Exam #1 Review
Exam #1 Review Anthropology 1306
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This 25 page Study Guide was uploaded by Robin W. on Monday September 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Anthropology 1306 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Julie Adkins in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views.
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Date Created: 09/26/16
§ Anthropology 1306 Exam #1 Study Guide • Archaeology o The study of human cultures through the recovery and analysis of material remains and environmental data o Physical remains § Material products include tools, pottery, hearths, and enclosures that remain as traces of past cultural practices • Human, plant and marine remains also fall into this category o Ex. Concentrations of charcoal that include oxidized earth, bone fragments, and charred plant remains located near fire-cracked rock or pottery indicate cooking and food processing § Bioarcheology • Study of human remains, emphasizing the reservation of cultural and social processes in the skeleton o Ex. A mummified skeletal remain from Andean Highlands in south America preserve not only the burial practice but also provide evidence of some of the earliest brain surgery ever documented § These remains exhibit skull deformations • Used to distinguish nobility from other members of society o Cultural Remains § Artifacts • any object fashioned or altered by humans • product or representation of human beliefs or behavior • material culture o artifacts are considered material culture o material culture is durable aspects of culture such as tools, structures, and art o this can be integrated with biological and ecological remains to provide context for an anthropologist § Middens • Refuse or garbage disposal area in an archaeological site that have been exposed by erosion o Absolute (chronometric) Dating § In archaeology and paleoanthropology, dating archaeological or fossil materials such as of decay of radioactive elements § Latin for “measuring time” § Methods provide actual dates calculated in years “before the present” • Helpful in determining evolutionary history such as human origins, migrations, and technological developments § Radiocarbon Dating • Radioactive elements may be present in soil or the material themselves • By comparing dates and remains across a variety of sites, anthropologists can scientifically establish the actual dates for major geologic and evolutionary history o Human origins, migrations, technological developments o Relative Dating § Designating an event, object, or fossil as older or younger than another by noting its position on the earth § Determined by measuring amount of chemicals contained in fossil bones and artifacts or through association with other plant, animal, or cultural remains § Does not establish precise dates for remains • Establishes relationship among a series of remains by using geologic principles to place remains in chronological order § Dendrochronology • Based on tree rings • Date relative to other things o Relative to other tree rings • Works best for things less than 3,000 years old § Stratigraphy • Based on layers of sedimentary rocks • Older at the bottom • Younger at the top § Seriation • assemblages or artifacts from numerous sites, in the same culture, are placed in chronological order o Cultural Resource Management § Aka CRM § Branch of archaeology concerned with survey/excavation of archaeological and historical remains that might be threatened by construction or development • Also involves policy surrounding protection of cultural resources • Ex. If the U.S. transportation department of a state gov. plans to replace an inadequate highway bridge, the state must first contact archaeologists to identify and protect any significant resources that might be affected by the new construction § Historic Preservation Act of 1966 required cultural resource management for any construction project partially funded of licensed by U.S. gov. o Anthropology o The study of humankind in all times and places o Holistic Perspective § The various parts of human culture and biology must be viewed in broad context in order to understand interconnectedness and interdependence § Keeps cultural ideas and values from distorting research § How does one thing relate to one another? o Fieldwork § Hands on work § Historically focused on non-western, tribal societies • Last 30-40 years the focus has shifted to urban societies § Part of all anthropological fields o Ethnocentricism § The belief of viewing culture, practices and beliefs through our cultural lense § Our culture is the only proper one o Cultural Relativisim § Viewing a culture on its own terms § Not assuming cultural viewpoints are the same around the world § Ex. Fiving the wrong gift or not knowing cultural expectations o Cultural Anthropology § largest of the four anthropological fields § a group of people’s patterns, thoughts, behaviors, and feelings (culture) § uses key consultants • members of a society being studies who provide info that helps the researchers