Chapter Notes 3 for Exam
Chapter Notes 3 for Exam General Psychology 1100
College of DuPage
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jacquelynn Burr on Monday September 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to General Psychology 1100 at College of DuPage taught by Professor Colleen McCoy in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychology at College of DuPage.
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Date Created: 09/26/16
:: Slide 1 :: :: Slide 2 :: In Chapter 3 we will be learning about: There twomajor types of cell in the nervous system: glia and neurons. • How the Nervous System communicates Neurons are cells that receive, integrate, and transmit information. In the • How it is organized human nervous system, the vast majority are interneurons - neurons that • The Brain and Behavior • Right Brain and Left Brain specializations communicate with other neurons. There are also sensory neurons, which • The Endocrine System – The role that our Hormones play in our behavior receive signals from outside the nervous system, and motor neurons, which • Genetic influences carry messages from the nervous system to the muscles that move the body. • And the Evolutionary bases of behavior The axon ends in a cluster of terminal buttons – which are small knobs that secrete chemicals called neurotransmitters. These chemicals serve as messengers that may activate neighboring neurons. :: Slide 3 :: :: Slide 4 :: The soma, or cell body contains the cell nucleus and much of the chemical Dendrites are the branch-like growths off the soma that are specialized to machinery common to most cells. receive information. :: Slide 5 :: :: Slide 6 :: The long single fiber is the axon and it specializes in transmitting information Most human axons are wrapped in a myelin sheath. Myelin is a white, fatty to other neurons or to muscles or glands. It is wrapped in a white, fatty substance that serves as an insulator around the axon and speeds the substance that serves as an insulator an helps speed up the transmission of transmission of signals. In people suffering from multiple sclerosis, some signals. Multiple sclerosis is a degeneration of the myelin sheath and causes a myelin sheaths degenerate, slowing or preventing nerve transmission to slowing of nerve transmission to muscles. certain muscles. :: Slide 7 :: :: Slide 8 :: The axon ends in a cluster of terminal buttons, which are small knobs that Glia come in a variety of forms. Their main function is to support the neurons secrete chemicals called neurotransmitters. These chemicals serve as by, among other things, supplying them with nutrients and removing waste messengers that may activate neighboring neurons. material. In the human brain, there are about ten glia cells for every neuron. The points at which neurons interconnect are called synapses. A synapse is a junction where information is transmitted from one neuron to another. :: Slide 9 :: :: Slide 10 :: The neuron at rest is a tiny battery, a store of potential energy. Inside and The Resting Potential of a neuron is its stable, negative charge when the cell outside the axon are fluids containing electrically charged atoms and is inactive. This charge is about -70 millivolts, roughly one-twentieth of the molecules called ions. Positively charged sodium and potassium ions and voltage of a flashlight battery. negatively charged chloride ions are the principal molecules involved in the nerve impulse. :: Slide 11 :: :: Slide 12 :: An Action Potential is a very brief shift in a neuron’s electrical charge that travels along an axon. It moves like a spark travelling down a trail of gunpowder. After it fires the channels in the cell membrane that opened to let in sodium close up, and it needs some time before it can fire again, this is called the absolute refractory period. :: Slide 13 :: :: Slide 14 :: The size of an action potential is not affectedby the strength of the stimulus— a weaker stimulus does not produce a weaker action potential. If the neuron receives a stimulus of sufficient strength, it fires, but if it receives a weaker stimulus, it doesn’t. This is referredto as the “all-or-none law.” :: Slide 15 :: :: Slide 16 :: The synapse. When a neural impulse reaches an axon’s terminal buttons, it triggers the release of chemical messengers called neurotransmitters. The neurotransmitter molecules diffuse across the synaptic cleft and bind to receptor sites on the postsynaptic neuron. A specific neurotransmitter can bind only to receptor sites that its molecular structure will fit into, much like a key must fit a lock. :: Slide 17 :: :: Slide 18 :: The neurotransmitters are released when a vesicle fuses with the membrane of the presynaptic cell and its contents spill into the synaptic cleft. After their release, neurotransmitters diffuse across the synaptic cleft to the membrane of the receiving cell. :: Slide 19 :: :: Slide 20 :: When a neurotransmitter and a receptor molecule combine, reactions Most neurons are interlinked in complex chains, pathways, circuits, and in the cell membrane cause a postsynaptic potential, or PSP - a voltage networks. Our perceptions, thoughts, and actions depend on patterns of change at the receptor site on a postsynaptic cell membrane. neural activity in elaborate neural networks. After producing postsynaptic potentials, some neurotransmitters either Click to see a video that shows how neural networks work. become inactivated by enzymes, or drift away. Most neurotransmitters, however, are reabsorbed into the presynaptic neuron through reuptake – a process in which neurotransmitters are sponged up from the synaptic cleft by the presynaptic membrane. :: Slide 21 :: :: Slide 22 :: Acetylcholine is involved in every move you make – walking, talking, This is an overview, sort of a flow chart of the human nervous system that breathing, etc. all depend on it and it is also involved in attention, arousal, and