Study Guide for Exam 1
Study Guide for Exam 1 1000-005
Popular in General Psychology
Popular in Psychology
verified elite notetaker
pols 110 002 (Political Science, Dr. M. Gilkison, American National Politics)
verified elite notetaker
Cosme Aranguren González
verified elite notetaker
This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nicole Blekhter on Monday September 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 1000-005 at Villanova University taught by Dr. Deborah Kendzierski in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 66 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychology at Villanova University.
Reviews for Study Guide for Exam 1
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/26/16
Psych Exam 1 Study Guide Chapter 1: Psychology and Scientific Thinking What is psychology? - The scientific study of the mind, brain, and behavior; spans different levels of analysis “rungs on a ladder” What makes psychology distinctive? - Five points about people and their differences Native Realism- the belief that we see the world precisely as it is (why we trust common sense) seeing is believing Empiricism- the premise that knowledge should initially be acquired with observation Scientific Theory- an explanation for a large number of findings in the natural world, including the psychological world Hypothesis- a testable prediction Conformational Bias- tendency to seek out evidence that supports our beliefs and deny, dismiss, or distort evidence that contradicts them Belief Perseverance- refers to tendency to stick to our initial beliefs even when evidence contradicts them Metaphysical claims- assertions about the world that we can’t test (god, soul, afterlife) Pseudoscience- an imposter of science, a set of claims that seems scientific but isn’t Why are we drawn to pseudoscience? Our brains are predisposed to make order out of disorder and to find sense in nonsense Terror Management Theory- our awareness of our own inevitable death leaves many of us with an underlying sense of fear Logical Fallacies- traps in thinking that can lead to mistaken conclusions 1. Emotional Reasoning Fallacy- error of using our emotions as guides for evaluating the validity of a claim 2. Bandwagon Fallacy- error of assuming that a claim is correct just because many people believe it 3. Not Me Fallacy- error of believing that we’re immune from errors in thinking that afflict other people Scientific Skepticism- approach of evaluating all claims with an open mind but insisting on persuasive evidence before accepting them Critical Thinking- set of skills for evaluating all claims in an open- minded and careful fashion Six Critical Thinking Principles: 1. Ruling out rival hypotheses 2. Correlation isn’t causation 3. Falsifiability 4. Replicability 5. Extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence 6. Occam’s Razor “principle of logical simplicity” William Wundt- first psychological lab - Introspection- method by which trained observers carefully reflected and report on their mental experiences The Five Theoretical Frameworks of Psychology 1. Structuralism: The Elements of the Mind o Titchener, Wundt’s student o Structuralism- aimed to identify the basic elements of psychological experience o “What” questions 2. Functionalism: Psychology meets Darwin o Strove to understand the adaptive purposes, or functions, of psychological characteristics such as thoughts, feelings, behaviors o “Why” questions o William James! o Rejected structuralisms 3. Behaviorism: The Laws of Learning o Must be objective, not subjective o John B. Watson o Behaviorism- focuses on uncovering the general principles of learning underlying humans and animal behavior o Watson observation only! Rewards and punishments o Black box psychology: don’t need to worry in between input and output 4. Cognitivism: Opening the Black Box o Cognitive Psychology: proposes that thinking is central to understanding behavior o Jean Piaget o Interpretations of rewards and punishments o Cognitive Neuroscience: relatively new field of psychology that examines the relation between the brain functioning and thinking 5. Psychoanalysis: The Depths of the Unconscious o Sigmund Freud o Contrast to behaviorism, psychoanalysis focuses on internal psychological processes of which we’re unaware The Great Debates of Psychology 1. The Nature-Nurture Debate o Our behaviors attribute mostly to our genes (nature) and to the rearing environments (nurture) 2. The Free-will Determinism Debate o To what extent are our behaviors freely selected rather than caused by factors outside our control Chapter 7: Memory Memory- the retention of information over time Our memories can serve as well and fail us Failure example: memory illusion- a false but subjectively compelling memory The Three Systems of Memory 1. Sensory Memory- tied closely to raw materials of experience perception of world o Iconic memory- applies to vision o Eidetic imagery- photographic memory o Echoic memory- auditory sensory memory 2. Short-term Memory- works activities with the info handled to it transforming it into more meaningful material before passing some of it to o Duration- no longer than 20 seconds may even be 5 seconds o Decay- fade away over time o Interference- our memories get in the way of each other o Retroactive interference- occurs when learning