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UA / Science / COGS 170 / Does each human has the same ecological footprint?

Does each human has the same ecological footprint?

Does each human has the same ecological footprint?


School: University of Arizona
Department: Science
Course: Intro Environmental Science
Professor: Monica ramirez
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Environmental Ethics, Environmental Studies, environmental science and sustainability, sustainability, and Introduction to Environmental Studies
Cost: 50
Name: Exam 1 Study Guide
Description: This study guide covers intro to environmental science, environmental ethics, sustainability, environmental policy, essential chemistry, and water pollution.
Uploaded: 09/26/2016
5 Pages 127 Views 1 Unlocks

Intro to Environmental Science Exam 1 Study  Guide  

Does each human has the same ecological footprint?

Introduction to Environmental Science  

o Environmental science: the study of how our planet functions and how  people interact with it

o Environmentalism: environmental activism

o Natural resources: renewable and non-renewable  

o Natural resources: substances/energy sources essential to  human survival

o Renewable resources: constantly renewing themselves (sunlight,  win energy, wave energy, geothermal energy)

o Non-renewable energy: can be depleted (oil, natural gas, coal,  metals)  

o Ecological Footprint: the ecological impact of an individual or an entire  population  

What is the name for the movement to protect the environment that john muir was a part?

o The Nature of Science: a way of learning about and gaining a deeper  understanding of the world around us

o Scientific Method: a process of observation, testing, and discovering  results that lead to new conclusions and questions  

o Observations→Questions→Hypothesis→Predictions→Testing→Res ults  

Environmental Ethics

o Ethics: the study of good vs. bad and right vs. wrong  

 o Environmental ethics: application of ethical standards to the  relationships between humans and their environment  

What did aldo leopold say about ethical behavior?

o Three ethical perspectives

o Anthropocentrism: the perspective that only humans have rights  o Biocentrism: the perspective that all life has ethical standing  o Ecocentrism: the perspective that entire ecological systems have value  If you want to learn more check out What is the meaning of labanotation?

o Preservation Ethic: the idea that nature should be protected for its  intrinsic value (supported by John Muir)  

o Conservation Ethic: natural resources should be used wisely in a way  that will benefit the most people in the best way (supported by Gifford  Pinchot)  

o Land Ethic: all people should treat nature as a member of the same  community because all parts of an ecological system must be  protected in order for it to be healthy (supported by Aldo Leopold) o Intrinsic Value: the value that an object has “in itself”

o Environmental Justice: ALL people should be able to live in healthy  environments no matter what  

o Poor/minorities are more commonly exposed to polluted and  hazardous environments

 o Tragedy of the Commons: written by Garret Hardin, people will simply  continue to consume as many resources as they can until they are all  gone because they have no limitations or regulations-could be solved  with private ownership or the establishment of government regulations


o Sustainability: guiding influence for environmental science, “the  endurance of systems and processes” Don't forget about the age old question of What are some important big-oh’s?

o Living sustainably: meeting our current needs without compromising  the availability of resources for future generations We also discuss several other topics like When is the wall street bombing?

o Reusing/recycling

o Utilizing renewable resources for their energy  

o Ecosystem Services: ecosystems provide humans with services that  benefit them  

o Provisioning of food, water, timber, etc.  If you want to learn more check out What did benjamin franklin fear regarding the presidency?

o Regulation of climate, disease, water flow, pests, etc.  

o Cultural value of beauty, aesthetics, recreation, etc.  

o Sustainable Management: taking into consideration the costs/benefits  for the environment as a whole when making sustainable  decisions/actions  

o Piece thinking: focuses on individual parts of a system, gives  little attention to their association with other parts  

o Systems thinking: recognizes the connections among pieces of a  larger integrated system  

o Triple bottom line: accounting for social, environmental, and economic  profits rather than purely financial profits  

o Ecosystem Rules:

1. Something cannot be created from nothing, everything goes  somewhere  

2. Ecosystems are open, matter and energy flow in and out 3. Ecosystems are self-regulating through feedback  

4. Change is inevitable and essential  

o 2005 Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: the most comprehensive  scientific evaluation of the worlds current ecosystem conditions o Findings: humans have made enormous change to the  

environment, this change has benefitted humans and costed the  planet  If you want to learn more check out What is andare in bicicletta in english?

