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HTH245 Exam 1

by: Grace Notetaker

HTH245 Exam 1 HTH 245

Grace Notetaker

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These notes cover chapter 1-6 of the Microbial Challenge as taught by Dayna Henry Fall 2016.
Foundations of Infectious Disease
Dayna Henry
Study Guide
Bacteria, virus, prion, protozoa, algae, fungi, Microbes, structure, function, Classification, phage, Therapy, virotherapy
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Grace Notetaker on Monday September 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HTH 245 at James Madison University taught by Dayna Henry in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Foundations of Infectious Disease in Health Sciences at James Madison University.

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Date Created: 09/26/16
HTH245 – Chapter 1-6 Study Guide Chapter 1 1) Types of Microbes a) Bacteria b) Viruses c) Protozoans d) Fungi e) Unicellular Fungi f) Prions *remember – MOST microbes are beneficial; pathogens – virulent microbes 2) Factors Responsible for Emerging/Re-Emerging Infections a) World population growth i) Population has doubled in the past 40 years ii) Population density v. population growth (1)Density = # of people per kilometer squared (2)80% of population found in undeveloped/developing countries iii) Age density (1)Older people are more susceptible diseases, retirement homes and the like are close living quarters b) Urbanization i) Poorer populations move to cities for better job opportunities, causing a rise in population density c) Ecological disturbances i) Deforestation: forests holds vectors, deforestation causes the release of vectors into human populations (i.e. fungi, bugs, animals) ii) Climactic changes: strongly affects mosquitoes (vectors) d) Technological advances i) Jet travel: can incubate diseases from country to country ii) Use of whole blood and blood products e) Microbial evolution i) Antibiotic resistance: caused by overuse of antibiotics and misuse by patients f) Human behavior i) Complacency: “it won’t happen to me” (1)i.e. anti-vaccine movement has caused re-emergence of mumps, measles, and rubella ii) migration (1)internally displaced person: still in their country, but have migrated to a different part (2)refugee: migrated to another country iii) society 3) Important things to remember: a) 1970’s = era of false hope caused by the invention of the polio vaccine and eradication of smallpox but crushed by AIDS epidemic in late 20th century b) diffusion of innovation: a new innovation (i.e. vaccines) take time to be accepted universally, but vaccines need to be used by everyone to be affective c) infectious diseases are still among the leading causes of death worldwide (chronic/behavioral diseases and accidents more prevalent cause of death) i) infectious diseases are more common among the poorer populations ii) chronic/behavioral diseases are more common among the richer iii) TOP CAUSES OF DEATH RELATED TO INFECTIOUS DISEASES (1)HIV/AIDS (2)Tuberculosis (3)Malaria Chapter 2 1) Heterotrophs V. Autotrophs a) Heterotrophs: metabolize complex organic molecules b) Autotrophs: make their own energy i) Photosynthetic autotrophs: use solar energy ii) Chemosynthetic autotrophs: metabolize inorganic compounds 2) Prokaryotic v Eukaryotic a) Prokaryote = no membrane around nucleus, have a nucleoid instead (DNA-rich area) 3) Domains a) Whittaker’s 5 Kingdoms i) MONERA PROTISTA ANIMALS PLANTS FUNGI b) Woese’s 3 Domains i) Bacteria Archae Eukarya 4) Characteristics of Type of Microbes a) Archae i) Extremophiles – live in extreme environments (1) Hyperthermophiles – extreme heat (2) Psychrophiles – extreme cold (3) Halophiles – extreme salinity (salt) b) Microbes i) Prions = protenacious infectious particles (1) No DNA or RNA (2) Exist normally in human brain (a) Infectious prions are misfolded ones that go to healthy prions and misfold them (b) i.e. mad cow disease ii) Viruses = obligate intracellular parasites (need living host cell to survive) (1) Have DNA OR RNA (never both) – double stranded or single stranded iii)Bacteria (1) microscopic, unicellular, prokaryotic w/ cell walls (2) asexual reproduction by binary fission (3) autotrophs iv)protozoans (1) unicellular eukaryotic (2) classified by means of locomotion (3) heterotrophs v) algae (1) can be unicellular or multicellular (2) photosynthetic vi)Fungi (1) Eukaryotes (2) Yeasts: unicellular, reproduce by budding (3) Molds: multicellular, possess hyphae (4) Lots of opportunistic infections are fungus Chapter 3 1) Microbes in Food Production a) Fermentation = series of chemical reactions mediated by enzymes of a variety of bacteria and yeast that break down sugars to small molecules i) An anaerobic process (doesn’t use oxygen) ii) Turns glucose  lactic acid or ethanol, and CO2 b) Bread i) Fermentation by yeast creates CO2 and ethanol (which evaporates), and causes bread dough to rise = leavening c) Dairy i) Texture, aroma, taste – determined by microorganisms used, production process, time left fermenting ii) Made by enzyme rennin and microorganisms that produce lactic acid d) Wine, Beer, and Alcohol i) All made with yeast-producing bacteria (1)Beer made by fermenting cereal grains (i.e. barley, wheat, rice) (2)Enology = science of wine-making (a)Wines made from grapes and other fruits (3)Distilled spirits = brandy, whiskey, rum, vodka, and gin e) Probiotics – controversial 2) Genetic Engineering in Microbes a) Genetic engineering = recombinant DNA technology b) Human Genome