understand the meaning of what they observed • also called informants • Ethnography o A detailed description of a particular culture primarily based on fieldwork § Specific questions § In depth study § Narrowly focused and deep • Ethnology o Comparative and cross cultural explanation of similarities and differences between human beings o Human Relations Area Files (HRAF) § A vast collection of cross indexed ethnographic, biocultural, archaeological data catalogues by cultural characteristics and geographic location o What are our differences and what explains our differences? o Linguistic Anthropology § Descriptive § Details of a certain language § Documents a language and records them if at all possible § Linguistic relativity • Refers to idea that linguistic diversity reflects not just differences in sound and grammar but different ways of looking at the world • Complex ideas and practices integral to a culture’s survival can also be reflected into a language § Discourse • Extended communication on a particular subject § Sociolinguistics • The relationship between how we use language and the relationship of other cultures o How do we use language differently in different settings? o Assumptions about dialects and accents § When do you use an accent and when do you not? § Historical Linguistics • Looking at the relationships of languages between different cultures o How long did the cultures diverge? § DNA can tell the same thing that languages can • Physical (biological) Anthropology § The systematic study of humans as biological organisms § Concentrate on human evolution, primatology, growth and development, human adaptation, and forensics § Experts on anatomy of human bones and tissues ----> applied knowledge in anatomy laboratories, public health, and criminal investigations o Molecular Anthropology § The anthropological study of genes and genetic relationships § Contributes significantly to our understanding of human evolution, adaptation, and diversity § Comparisons among groups separated by time, geography, or the frequency of a particular gene can reveal how human have adapted and where they have migrated o Paleoanthropology § Anthropological study of biological changes through time (evolution) to understand the origins and predecessors of the present human species • Ex. When did the brain grow in proportion to our bodies • Human evolution • Biocultural approach o Relationship between biology and culture • Involves Primatology o What traits are uniquely human? o What human behaviors come from primal instinct? • Molecular Anthropology o How closely we are related to living or ancient primates o Study of genes and genetic relationship • Forensic anthropology o Applying physical anthropology to crime and disasters o Analysis of human skeletal remains for legal purposes § Ex. Cause of death, body type, childhood trauma § § B/c humans have common ancestry with other primates (most specifically apes), paleoanthropologists look back at earliest primates or mammals to reconstruct complex path of human evolution § They take a biocultural approach • Focusing on interaction between biology and culture § Compares fossilized skeletons of ancestors to other fossils and bones of living groups o Primatology § The study of living and fossil primates § Helps us to understand what we share with our closest living relatives and what makes humans unique § Primates • Primates includes apes, monkeys, lemurs, lorises, tarsiers o Biologically humans are members of the ape family § Primatologists designate shared, learned behavior of nonhuman apes as culture • Highly social o Recognize family members over the course of a lifetime o Contain dominance hierarchy o Some even form friendships • All primates, except for prosimians have eye orbits that are completely enclosed • Prosimians o Subdivision w/I primate order o Lemurs, lorises, and tarsiers o Latin for “before monkeys” o Based on morphological similarities they share w/ most ancient primates (more snouts and they live in protected areas) o Closely related to nocturnal behaviors of ancient primates as well as their anatomy • Anthropoids o Includes new world and old world monkeys, including apes and humans o Greek for “humank like” o Larger, active in the day, live in large social group o Prehensile § The ability to grasp § New world monkeys possess this type of tail • Naked skin on underside resembles sensitive tips of fingers in humans • Used to distinguish old world apes from new world apes o Old world has nonprehensile tails o New world has prehensile tails o Old World Monkeys (Catarrhines) § Divided from apes at the superfamily taxonomic level § May live on ground or in trees § Four-footed pattern of locomotion on ground or palms-down position in trees § Narrow bodies with hind limbs and forelimbs of equal length § Relatively fixed and sturdy shoulder , elbow, and wrist joints § Live in parts of Asia and Africa, to even small islands off the coast of spain to as far north as Japan o New World Monkeys (Platyrrhines) § Flat nose with side-facing nostrils § Live in central and south america § Tropical forest