Environmental Policy  

o EPA (Environmental Protection Agency): creates regulations and laws  that keep the environment’s get interest in mind  If you want to learn more check out What is the meaning of abnormal psychology?

o Clean Water Act: people cannot pollute into surface waters, people  should be able to swim and fish in lakes and rivers

o Safe Drinking Water Act: the protection of drinking water with  standards for more than 90 identified contaminants-maximum  contaminant levels  

o Challenge: balancing the risks from pathogens and carcinogenic  disinfection byproducts  

o Toxic Substance Control Act: EPA’s list of hazardous chemicals  o Endangered Species Act: made to protect/recover imperiled species  and their habitats  

o Pollution Prevention Act: made to reduce pollution through guidelines  for prevention, recycling, treatment, and disposal  

o CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and  Liability Act): also known as the superfund, the government’s program  made to clean up the nation’s uncontrolled hazardous waste  

o Silent Spring: written by Rachel Carson, it gave warning about the  danger of pesticides and how they affect a variety of species, was a  large influence in the environmental movement of the 1960s/1970s Essential Chemistry  

o Most Abundant Elements in the Universe: hydrogen and helium  1. Hydrogen  

2. Helium  

3. Oxygen  

4. Neon  

5. Nitrogen  

6. Carbon  

7. Silicon  

8. Magnesium  

9. Iron  

10. Sulfur  

o Most Abundant Elements in Earth’s Crust  

1. Oxygen  

2. Silicon  

3. Aluminum  

4. Iron  

5. Calcium  

6. Sodium  

7. Magnesium  

8. Potassium  

9. Titanium  

10. Hydrogen  

o Gases in Atmosphere:  

1. Nitrogen

2. Oxygen

3. Argon  

o Trace gases include: carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, and  ozone

o Most Abundant Greenhouse Gases in the Atmosphere:

1. Water  

2. Carbon dioxide  

3. Methan  

4. Ozone

5. Nitrous oxide  

o Building Blocks of Matter: atoms  

o Protons: positive charge  

o Neutrons: no charge  

o Electrons: negative charge  

o Periodic Table:

o Atomic number: number of protons  

o Mass number: number of neutrons and protons  

o Isotopes: elements with the same atomic number but different  masses or elements with the same number of protons but a  different number of neutrons  

o E-Waste (Electronic Waste): one of the most rapidly growing streams of trash, poses a serious threat to the health of the societies that  generate it and those that receive it


o Water Pollution and Management:  

o Consequences of water pollution include health hazards, loss of  biodiversity, and loss of aesthetic beauty  

o Pollution can be contained by reducing/removing the source or  by treating/purifying contaminated water  

o Point source pollution v. Non-point source pollution  

o Point source pollution: “any single identifiable source of pollution  from which pollutants are discharged such as a pipe, ditch, ship  or factory smokestack” (EPA)

o Non-point source pollution: rain/melted snow that runs over the  ground, picking up pollutants along the way, very difficult to  control  

o Types of water pollutants  

o Pathogens  

o Organic waste  

o Chemical pollutants  

o Sediments  

o Nutrients  

o Private wells v. public water systems  

o Private: not regulated by the EPA  

o Public: about 155,000 public water systems in the US, regulated  by the EPA  

o Gold King Mine Spill: the Animus River in Colorado turned yellow due to the oxidation of dissolved iron in the water that came from a spill from  the Gold King Mine (2015)  

o Flint Water Crisis: the lead contamination of drinking water in Flint,  Michigan

o Tucson International Airport Area: home to many sources of  groundwater contamination, Superfund site  

o Sediment/Sedimentation  

o Sediment is transported through all streams, large amounts can  “choke the stream”

o Sedimentation: the accumulation of sediment, sediments act as  a surface area for other pollutants (the higher the amount of  sediment, the higher the pollutant concentration)

o Eutrophication: occurs when an aquatic/marine ecosystem has too  many nutrients which increases the plant growth and is dangerous to  animals in the ecosystem due to a lack of oxygen

o Dead Zone: area of hypoxic (depleted of oxygen) water, stretches  along the Gulf Coast, caused by drainage from the Mississippi River  which carries water from 31 US states and 2 Canadian provinces

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