Project (1990) i) Mapping of 25,000 genes in the 23 pairs of human chromosomes c) Microbial Genome Project (1994) i) Goal = sequencing genomes of medically, environmentally, and industrially significant microbes d) Gene therapy depends on the use of microbes 3) Microbes in the Environment a) Bioremediation v Bioaugmentation i) Bioremediation = act of adding minerals to environment to increase natural rate of biodegradation ii) Bioaugmentation = spraying beaches with nutrients to support growth of indigenous microbes to accelerate degradation of pollutants i) Biotic components v abiotic components of an ecosystem (1)Biotic = animals, plants, etc. (2)Abiotic = chemical, pH, etc. b) Primary Producers i) Photosynthetic organisms that produce organic compounds and oxygen c) Consumers i) Heterotrophs – get their energy from eating primary producers, or other consumers ii) Inhale oxygen, exhale carbon dioxide d) Decomposers i) Recyclers – take dead organic compounds, and link them back to the nutrition producers need ii) Responsible for biochemical cycles (i.e. carbon, nitrogen, iron) 4) Sewage and Water Treatment a) Remember – microbes are used to clean fecal pathogens from water b) Waste water = water from sewage, sinks/showers, all water in house Chapter 4 – Bacteria 1) Cell Shapes and Patterns a) Morphology i) Bacillus = rod-shaped ii) Coccus = spherical iii) Curved/spiral 2) Classification a) Clinical b) Shape c) Gram-stain i) Affects cell wall ii) G– = thin, peptidoglycan iii) G+ = thick, peptidoglycan 3) Structures and Functions a) Cell Membrane i) Selectively permeable, “gate-keeper” b) Cytoplasm i) All of cell’s content inside cell membrane ii) Nucleoid = DNA-rich area of cytoplasm (1)Responsible for bacteria growing and multiplying iii) Spores = preserve DNA in adverse conditions, viable for long periods of time, not all bacteria c) Plasmids i) Small, circular molecules of non-chromosomal DNA ii) Can be transferred from bacteria to bacteria iii) Antibiotic resistance d) Capsule i) Outer, anti-phagocytosis layer ii) Not necessary iii) Virulence factor e) Appendages i) Flagella – motility ii) Pili – “grabbing” 4) Oddball Bacteria a) Mycoplasmas i) No cell wall ii) Very small and require special medium for growth b) Chlamydia i) Obligate intracellular parasite ii) Person to person 5) Bacterial Growth a) Unicellular growth = multiplication v multicellular growth = increase in size b) 4 phases i) lag = get ready for growth, immune system kills of weak bacteria ii) exponential/logarithmic = explosion of growth (1)first symptoms of infection (2)generation time = time it takes cell to undergo binary fission, population doubles at end of each generation time iii) stationary = competition for depleting nutrients causes death rate to equalize with growth rate iv) death phase (1)adverse conditions become more pronounced, spores produced in able-bacteria (2)either bacteria dies or host dies Chapter 5 – Viruses 1) Classification a) Clinical – which system/part of the body it attacks i) Dermotropic – skin ii) Viscerotropic – internal organs iii) Pnuemotropic – respiratory system (1)Some viruses infect more than one b) Superficially – classified by what type of organism they infect i) plant, animal, or bacteria c) Biological – based on virus’ biology i) Nucleic acid content (ssDNA, dsDNA, ssRNA, dsDNA) ii) Capsid structure (helical, icosahedral, complex) 2) Structures and Function a) Second smallest microbe (can only be seen w electron microscope) b) only have RNA or DNA, not both (can be single or double-stranded) c) protein coat i) also called capsid ii) nucleocapsid = nucleic acid genome plus the protein coat made of capsomeres (1)helical (series rod-shaped capsomeres create a helical tube with nucleoid inside) (2)icosahedral (3-dimensional, 20-sided triangular structure i.e. Epcot) (3)complex (has a head, helical tail, and tail fiber) d) envelope i) only some – virus takes piece of host cell membrane and uses it as it’s own during the budding process (does not happen in virus that use lysis to destroy the host cell) ii) no envelope = naked virus 3) Replication a) 6 steps: i) absorption (1)receptor molecules on host cell are used by viruses to dock (must match) (a)recognition specificity = host range ii) penetration (1)4 ways to get nucleic acid into host cell: (a)entry by endocytosis (vesicle) (b)entry by fusion w host cell membrane (c)entry of only nucleic acid (d)entry of nucleic acid after lysosome of bacteriophage degrades part of cell wall (note – animal cells have no cell wall) iii) replication (1)virus uses host cell as copy machine by expressing (transcribing – viralRNA/DNA made compatible w host cell and translating – RNA/DNA used to make proteins) iv) assembly v) release (1)2 ways: (a)lysis of bacterial host cell releasing hundreds of bacteriophages and kills host cell (b)budding/extrusion: reverse endocytosis (i) virus grabs piece of cell membrane and makes its own envelope (ii)continuous and gradual (2)*cytopathic effect = marks of cell deterioration on host cell caused by virus 4) Phage Therapy a) Viruses (bacteriophages) could be used to treat diseases because they are self-limiting i) Replaced by antibiotics in 1940’s b) Virotherapy = use viruses as “vehicles” to take good genes into a cell to replace non-existent or bad genes c) transposon = a small piece of DNA that inserts itself into another place in the genome 5) Prions a) Protenacious infectious particles (misfolded) b) Smallest microbes, no DNA or RNA c) Cause mad cow disease


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