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by: Julia Murphy


Marketplace > University of Massachusetts > Psychology (PSYC) > 370 > PSYCH 370 EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE
Julia Murphy
GPA 3.3

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About this Document

Here is a bundle of my notes that have all the information needed for EXAM 1.
Professor Bickford
Study Guide
personality, Psychology, psych370, Sigmund Freud
50 ?




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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Julia Murphy on Monday September 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 370 at University of Massachusetts taught by Professor Bickford in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Personality in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Massachusetts.

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Date Created: 09/26/16
PSYCH  370  EXAM  1  STUDY  GUIDE     WHAT  IS  PERSONALITY?    Description,  Dynamics,  Development       Description   What  do  people  "show"?   What  are  the  fundamental  parts  of  personality?   Enduring  characteristics  of  the  person   Trans  situational  behavioral  consistency   Individual  differences   Dynamics   What  makes  people  "go?"   What  motivates  behavior?   How  much  are  you  in  conscious  control?       Development   What  makes  people  "grow"?   Where  does  personality  come  from?           Personality  is  the  set   of  psychological  traits/mechanism  that  are  organized  and  relatively  enduring   and  that  influence  his  or  her  interactions  with  and  adaptations  to  the  environment       A  Set  of  psychological  traits…   Characteristic  ways  in  which  people  differ  from  each  other  or  are  similar   •   How  many?   •   What  are  their  origins   •   What  are  their  correlates  and  consequences?   And  mechanisms…   •     Processes  in  addition  to  content/structure Within  the  individual…   •   Transcends  situations   And  that  influence…   His/her  interactions  with   Person  x  situation  interaction   Perceptions   •   People  percieve  situations  diff   Selections   •   People  choose  their  situations   Evocations   •   People  evoke  reactions  in  others   Manipulations   •   People  intentionally  influence  others   Different  people  in  the  same  situation/stimulus  can  perceive  them  differently   Adaptations  to…   •   Central  feature  of  personality   -­‐‑  responding  in  functional  adaptive  ways   The  environment   •   Physical  and  social  environment  present  adaptive  challenges   •   Personality  helps  determine  how  people  experience  their  environments       People  shape  what  they  perceive  the  way  their  reality  is       Levels  of  Analysis   Henry  Murray  "Every  person  is  in  certain  respects  a.  like  other  people.  B.  like  some  other  people   and  c.  like  no  other  people       A. Human  nature  level:  universals  among  humans   B. Group  difference  level  :  morning  people,  risk  takers,  introverts   C. Individual  uniqueness  level:  ways  in  which  any  given  person  is  like  no  other       Talkativeness,  extroverts,  passive,  aggressive,  gender,  cultu re  aggressiveness  or  peacefulness  age   group  differences,  impulsiveness,  quirkiness       Idiographic  level  of  analysis:  comes  out  of  a  clinical/medical  condition   •   Understanding  total  person   o   Clinical  approach,  holistically.  What  has  influenced  them?  What  is  the   totallity  of  this   person  so  I  can  help  this  person  function  better?   o   Grand  theories   •   Comprehensive   •   Heuristic  value   •   Not  very  testable  or  parsimonious  (not  the  simplest  explanation,  so  broad  it  gives   little  to  no  way  to  falsify  them)   •   Intuititive,  may  give  Freudian  theory   o   Provide  insight,     •   Nomothetic   o   Understanding  individual/group  differences   o   Most  contemporary  research   •   More  testable  and  parsimonious   o   Doesn’t  give  intuitive  value,  more  of  a  puzzle  pieces  approach  without  a  whole  person   perspective       Domains  of  understanding  personality:  framework         Individual  differences       Biological   •   People  as  organisms       Cognitive/Experiential     • Thoughts  and  subjective  experiences       Intrapsychic   •   Internal,  often  unconscious,  mental  processes       Social/cultural   •   Considering  broader  context       Adjustment     • What  makes  people  function  well?  Adaptive  utility?       