PSYCH 370 EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE
PSYCH 370 EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE 370
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Julia Murphy on Monday September 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 370 at University of Massachusetts taught by Professor Bickford in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Personality in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Massachusetts.
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Date Created: 09/26/16
PSYCH 370 EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE WHAT IS PERSONALITY? Description, Dynamics, Development Description What do people "show"? What are the fundamental parts of personality? Enduring characteristics of the person Trans situational behavioral consistency Individual differences Dynamics What makes people "go?" What motivates behavior? How much are you in conscious control? Development What makes people "grow"? Where does personality come from? Personality is the set of psychological traits/mechanism that are organized and relatively enduring and that influence his or her interactions with and adaptations to the environment A Set of psychological traits… Characteristic ways in which people differ from each other or are similar • How many? • What are their origins • What are their correlates and consequences? And mechanisms… • Processes in addition to content/structure Within the individual… • Transcends situations And that influence… His/her interactions with Person x situation interaction Perceptions • People percieve situations diff Selections • People choose their situations Evocations • People evoke reactions in others Manipulations • People intentionally influence others Different people in the same situation/stimulus can perceive them differently Adaptations to… • Central feature of personality -‐‑ responding in functional adaptive ways The environment • Physical and social environment present adaptive challenges • Personality helps determine how people experience their environments People shape what they perceive the way their reality is Levels of Analysis Henry Murray "Every person is in certain respects a. like other people. B. like some other people and c. like no other people A. Human nature level: universals among humans B. Group difference level : morning people, risk takers, introverts C. Individual uniqueness level: ways in which any given person is like no other Talkativeness, extroverts, passive, aggressive, gender, cultu re aggressiveness or peacefulness age group differences, impulsiveness, quirkiness Idiographic level of analysis: comes out of a clinical/medical condition • Understanding total person o Clinical approach, holistically. What has influenced them? What is the totallity of this person so I can help this person function better? o Grand theories • Comprehensive • Heuristic value • Not very testable or parsimonious (not the simplest explanation, so broad it gives little to no way to falsify them) • Intuititive, may give Freudian theory o Provide insight, • Nomothetic o Understanding individual/group differences o Most contemporary research • More testable and parsimonious o Doesn’t give intuitive value, more of a puzzle pieces approach without a whole person perspective Domains of understanding personality: framework Individual differences Biological • People as organisms Cognitive/Experiential • Thoughts and subjective experiences Intrapsychic • Internal, often unconscious, mental processes Social/cultural • Considering broader context Adjustment • What makes people function well? Adaptive utility? Sometimes I say im my own worst enemy -‐‑-‐‑ for example, I might plan to spend the weekend catching up on my studying, but when the weekend actually comes I spend it watching Netflix and checking social media apps I know I have to get up early but I stay up late on Netflix anyways Sometimes I know im going to regret what im about to do or say but I do it anyways Sometimes when I have to face an unpleasant realit y such as thinking about how I will get a job after graduation, I just put the issue out of my mind and think about something else Sometimes I or another person will strongly overreact to a minor conflict or disagreement Sometimes in a convo I will fi nd myself saying stuff I meant to say which pops out, you don’t kno w where it came from. Freuds basic ideas • People are fundamentally animals • We came from animals that are ruled by biological instincts o Retain an animalistic nature o Sexual and aggressive impulses o Selfish and irrational o Not consciously accessible o Basic motivation underlying all behavior • Society restricts the expression of these urges o Inner conflict o This conflict produces anxiety that must be managed o Failure to manage this anxiety well produ ces personality problems o Must satisfy urges in socially acceptable ways Preview of Freud's Theory Individual Differences • Individual differences o Ego defenses, instinctual objects • Adjustment o Capacity for love and work • Cognitive processes o Much thought is hi dden, even from the thinker • Biological inflences o Biological drives at root of personality • Society o Judges unacceptable impulses • Development o First five years of life Free will is an illusion according to freud The Unconscious One of Freud's most important contributions • Reason does not rule behavior • Often not aware of source of behaviors or emotions • Much behavior never enters conscious awareness at all Conscious • Present awareness • Thoughts, experiences, memories, goals • Functions in realistic ways, w e identify with our conscious mind, its our sense of self Preconscious • Readily made aware • Not aware of right now, but could easily recall • Ex. Your mother's maiden name • Content flows easily between the preconscious and conscious Unconscious • Not readily made aware • Anxiety provoking • Doesn’t have the energy to be aware of • Upsetting realities the conscious mind can't deal with • What the conscious mind throws away because the conscious mind cant manage it in an effective way We are often aware of our overt behaviors but we aren't aware of why we have them Manifestations of Unconscious Motivation Physical symptoms • Conversion hysteria o Glove anesthesia: people showed up saying they lost sensation in their hand, a part of the hand that would be covered by the glove. • Interesting because neurologically NOT possible. It would be from one side down forearm and a few fingers… how hand is wired • Psychosis o Unconscious unchecked o Lose touch with reality, raw unconscious mental content • Dreams o Manifest and la tent content, disguised o Manifested content is the actual storyline of the dream o Latent meaning is the unconscious mental content o Dream analysis o Unconscious mental content threatens to burst in sleep o Very anxiety provoking • If you became aware of it, you would wake up • Psychopathology of everyday life o Parapraxes (Freudian slips) • Errors in speech, memory, action ON EXAM § Maybe you want your relationship to end unconsciously so when your boyfriend gives you flowers you let them die, like you unconsciously want your relationship to because he's not the one o Humor • If you cant express it directly, you can express it through jokes § Sarcasm, dirty jokes o Projective tests • Ambiguous stimulus (inkblot) • Most common: anim als and insects INSTINCTUAL ENERGY • Hypothetical buildup and release of energy driving personality • Source o Biological processes • Your dog loves to eat, but you can use that instinct to train him to do tricks like "sit" or "roll over" § Biological drive motivates him for a treat as a reward • Pressure o Rising and falling with drive • Varies over time • Rises steadily until its satisfied then it stops o Not chronically active • Aim o Tension reduction • Intrinsically pleasurable o Ex. Hunger drive has substantial pressure, finally get chance to eat, enjoy meal a lot when you finally get to eat • Object o Whatever satisfies the drive o Source of individual differences o Instinctual plasticity Listening to music, solving a puzzle, watching a movie. Building ten sion and satisfying it • channeling instinct toward other objects Structure of Personality Id • Primary process (irrational) o Pleasure principle • Only structure present at birth • Resides entirely in unconscious mind Ego • Secondary process (rational) o Reality principle • Job is to satisfy biological demands in an effective, realistic fashion • Aware of risks of certain actions Superego • Conscience • Ego ideal • Locus of morale sense • Mostly parental, also societal values o Learned from authority figures • Internalizes being naked is shameful if as a child they were shamed for taking their clothes off § Anxiety about nudity, don’t remember when it comes from but it was stored in superego when they were young § IRRATIONAL • Image of what is "right" and "Wrong" behavior • Pushes you to avoid punishment • Problem is that superego is also largely Unconscious and Irrational Ego Balance • Ego must deal with conflicting demands of id, superego, and reality INTRAPSYCHIC CONFLICT Source of anxiety • Ego has ltd energy • Ego failure = anxiety o Neurotic anxiety (id) o Ego is having difficulty keeping unconscious mental content in check o Moral anxiety (super ego) • Superego overpowers ego o Reality anxiety (reality) • Actual threats presented by external world Defense Mechanisms • Repression o Forcing unacceptable impulses down into unconscious • Denial o Refusal to acknowledge the truth o Smoking and having a cough but denying stopping • Until maybe you have a precancerous lesion and that forces you to stop, and denial is taken away o Denial allows people to function in everyday life and not worry so much about certain awful circumstances • Driving everyday, in denial that youll get into a fatal crash o Distorting reality, making it maladaptive than other defense mechanisms • Regression o Returning to an earlier, safer stage in life • Projection o Person's own unacceptable impulse is attributed to someone else o Someone wants to cheat and they say that people are trying to seduce them o Someone who harbors a lot of anger may think his boss is being angr y towards them • Its not me, its you • Displacement o Impulse is transferred from actual object to a less threatening one o Its your impulse, but the object gets transferred o Children may want to lash out on his father, lashes out on his brother instead since his dad is more threatening • Reaction formation o An unacceptable impulse is released in its opposite form (Exaggerated) o U don’t love ur wife, but u have kids and divorce isnt an option, gets converted into intense love for your spouse. Could turn into defensive love o Dealing with weak/vulnerability by putting on a macho vibe because u don’t want to portay your actual emotions • Rationalization o Explaining away behavior in terms of rational conscious motivations o Little distortion. o I work a lot. I am a workaholic, and I do that because I need to further my career, save for retirement, etc. but the underlying unconscious reason is that u don’t wanna be home with ur spouse o Working out every day cuz its healthy, you wanna be strong, its good for you bla bla but really you're VAIN & concerned with your appearance o Dumped. Says you're ok because hes insensitive and "you don’t want to be with an insensitive person anyways" but reall you're hurt. • Intellectualization o Reacting in a detached (intellectual) way to an emotional event • Sublimation o Rechanneling of unacceptable impulse into productive, socially acceptable activity o Channeling sexual impulses into art o Repressed aggressiveness could come out to aggressiveness in sports
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