shows the relationships of all the parts. memory functions. Not enough of it in certain partsof the brain are associated We will look at the different systems separately on the next slides. with Alzheimer’s Disease Monoamines include three neurotransmitters: Dopamine, nonrepinephrine, and serotonin. *Note to Instructor: you can just read the informationon the table as it appears for the remainder of this slide. :: Slide 23 :: :: Slide 24 :: The peripheral nervous system is made up of all the nerves that lie outside The peripheral nervous system can be divided into twoparts. the brain and spinal cord. Nerves are bundles of neuron fibers - or axons - that are routed together in the peripheral nervous system. The somatic nervous system is made up of nerves that connect to voluntary skeletal muscles and sensory receptors. They carry information from receipts in the skin, muscles, and joints to the CNS, and from the CNS to the muscles. The autonomic nervous system is made up of nerves that connect to the heart, blood vessels, smooth muscles, and glands. It controls automatic, involuntary, visceral functions that people don’t normally think about, such as heart rate, digestions, and perspiration. :: Slide 25 :: :: Slide 26 :: When a person is autonomically aroused, automatic functions speed up. This The central nervous system, or CNS, consists of the brain and spinal cord. speeding up is controlled by the sympathetic division of the autonomic It is protectedby enclosing sheaths called meninges, as well as cerebrospinal nervous system - the sympathetic nervous system mobilizes the body’s fluid, which nourishes the brain and provides a protective cushion for it. resources for emergencies and creates the fight-or-flight response. The spinal cord houses bundles of axons that carry the brain’s commands The parasympathetic nervous system, on the other hand, conserves bodily to peripheral. resources to save and store energy. The brain is of course the crowning glory of the CNS. It weighs about 3 pounds and is what enables humans to do everything we do. It is what makes us uniquely human. :: Slide 27 :: :: Slide 28 :: Neuroscientists use many specialized techniques to investigate connections The CT scan is a computer-enhanced X-Ray of brain structure. Multiple X- between the brain and behavior. Rays are shot from many angles, and the computer combines the readings to create a vivid image of a horizontal slice of the brain. :: Slide 29 :: :: Slide 30 :: The MRI uses magnetic field, radio waves, and computerized enhancement PET scans are used to map brain activity rather than brain structure. They to map out brain structure. They provide a 3-D view with very high resolution. provide color-coded maps that show areas of high activity in the brain over time. The PET scan shown here pinpointed areas of high activity (indicated by the red and yellow colors) when a research participant was engaged in the production of speech. :: Slide 31 :: :: Slide 32 :: The brain is divided into three major areas: the hindbrain, midbrain, The Hindbrain includes three sub-structures: and forebrain. The cerebellum (little brain), located in the lower part of the brainstem that These subdivisions actually make more sense for the brains of other animals coordinate fine muscle movement, and balance. than for humans. In humans, the forebrain has become so large it makes the The medulla, attached to the spinal cord, controls unconscious functions such other twodivisions look insignificant. However, the hindbrain and the midbrain as breathing and circulation. are not minor players; they control such vital functions as breathing, walking and maintaining balance. The pons which is literally a “bridge” of fibers connecting the brainstem with the cerebellum. It is involved in sleep and arousal. :: Slide 33 :: :: Slide 34 :: The midbrain is concerned with certain sensory processes, such as locating Running through both the hindbrain and the midbrain is the reticular where things are in space. formation. Lying at the central core of the brainstem, the reticular formation The midbrain is the origin of an important system of dopamine-releasing contributes to the modulation of muscle reflexes, breathing, and the perception axons. Among other things, this dopamine system is involved in the of pain. performance of voluntary movements. The abnormal movements associated It is best known, however, for its role in the regulation of sleep and with Parkinson’s disease are due to the degeneration of neurons in this area. wakefulness. Activity in the ascending fibers of the reticular formation is essential to maintaining an alert brain. :: Slide 35 :: :: Slide 36 :: Running through both the hindbrain and the midbrain is the reticular The thalamus is a structure in the forebrain through which all sensory formation. Lying at the central core of the brainstem, the reticular formation information, except smell, must pass to get to the cerebral cortex. This way contributes to the modulation of muscle reflexes, breathing, and the perception station is made up of a number of clusters of cell bodies, or nuclei. Each of pain. cluster is concerned with relaying sensory information to a particular part It is best known, however, for its role in the regulation of sleep and of the cortex. wakefulness. Activity in the ascending fibers of the reticular formation is The hypothalamus is made up of a number of distinct nuclei. essential to maintaining an alert brain. These nuclei regulate a variety of basic biological drives, including the so-called “four Fs”—fighting, fleeing, feeding, and mating. :: Slide 37 :: :: Slide 38 :: The limbic system is a loosely connected network of structures involved in The cerebrum is the largest and most complex part of the human brain. It emotion, motivation, memory, and other aspects of behavior. includes the brain areas that are responsible for our most complex mental activities, including learning, remembering, thinking, and