Sometimes  I  say  im  my  own  worst  enemy   -­‐‑-­‐‑  for  example,  I  might  plan  to  spend  the  weekend   catching  up  on  my  studying,  but  when  the  weekend  actually  comes  I  spend  it  watching  Netflix  and   checking  social  media  apps       I  know  I  have  to  get  up  early  but  I  stay  up  late  on  Netflix  anyways       Sometimes  I  know  im  going  to  regret  what  im  about  to  do  or  say  but  I  do  it  anyways       Sometimes  when  I  have  to  face  an  unpleasant  realit y  such  as  thinking  about  how  I  will  get  a  job   after  graduation,  I  just  put  the  issue  out  of  my  mind  and  think  about  something  else       Sometimes  I  or  another  person  will  strongly  overreact  to  a  minor  conflict  or  disagreement       Sometimes  in  a    convo  I  will  fi nd  myself  saying  stuff  I  meant  to  say  which  pops  out,  you  don’t  kno  w   where  it  came  from.       Freuds  basic  ideas   •   People  are  fundamentally  animals   •   We  came  from  animals  that  are  ruled  by  biological  instincts   o   Retain  an  animalistic  nature   o   Sexual  and  aggressive  impulses   o   Selfish  and  irrational   o   Not  consciously  accessible   o   Basic  motivation  underlying  all  behavior   •   Society  restricts  the  expression  of  these  urges   o   Inner  conflict   o   This  conflict  produces  anxiety  that  must  be  managed   o   Failure  to  manage  this  anxiety  well  produ ces  personality  problems   o   Must  satisfy  urges  in  socially  acceptable  ways       Preview  of  Freud's  Theory   Individual  Differences   •   Individual  differences   o   Ego  defenses,  instinctual  objects   •   Adjustment   o   Capacity  for  love  and  work   •   Cognitive  processes   o   Much  thought  is  hi dden,  even  from  the  thinker   •   Biological  inflences   o   Biological  drives  at  root  of  personality   •   Society   o   Judges  unacceptable  impulses   •   Development   o   First  five  years  of  life       Free  will  is  an  illusion  according  to  freud       The  Unconscious   One  of  Freud's  most   important  contributions   •   Reason  does  not  rule  behavior   •   Often  not  aware  of  source  of  behaviors  or  emotions     • Much  behavior  never  enters  conscious  awareness  at  all   Conscious   •   Present  awareness     • Thoughts,  experiences,  memories,  goals   •   Functions  in  realistic  ways,  w e  identify  with  our  conscious  mind,  its  our  sense  of  self   Preconscious   •   Readily  made  aware   •   Not  aware  of  right  now,  but  could  easily  recall   •   Ex.  Your  mother's  maiden  name   •   Content  flows  easily  between  the  preconscious  and  conscious   Unconscious   •   Not  readily  made  aware   •   Anxiety  provoking   •   Doesn’t  have  the  energy  to  be  aware  of   •   Upsetting  realities  the  conscious  mind  can't  deal  with   •   What  the  conscious  mind  throws  away  because  the  conscious  mind  cant  manage  it  in  an   effective  way       We  are  often  aware   of  our  overt  behaviors  but  we  aren't  aware  of  why  we  have  them       Manifestations  of  Unconscious  Motivation   Physical  symptoms   •   Conversion  hysteria   o   Glove  anesthesia:  people  showed  up  saying  they  lost  sensation  in  their  hand,  a  part  of   the  hand  that  would  be  covered  by  the  glove.   •   Interesting  because  neurologically  NOT  possible.  It  would  be  from  one  side  down   forearm  and  a  few  fingers…  how  hand  is  wired   •   Psychosis   o   Unconscious  unchecked   o   Lose  touch  with  reality,  raw  unconscious  mental  content     •   Dreams   o   Manifest  and  la tent  content,  disguised   o   Manifested  content  is  the  actual  storyline  of  the  dream   o   Latent  meaning  is  the  unconscious  mental  content   o   Dream  analysis   o   Unconscious  mental  content  threatens  to  burst  in  sleep   o   Very  anxiety  provoking   •   If  you  became  aware  of  it,  you  would  wake  up   •   Psychopathology  of  everyday  life   o   Parapraxes  (Freudian  slips)   •   Errors  in  speech,  memory,  action  ON  EXAM   §   Maybe  you  want  your  relationship  to  end  unconsciously  so  when  your   boyfriend  gives  you  flowers  you  let  them  die,  like  you  unconsciously  want   your  relationship  to  because  he's  not  the  one   o   Humor   •   If  you  cant  express  it  directly,  you  can  express  it  through  jokes   §   Sarcasm,  dirty  jokes   o   Projective  tests   •   Ambiguous  stimulus  (inkblot)   •   Most  common:  anim als  and  insects   INSTINCTUAL  ENERGY   •   Hypothetical  buildup  and  release  of  energy  driving  personality   •   Source   o   Biological  processes   •   Your  dog  loves  to  eat,  but  you  can  use  that  instinct  to  train  him  to  do  tricks  like   "sit"  or  "roll  over"   §   Biological  drive  motivates  him  for  a  treat  as  a  reward   •   Pressure   o   Rising  and  falling  with  drive   •   Varies  over  time   •   Rises  steadily  until  its  satisfied  then  it  stops   o   Not  chronically  active   •   Aim   o   Tension  reduction   •   Intrinsically  pleasurable   o   Ex.  