environments • Apes o Orangutanges, bonobos, chimps, apes, gorillas, siamangs and humans o All primates are mammals but not all mammals are primates o Our hands are special b/c we can grasp w/ our fingers § Fingers move independently of ea. Other o We have nails, not claws § Except some prosimians contain one claw on ea. Extremity to grab things with o We have binocular vision (see mammals listed below) § Helps in gathering food and knowing position of predator prey o We have color vision o Smell decreased when snout size and the overall olfactory system decreased o Masters of branchiation § Holding out arms for balance § Mammals • Class of vertebrae animals distinguished by bodies covered with hair/ fur who suckle or nurse their young • Primates are considered mammals o Only one of several mammals such as rodents, carnivores, ungulates (hooved mammals) o Have more brain power than reptiles or other vertebrae o This and the development process form basis of flexible behavior patterns • In most species the young are born live o Egg is retained w/I womb until embryo achieves adv, growth state • Once born young receive milk from mother mammary gland o This feature is where mammals get their name • more active than other member of the animal kingdom • skeleton is positioned beneath the body rather than out to the side o this allows for direct support and easy movement • mammals have diff. teeth than reptiles o reptiles: pointed, peg-like, all identical o mammals: specialized § incisors: nipping, gnawing, and cutting § canines: ripping, tearing and fighting § premolars: slicing, tearing, crushing or grinding § molars: crushing and grinding o this allows them to eat a variety of foods and maintain their activity levels § Nocturnal • Active at night and rest during the day • Mammals were originally small nocturnal creatures 200 mya • Earliest primate-like beings arose ~65 mya o climate favored spread of dense tropical and subtropical forests § lead to evolutionary development of aboreal mammals • arboreal means living in the trees • this opened up an abundant food supply such as flowers, leaves, fruits, birds’ eggs, ect. § Diurnal • Active during the day and rest at night • Most modern primates are now diurnal • These biological adjustments helped shape the biology and behavior of humans today § Binocular Vision • Vision w/ increased depth perception from two eyes set next to each other allowing the visual field to overlap • Natural selection favored those who cd judge depth correctly and grip branches tightly • Taxonomy o The science of classification o Ex. Classifying two kinds of people § People who eat the pizza crush and those who are shamelessly wasteful o How things are related to each other even if the they are in diff. categories § Appearance can get you to a certain point but it can be deceiving o Species § Smallest working units in biological classification systems § Reproductively isolated populations or groups of populations capable of interbreeding to produce fertile offspring o General (genus singular) § Group of like species in a system of plant and animal classification • Evolution (biological) § the changes in allele frequencies in population § also known as microevolution o Georges Curvier § Catastrophism • Used natural events like the Great flood in genesis to account for the disappearance of European species o Charles Lyell § Uniformitarianism • Just as changes in the earth’s surface that are immediately observable are caused by erosion and other natural processes, other changes are caused by gradual processes over extremely long periods of time o Jean-Baptise Lemarck § Inheritance of Acquired characteristics • you acquire your characteristic and when you have children you pass on these characteristics o acquired as a response to our environment o Ex. Giraffes have short necks and eat the lowest leaves, then their necks stretched to reach higher leaves as a result of environmental pressure, like a drought § This trait was passed onto their children and their necks became longer throughout the generations § o Aristotle § Great Chain of Being • Categorized based on visual similarities • Organized like a ladder or hierarchy o Primate was considered the first or best of a group § Ex. Primate of rocks was the diamond o Carolus Linnaeus (AKA Carl von Linne) § developed systema naturae (system of nature) • classified diversity of living things collected and brought to Europe • notes similarities between humans, monkeys, and apes o classified them as Primates (see physical anthropology --> primatology) • progressively on basis of internal and external similarities o Charles Darwin § Noted species varied accordingly to the environments they inhabited § Observed that the animal population remained stable unlike the human population § Descent with modification § Natural Selection o Evolutionary process through which factors in the environment exert pressure, favoring some individuals over others to produce the next generation o Source of considerable controversy o Evolutionary Strategies to pass genes onto next generation § R-selected • No parental