consciousness itself. The cerebrum is divided into right and left halves, called cerebral hemispheres. If we pry apart the twohalves of the brain, we see that this fissure descends to a structure called the corpus callosum. :: Slide 39 :: :: Slide 40 :: The cerebral cortex consists of right and left halves, called cerebral New research suggests the brain is not “hard wired” the way a computer is. hemispheres. This diagram provides a view of the right hemisphere. Our brains are flexible and constantly evolving, but it is still limited as Each cerebral hemisphere is divided into four lobes (which are highlighted in evidenced by the decline in plasticity as we age. We used to think that all the bottom inset): the occipital lobe, the parietal lobe, the temporal lobe, and neurons were present at birth and once dead did not regenerate…but now the frontal lobe. we are aware that in certain parts of the brain, the hippocampus and olfactory bulbs they can regenerate on a limited basis. Each lobe has areas that handle particular functions, such as visual processing. The functions of the prefrontal cortex (see the inset) are something of a mystery, but they may include an executive control system that organizes and directs thought processes. :: Slide 41 :: :: Slide 42 :: This view of the left hemisphere highlights the location of twocenters Roger Sperry and Michael Gazzaniga were pioneers in split brain research. for language processing in the brain: Broca’s area, which is involved in speech production, and Wernicke’s area, which is involved in In the case of severe epilepsy, the corpus collosum is sometimes severed to language comprehension. stop violent seizures when medications don’t work. This surgery provides a rare opportunity to study how the hemispheres of the brain react when they can no longer communicate with each other. :: Slide 43 :: :: Slide 44 :: Research with split-brain subjects provided the first compelling evidence that If a participant stares at a fixation point, the point divides the subject’s visual the right hemisphere has its own special talents. Based on this research, field into right and left halves. Input from the right visual field (the word cow in investigators concluded that the left hemisphere usually handles verbal this example) strikes the left side of each eye and is transmitted to the left processing, whereas the right hemisphere usually handles nonverbal hemisphere. Input from the left visual field (a picture of a hammer in this processing, such as that required by visual-spatial and musical tasks. example) strikes the right side of each eye and is transmitted to the right hemisphere. Normally, the hemispheres share the information from the two halves of the visual field, but in split-brain patients, the corpus callosum is severed, and the two hemispheres cannot communicate. Hence, the experimenter can present a visual stimulus to just one hemisphere at a time. :: Slide 45 :: :: Slide 46 :: The endocrine system consists of glands that secretechemicals – known as Much of the endocrine system is controlled by the nervous system through the hormones – into the bloodstream that help control bodily functioning. hypothalamus, which also connects with the pituitary gland. The pituitary Some hormones are released in response to changing conditions in the body gland stimulates actions in the other endocrine glands. For example, in the and act to regulate those conditions. fight or flight response, the hypothalamus sends signals through the pituitary gland and autonomic nervous system to the adrenal glands, which then Hormones are secreted by the endocrine glands in a pulsatile manner – secrete stress hormones. that is, several times per day in brief bursts or pulses. The levels of many hormones increase to a certain level, then signals are sent to the hypothalamus or other endocrine glands to stop secretion of that hormone – a negative feedback system. :: Slide 47 :: :: Slide 48 :: Every cell in your body contains information from your parents, found on the Family studies, twin studies, and adoption studies are assess the impact of chromosomes that lie within the nucleus of each cell. heredity on behavior. Each chromosome contains thousands of genes, which also occur in pairs. Family studies and twin studies focus on genetic relatedness and how it Sometimes a member of a pair has a louder voice, always expressing itself affectsvarious traits in order to study the influence of nature on behavior. and masking the other member of the pair - this is a dominant gene. A recessive gene is one that is masked when the paired genes are different. Adoption studies are able to assess the influences of both nature and nurture, as adopted children’s traits can be evaluated in relation to both their biological When a person has twogenes in a specific pair that are the same, and adoptive parents. the person is homozygous for that trait. If the genes are different, they are heterozygous. :: Slide 49 :: :: Slide 50 :: Leading behavioral genetics research in the last decade shows repeatedly Evolutionary Theory, based on the work of Charles Darwin who wrote that heredity (nature) and the environment (nurture) jointly influence most The Origin of Species in 1859 sparked a great deal of controversy, and of our behavior. continues to do so yet today. The emergent field of epigenetics further demonstrates that genetic and It is based on the principle of natural selection that suggests that heritable environmental factorsare inextricably intertwined. traits that provide a survival or reproductive advantage are more likely than alternative traits to be passed on to offspring and thus they come to be “selected” over time. :: Slide 51 :: The behavior that helps this grasshopper hide from predators is a product of evolution, just like the physical characteristics that help it blend in with its surroundings.
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