Hunger  drive  has   substantial  pressure,  finally  get  chance  to  eat,  enjoy  meal  a  lot   when  you  finally  get  to  eat   •   Object   o   Whatever  satisfies  the  drive   o   Source  of  individual  differences   o   Instinctual  plasticity       Listening  to  music,  solving  a  puzzle,  watching  a  movie.  Building  ten sion  and  satisfying  it   •   channeling  instinct  toward  other  objects       Structure  of  Personality   Id   •   Primary  process  (irrational)   o   Pleasure  principle   •   Only  structure  present  at  birth   •   Resides  entirely  in  unconscious  mind   Ego   •   Secondary  process  (rational)   o   Reality  principle   •   Job  is  to  satisfy  biological  demands  in  an  effective,  realistic  fashion   •   Aware  of  risks  of  certain  actions   Superego   •   Conscience   •   Ego  ideal   •   Locus  of  morale  sense   •   Mostly  parental,  also  societal  values   o   Learned  from  authority  figures   •   Internalizes  being  naked  is  shameful  if  as  a  child  they  were  shamed  for  taking   their  clothes  off   §   Anxiety  about  nudity,  don’t  remember  when  it  comes  from  but  it  was  stored   in  superego  when  they  were  young   §   IRRATIONAL   •   Image  of  what  is  "right"  and  "Wrong"  behavior   •   Pushes  you  to  avoid  punishment     • Problem  is  that  superego  is  also  largely  Unconscious  and  Irrational   Ego  Balance   •   Ego  must  deal  with  conflicting  demands  of  id,  superego,  and  reality   INTRAPSYCHIC  CONFLICT   Source  of  anxiety   •   Ego  has  ltd  energy   •   Ego  failure  =  anxiety   o   Neurotic  anxiety  (id)   o   Ego  is  having  difficulty  keeping  unconscious  mental  content  in  check   o   Moral  anxiety  (super  ego)   •   Superego  overpowers  ego   o   Reality  anxiety  (reality)   •   Actual  threats  presented  by  external  world       Defense  Mechanisms   •   Repression   o   Forcing  unacceptable  impulses  down  into  unconscious   •   Denial   o   Refusal  to  acknowledge  the  truth   o   Smoking  and  having  a  cough  but  denying  stopping   •   Until  maybe  you  have  a  precancerous  lesion  and  that  forces  you  to  stop,  and  denial   is  taken  away   o   Denial  allows  people  to  function  in  everyday  life  and  not  worry  so  much  about  certain   awful  circumstances   •   Driving  everyday,  in  denial  that  youll  get  into  a  fatal  crash   o   Distorting  reality,  making  it  maladaptive  than  other  defense  mechanisms   •   Regression   o   Returning  to  an  earlier,  safer  stage  in  life   •   Projection   o   Person's  own  unacceptable  impulse  is  attributed  to  someone  else   o   Someone  wants  to  cheat  and  they  say  that  people  are  trying  to  seduce  them   o   Someone  who  harbors  a  lot  of  anger  may  think  his  boss  is  being  angr y  towards  them   •   Its  not  me,  its  you   •   Displacement   o   Impulse  is  transferred  from  actual  object  to  a  less  threatening  one   o   Its  your  impulse,  but  the  object  gets  transferred     o   Children  may  want  to  lash  out  on  his  father,  lashes  out  on  his  brother  instead  since  his   dad  is  more  threatening   •   Reaction  formation   o   An  unacceptable  impulse  is  released  in  its  opposite  form  (Exaggerated)   o   U  don’t  love  ur  wife,  but  u  have  kids  and  divorce  isnt  an  option,  gets  converted  into   intense  love  for  your  spouse.  Could  turn  into  defensive   love   o   Dealing  with  weak/vulnerability  by  putting  on  a  macho  vibe  because  u  don’t  want  to   portay  your  actual  emotions   •   Rationalization   o   Explaining  away  behavior  in  terms  of  rational  conscious  motivations   o   Little  distortion.   o   I  work  a  lot.  I  am  a  workaholic,  and  I  do  that  because  I  need  to  further  my  career,  save   for  retirement,  etc.  but  the  underlying  unconscious  reason  is  that  u  don’t  wanna  be   home  with  ur  spouse   o   Working  out  every  day  cuz  its  healthy,  you  wanna  be  strong,  its  good  for  you  bla   bla  but   really  you're  VAIN  &  concerned  with  your  appearance   o   Dumped.  Says  you're  ok  because  hes  insensitive  and  "you  don’t  want  to  be  with  an   insensitive  person  anyways"  but  reall  you're  hurt.   •   Intellectualization   o   Reacting  in  a  detached  (intellectual)  way  to  an  emotional  event   •   Sublimation   o   Rechanneling  of  unacceptable  impulse  into  productive,  socially  acceptable  activity   o   Channeling  sexual  impulses  into  art   o   Repressed  aggressiveness  could  come  out  to  aggressiveness  in  sports    


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