31 US states and 2 Canadian provinces

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