something new hampers earlier learning o Proactive interference- occurs when earlier learning gets in the way of new learning o Magic number- 7 o Chunking- organizing material into meaningful groups o Rehearsal- repeating info mentally, or even aloud o Levels of processing: visual, phonological, semantic 3. Long-term Memory- permits us to retain important information for minute, days, weeks, months, or even years o Permastore- “frozen” over time o Primacy effect- tendency to remember stimulus early in a list o Recency effect- tendency to remember stimulus later in a list o Semantic memory- our knowledge of facts about the world o Episodic memory- our recollection of events in our lives o Explicit memory- process of recalling info unintentionally o Implicit memory- process of recalling info we don’t remember deliberately, doesn’t require conscious effort Procedural memory and priming The Three Processes of Memory 1. Encoding: The “Call Numbers” of the Mind o Refers to the process of getting info into our memory banks o Mnemonics! – learning aids: pegword, method of loci, key word method, music 2. Storage: Filing Away our Memories o Refers to the process of keeping info in memory depends on our interpretations and expectations o Schema- an organized knowledge structure or mental model that we’re storied in memory 3. Retrieval: Heading for the “Stacks” o Third and final process of memory o Retrieval cues- hints that make it easier for us to recall info o Recall- generating answer, then determine whether it seems correct o Recognition- determining which item on list seems most correct o Relearning o Tip-of-tongue phenomenon (TOT) o Encoding specificity- phenomenon or remembering something better when the conditions under which we retrieve info are similar to the conditions under which we encoded it Context-dependent learning and state-dependent learning Chapter 2: Research Methods Research design matters! Even professionals are fooled. Intuitive Thinking- everyday life, needed Analytical Thinking- slow and reflective, takes mental effort Heuristic- a mental short-cut or rule of thumb Scientific Method allows us to perform hypotheses Naturalistic Observation- watching participants’ behaviors in real- world setting without trying to manipulate their actions o Advantage: external validity- the extent that our findings generalize to real-world settings o Disadvantage: internal validity- the extent to which we can draw cause-and-effect conclusions Case Study- researchers examine one person or in a small number of people, often over an extended period of time o Existence proofs- demonstrations that a given psychological phenomenon can occur o Good for generating hypotheses, not for testing them Random Selection- procedure that ensures every person in a population has an equal chance of being chosen to participate Reliability- consistency of measurement; test-retest! Validity- extent to which a measure assesses what is claims to measure Correlational Designs- research design that examines the extend to which two variables are associated Correlations- positive, zero, negative Correlation coefficients- -1.0 – 1.0 Illusionary correlation- perception of a statistical association between two variables where none exists Correlation doesn’t necessarily mean causation- there can be a third variable! Experimental Designs o Allows us to draw cause-and-effect conclusions o Researchers manipulate variables to see whether manipulations produce differences in participant behavior o Correlation designs differences measured; experimental designs they’re created o Two components to an experiment: 1. Random Assignment- randomly sorting participants into two groups: experimental and control group 2. Manipulation of Independent Variable- the variable the the experimenter manipulates Dependent variable- experimenter measures to see whether manipulation has an effect Operational definition- working definition of what researcher is measuring o Confounds- source of false conclusions- confounding variable: differs between experimental and control groups other than independent variable! o The Placebo Effect- patients must remain blind to avoid this o The Nacebo Effect- harm resulting from mere expectation of harm o Experimenter Expectancy Effect: phenomenon where researcher’s hypotheses lead them to unintentionally bias the outcome of the study so need double blindness o Demand characteristics- cues that participants pick up from a study that allows them to generate guesses regarding the researcher’s hypotheses; may alter their behavior so cover story can be created Ethical Issues in Research Design o Informed consent- researchers must tell subjects what they’re getting into before asking them to participate o Debriefing- process where researchers inform participants what the study is about Statistics o Application of mathematics to describing and analyzing data o Descriptive statistics- numerical characterizations that describe data o Central tendency- measure of central scores in a data set; mean, median, and mode o Variability- how loosely or tightly bundled scores are; range and standard deviation o Inferential Statistics- allow to determine whether we can generalize findings from our samples to full population; statistical significance: p< .05
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'