investment • Hundreds to thousands of offspring with little to no care • Many die, but parents hope that with so many kids at least a few will survive § K-selected • Fewer offspring • Greater parental investment • Ex. Apes often nurse young for 4-5 years • More time and effort is put into caring for the young in the hopes that they will survive § Gregor Mendel • 1822-1844 • developed basic laws of heredity while working in monastery gardens in what is now the Czech Republic o carefully breeded plant experiments o discovered inheritance was particular rather than blending, as Darwin and many others thought § units controlling the expression of visible tats come in pairs, one from each parent, and retain their separate identities over the generation rather than blending into a combo of the parental traits in their off spring • Genotype o the alleles possessed for a particular trait o impossible to predict any single individual’s genotype o genetic composition o Mendel discovered statistical probabilities can be established • Phenotype o The observable or testable appearance of an organism that may or may not reflect a particular genotype due to the variable expression of dominant and recessive alleles o Observable characteristics of genetic makeup • Allele o Alternate forms of a single gene o It is the traits that are dominant or recessive rather than the alleles themselves § Dominant or recessive alleles are strictly for convenience o Dominant trait § a term to describe the ability of an allele for a trait to mask the presence of another allele o Recessive Trait § a term to describe an allele for a trait whose expression is masked by the presence of a dominant allele § Population • In biology, a group of similar individuals that can and do interbreed § Gene Pool • All of the genetic variants possessed by members of a population o Natural selectin takes place within a population ---> members contribute a disproportionate share to the next generation § Mutation • The chance alteration of genetic material that produces a new variation o Arises when copying mistakes are made in cell division o Arise b/c no species has perfect DNA • Ultimate source of evolutionary change • Most are neutral, neither harmful nor beneficial • Random mutations can make new biological tasks possible • w/o mutation, a population can’t change over time to different environments o environmental factors may increase mutation § Genetic Drift • Chance fluctuations of allele frequencies in gene pool of population • Result of random events at individual level o Ex. Squirrel may be killed in forest fire even though it is perfectly healthy • In large populations this averages out, but in small populations some allele may be overrepresented o Founder effects § Type of genetic drift deriving from small founding population not possessing all alleles present in the original population • Not full gene variation of larger population • Ex. Full colorblindness found in Micronesia, rather than certain colors § Likely played role in human evolution § Gene Flow • Introduction of alleles from gene pool on one population to that of another • Allows genes to flow into and out of populations • Migration may lead to gene flow • Geographic factors affect gene flow o Ex. A river may change course and separates a population (genetic drift) § The river could change again and the allow the populations to interbreed again • Social factors affect gene flow o Ex. Mating rules, intergroup conflicts, ability to travel § Adaptation (biological) • A series of beneficial adjustments to the environment o Is an outcome of natural selection • Harmful, nonadaptive traits decrease, adaptive of beneficial traits increase • Differs from design concept in religious theories b/c it is from existing genes • Variation from adaptation protects populations from dying out or going extinct § Macroevolution • Microevolution refers to changes in allele frequencies of a population o Microevolutionary force § Mutation, gene flow, genetic drift, natural selection • Macroevolution is above species level and leads to the formation of new species o Focuses on Speciation § The process of forming new species § Hard to tell when an isolated population becomes biologically distinct § Species are reproductively isolated § Occurs at various rates • Most times it is slow, but sometimes it is rapid § Factors known as isolating mechanisms can separate breeding populations and lead to the appearance of a new species • Affects gene flow o Changes in gene flow of one population can’t be introduced into a gene pool of another o Cladogeneis § Speciation through branching mechanism § An ancestral population gives rise to two or more descendant populations o Anagenesis § Sustained directional shift in a population’s average characteristics § Happens w/o branching • Bipedalism o A special form of locomotion on two feet in humans and their ancestors o In 1910 two specimens were found near each other and were considered a major find § First specimen that supported trajectory of human evolution • Theorized that brain size grew first • Piltdown Man o Skull looked modern o Jaw looked ape like o In the 1950s it was discovered to be a forgery § Modern skull and orangutan jaw o Easy to fool people b/c it fit the most popular theory at the time o Bipedalism was the first evolutionary milestone, rather than brain growth § Formen magnum • Largest opening in the skull • Humans o Directly underneath skull o Essentially central • Apes o Directed towards the back base of the skull • Curvature of the spine o Chimps or apes § C shaped spine o Humans § S shaped spine • Holds center of gravity directly above legs § Cervical vertebrae curve outward § Lumbar curves inward • At 3 mos. Cervical curves -> we can hold our head up • At 12 mos. Lumbar curves -> we can walk • Pelvis o Biped § Wide and short o Quadruped § Narrow and long • Thighs o Biped § Angled inward towards knee o Quadruped § Straight • Knees o Biped § Bump on the inner part of the knee larger than the outside o Quadruped § Bump on the inner part of the knee equal with the outside • Ankles o Bipeds § Less flexion, but more stability § One ankle bone gets enlarged and becomes the heel o Quadrupeds § Ankles flex more § Bones are not as large • Feet Arches o Bipeds § Arched feet • Shock absorption • Back to front and side to side o Quadrupeds § Flat footed o Bipeds are better at handling long distances than an animal with flat feet • Big Toe o Bipeds § Adducted • Not opposable-> better balance • Shorter toes, so we don’t grab things as much as quadrupeds o Quadrupeds § Abducted • Opposable • Ardipithecus o Referred to as Ardi o Most specimens date from 4.4- 5.8 mya § Miocene to Pliocene epoch o Discovered around 1922 o 39 specimens found o represent 2 different species o forest dwellers § area that was in habited is now grass, but was forested when she was alive § bipedal on the ground § quadruped in the trees • did not move live modern day apes o apes hand in trees and knuckle walk § she walked palm flat quadrupedaly and walked on branches instead of hanging on them § abducted big toe used for walking along tops of branches § body size equivalent to modern chimps • larger than monkeys, smaller than humans • skull and teeth are similar to chimps o similar diet and intelligence • Austrolopithecus o “southern ape” o 1.1-4.3 mya § Pliocene epoch o One species is a direct ancestor of modern humans but we don’t know which o Divided into two categories § Robust • Wide, flaring zygomatic bones o Big jaw muscles • Sagittal crest o Ridge bone on top of skull o Chewing muscle attached to skull § Gracile • Less robust • Smaller molard § Tend to have benefitted from robust traits while gracile ones may have died out • Law of Competitive Exclusion o If you have two closely related species sharing the same geological niche and they both compete with each other for resources, one will outcompete the other and the losing species will go extent § Shows that hominoids and robust austrolopihicines developed different diets • Robust austo was vegetarian while the early hominoid ate a high protein diet o They both coexisted until the early hominoids outcompeted austrolopithecus around 2.4 mya o Brain § Smaller than humans • In proportion to the body it is similar to great apes o Pelvis § More human like o Rib Cage § Ape like • Similar to chimps o Teeth § Intermediate between apes and humans • Not heavy like gorilla teeth but bigger than human teeth o Brow Ridge § Prominent § Fairly protected eyes § Sturdy skull o Curved Toes § Suggests that a reasonable amount of time was spent climbing trees o Austrolopithecus Afarensis § “lucy” • might have been killed by falling out of a tree o Taung Chile § Austrolopithecus § About 2-3 years old § Large talon marks from bird • Early humans were most like hunted like this child • The First Humans o Members of the genus homo first showed up around 2.6 mya § Mostly in southern and eastern Africa § Their body size and shape was almost indistinguishable from a female austrolopithecus • Shape of head and size of teeth were smaller • Brain is beginning to get larger • Genetic mutation prevents development of powerful jaw muscles o Homo genus § Tool making is evident § Brain sized nearly triples • Around 200 kya it reachs 1350 cm3 o This lead to a change in diet since 25% of the metabolism is used to support the brain o Meat eaters didn’t have to eat as much as vegetarian or vegan diets § Gorillas, vegetarians, had longer digestive systems • Right and left sides of brain control major functions o Speech on the left o Analytical analysis on the right • Tools showed that most humans were right handed o Indicated brain lateralization o Homo Habilis § latin for “handyman” § oldest species in our genus § lower Paleolithic age • 3.5-4 ft tall • first human tool makers • arrived 2,6 mya § Olduwan • Named from the gorge it was discovered in in Africa • Only found in Africa • Took two rocks and made slight edge with them o Used for cutting meat and vegetation o First tool o Scraping hides for mead and warmth o Scapting wood for resources o Used to break open long bones to eat marrow, a good source of protein and fat • They did not hunt large game with this tool • Tertiary Scavengers o They were the third person to arrive on the scene § Sabertooth tiger or something large would kill § Hyenas or vultures would detect the carcass due to their high levels of scent detection § Human would arrive last and chase away the scavengers or wait until they left o Homo Erectus § Latin for “human that stands upright” § 1.9 mya • earliest humans out of Africa o rapidly spread to the rest of the world § theorized to have risen from a particular population of homo habilis through anagensis § somewhat nomadic § brain and curiosity cont. to developed • may not have only used stone tools • Ex. May have used bamboo in china § Theorized to have less hair than apes but more hair than humans § Larger brain and smaller teeth • Suggests diet change and less rought diets § Increase in body size • About 5’8” to 5’9” tall is a considerable outlier, but their height did increase § Decrease in sexual dimorphism • Less size difference between males and females o Gorillas have pronounced sexual dimorphism • Body form is more human o Except for the skull § Brain • Asymmetry shows left cerebral dominane o Meaning that most were right handed o they may or may not have the capacity for language § Tools • Somewhat more sophisticated than homo habilis • Acheulean (acheulian) o Hand axe o Hit both sides to get a sharper edge o Less oomph behind the swing § This group of humans showed the first evidence of fire control • May have discovered it on accident or kept an existing fire going o Provided protection from animals o Used to thaw carcasses § Detoxifies some food § Makes food easier to eat • Especially for the children and elderly § Hunting • No spears • First species to used organized hunting on large animals o They would drive herds over a cliff or into a swamp where they would be stuck § Linguistic Competence • Lot of brain development -> had the capacity for language • Vocal tract was between austrolopithicus and homo sapiens o The hypoglossal nerve canal controls the movement of the tongue § Became fairly large at this time o Smaller teeth and jaw led to specificity in pronunciation o Larynx position was low in the throat § Greater capacity for speaking • Infants larynx usually drops around 6-12 mos. • Apes have a high larynx § Airway and foodway are the same so we can actually choke to death • While infants can inhale and eat at the same time • Choking is an evolutionary disadvantage but the benefits of communication outweigh the risks o Human Origins § Multiregional hypothesis • Some say the species spread out across the world through a simultaneous local transition from homo erectus to homo sapiens • Desirable traits get passed on and show up in multiple populations • Takes place over two million years • Denisovans o Actually become modern humans o Our direct ancestors § Recent African Origins Hypothesis • Hypothesis that modern humans are all derived from one single population of archaic homo sapiens who migrated out of Africa about 100 kya replacing all other archaic forms due to their superior cultural capabilities • outcompeted o Aka eve hypothesis or out of Africa hypothesis § Mitochondrial DNA leads to the name • Stems from mother’s DNA o Nuclear DNA stems from the father o Has to do with a cell’s production of energy • Small fragments of DNA were found • Suggests that we come from a common female ancestor o Analysis and conclusion reached 20 years ago § DNA shows population bottle neck • Huge portions of the population died off • All of us are of recent African origin from about 200 kya § Nuclear DNA • Suggests they did not only outcompete archaic populations, but that they interbred with them • No mitochondrial DNA is from the Neanderthals, but there is nuclear DNA o This shows that there could have been mating between H. sapien women but not Neanderthal women § Neanderthals § Middle Paleolithic age • 30-125 kya § some argue that Neanderthals are a separate species in the genus homo • homo Neanderthals § others argue that they are a subspecies • homo sapiens neandetalensis § found in Europe and asia • not found in Africa • adapted to cold weather § appear in fossil record more regularly • they sometimes buried their dead o used common graves where more than one person was buried • more complete skeletons § muscle • dense arm and leg bones o could be an adaptation to the cold § protruding mid face region • strong and large teeth and jaws § noticeable brow ridge • heavy, dense, strong skull § fairly large nose • in terms of cartilage and opening in skull • could be used to help warm the cold air § low, sloped forehead § occipital bun • where strong neck muscles attatched § Mousterian Tools and Tradition • Name from which tools were found • Tool industry of the Neanderthals and their contemporaries in Europe, southwest asia, and north Africa from 40-125 kya • Lighter and smaller than those of earlier traditions • Hand axes, flakes, scrapers, borers, notched flakes for shaving wood, points to facilitate with use of spears § Brains • Large o Mainly to do with size • Capacity for language § Culture • Cared for wounded and elderly • Had periods of adequacy as well as starvation o Exhibited through cannibalism and severed body parts • Buried their dead o There may have been flowers on their grave o Did they believe in an afterlife? • Ochre o Colored chalk from grinding stone o No sophisticated cave paintings § Colors on shells • First evidence of culture o Homo Floresiensis § Hobbits § From the island of Florence • Part of Indonesia § Small body and small brain • About 1 m tall (39 in.) • Brain size similar to austrolopithecus o Shape of skull similar to modern humans § 18-38 kya • became extinct once homo sapiens began to arrive in java around 18 kya § unknown if they evolved from archaic homo sapiens or homo erectus • they did get smaller as they evolved o advantageous b/c there is less of a caloric requirement § sometime prey become larger if they have no natural predator • ex. The Galapagos tortoise § island dwarfism • natural selection favoring a smaller size in isolate areas o Homo Naledi § Discovered in south Africa in 2013 § Lee berger • Sharing info as soon as he finds it • Theorized that if you want to find well preserved ancient humans you should look in caves o Found new species of austrolopithecus call A. sediba • Found specimen in burial site o Dozen or so complete or nearly complete skeletons o Cave never had easy access to the outside • Skull o Fairly safe to call this homo o Small § Like austrolopithecus § Has not been dated due to lack of volcanic ash on the surface § No cultural remains with the bodies o Homo sapiens § skeletal remains • archaic not modern § face and jaw • face and jaw are smaller • nasal opening is narrower • smaller/gracile teeth • modern h. sapiens have chin o apes and Neanderthals don’t have chins o chins are used to help strengthen the jaw at a point • no occipital bun o some, very few, populations still contain this feature • oldest example goes back to 16 kya in Ethiopia o cro-magnon date back to 136 kya o 30 kya most humans have modern traits, skeletons, and features § time period known as the Upper Paleolithic • a period of time from about 40 kya to about 10 kya that marks the beginning of behavioral modernity o tool industries of this time are characterized by long slim blades that produced an explosion of creative symbolic forms • during this time most h. sapiens spread to the new world o no other time do we have evidence of humans spreading to oceania o traveled without sight of land for long periods • up until 13 kya the most recent ice age was coming to an end o Canada and north America were still covered in ice sheets 1-2 miles thick § There evidence of people already being here, even though it was impossible to pass through the massive ice sheet in Alaska § Ex. Monte Verde Chile • 3 waves of migration to the new world occurred o 2 strands of evidence § teeth § shovel shaped incisors belonged to Asian population § spatula shaped incisors belonged to European and African population § native American hade shovel shaped incisors § language § the three language families match up with their related teeth • greater diversity and specialization of tools and technology o percussion rather than pressure method § working with bone instead of just stone § ex. Harpoons § needles • regional tool difference occurred o people who hunted land creatures used different tools from those who hunted sea creatures § atlatl was used to stand farther, throw faster, and made hunting less dangerous § the bow and arrow improved the speed and velocity of the projectile § net hunting was discovered through impressions left in certain areas § art was found for the first time during this time period in the form of small figurines § instruments included flutes and whistles § instruments showed a certain amount of leisure time as well as the beginning of symbolic thinking § people also began to make shelter for themselves from wooly mammoth remains o epochs § continental drift • in the theory of plate tectonics the movement of continents embedded in underlying plates on the Earth’s surface in relation to one another over the history of the earth • accounts for the rearrangement of adjacent land masses • change in climate and habitat favored mammal diversification and the extinction of dinosaurs o earlies primates occur around 65 mya § around 60 mya they begin to inhabit north America and Eurasia § around 40 mya diurnal anthropiods appeared § about 23 mya the Miocene epoch began § Paleocene • 55-65 mya • First undisputed primates § Eocene • 35-55 mya • First undisputed monkey ape ancestors § Oligocene • 23-35 mya • “Golden Age of Homonoids” o occurred at the beginning of Oligocene/ end of Miocene § Miocene • 6-22 mya • Golden age of hominoids o due to large amounts of fossil evidence and variation between fossils • earliest bipeds show up at the beginning of this period • Miocene apes o Apes evolved from monkeys at this time o Possible hominoid ancestors among this group § Pliocene • 5 mya • Earliest bipeds § Pleistocene • 2 mya • Holocene starts 10 kya • Anthroprocence start o Industrial revolution for tools
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