ANTH 205 Midterm Study Guide
ANTH 205 Midterm Study Guide STAT 301
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Sean Anderson Professor Palmer ANTH 205 9/30/16 ANTH 205 Midterm Study Guide (Week 1) The European age of discovery In 1492 Columbus sailed the ocean blue In 1497 John Cabot (Dutch) to North America In 1498 Vasco da Gama to India o This time period lasted between the 15 thand 18 thcentury Western Colonialism (1492-1970’s) Missionaries— went on expeditions to convert indigenous people. Gathered information on a language, dress, cultural practices Traders, merchants, and companies intended to make fortunes and control resources Immigrants—settlers coming with the incentive of religious or political freedom, safety, land, and/or opportunity. Often kept diaries. Natural Science Biology—natural science Carl Linneaus (1707-1778) born in Sweden. Enrolled in university to study medicine. After becoming a doctor specialized in treating syphilis. While studying medicine began classifying all manners of life forms in Systema Naturae. o Taxonomy - Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species Charles Darwin (1809-1882) British naturalist set out on a five year expedition in 1831 to visit and collect specimens from four continents. Natural selection and survival of the fittest o On the Origin of Species: By Means of Natural Selection (1859) argued that life forms are influenced by their environment and adapt through evolution and change. Implied that humans had evolved from apes. Geology Charles Lyell (1791-1875) was a lawyer/geologist wrote and published Principles of Geology from the ruminations of a Scottish famer James Hutton, that proposed that the earth’s surface changes based on slow moving gradual recognizable changes, as opposed to random unimaginable catastrophes (uniformitarianism). Geography/Cartography—map the entire world Captain James Cook (1728-1779) o Also an explorer/captain that landed the first British vessel in Australia. Mapped the Pacific Early Anthropologists Sir Edward Burnett Tylor (1832-1917) British Anthropologist influenced by Charles Darwin Primitive Culture (1871) developed the theory of evolution and social evolution: savagery, barbarism, and civilization. Lewis Henry Morgan (1818-1881) American anthropologist born in New York o Established the study of kinship. Ancient Society (1877) further developed hierarchy human societal evolution: subdivided savagery and barbarism into upper, middle, and lower segments. Field Work In the case of the socio-cultural and linguistic anthropologist, one lonely researcher goes into the field – typically not of their own/home/native culture. They spend an extended length of time in the field anywhere between 6 months to 2 years. Find informants Conduct Participant observations or just sit around and observe life as it is while taking lots of notes Collect information about life Do interviews Developing Rapport Anthropology is the study of people (basically) and what they/we do, how they/we live, how they/we communicate, and how all these ways of doing the aforementioned things evolve (to be more specific) Ethnography Ethno- = ethnicity, -graphy = writing Ethnography is a comprehensive study of a particular culture by a lone researcher (this is changing) in the field o Methods involve archival research, language study, establishing rapport, participant observation, interviews, and survey o Usually qualitative not quantitative (that’s sociology) Anatomy of an anthropological study o Geography/Scenery (maps) o History o Organization Social, familial, political, global, economics, language Description o Setting the scene The people o Language, kinship, roles in the community… Ethical Dilemmas in Research Eugenics movement and forced sterilization (late 1800s-1980) In order to create the perfect people/citizen and to lessen social ills (namely physical and mental disabilities, poverty, and crime) forced various government and private institutions began forced sterilization. Poor women and women of color were greatly affected. 1965 survey of Puerto Rican residents found that about one-third of all Puerto Rican mothers, ages 20-49, were sterilized. Roughly 25% of Native American women ages 15-44 were sterilized by the 1970s. Nazi experiments on prisoners (Jews, Gypsies, Political Prisoners, amongst others) conducted without informed consent of the victims, “who suffered indescribable pain, mutilation, permanent disability, or in many cases death as a result.” At the Nuremberg "doctor's trial," 23 German doctors tried,15 defendants found guilty of war crimes and crimes against humanity; seven were hung. PBS.org pop cult – human centiped The Tuskegee Syphilis study (1932-1972) led by Federal government and Tuskegee Institute (HBC) took place in the “black belt” of Alabama. 600 African-American men participated in the study because of incentives, 399 were actively infected. Many received no treatment despite 1947 discovery that penicillin cured syphilis! “The Milgram Experiment” (1962) psychology experiment on obedience, Yale Willowbrook Study (1963-1966) involved “a group of children diagnosed with mental retardation, who lived at the Willowbrook State Hospital in Staten Island, New York. Deliberately infected with the hepatitis virus; early subjects were fed extracts of stools from infected individuals and later subjects received injections of more purified virus preparations. Investigators defended the injections by pointing out that the vast majority of them acquired the infection anyway while at Willowbrook, and it would be better for them to be infected under carefully controlled research conditions.” University of North Dakota “Stanford Prison Experiment” (1973) led by Professor Zimbardo at Stanford University, psychology dept. Aim: “To investigate how readily people would conform to the roles of guard and prisoner in a role-playing exercise that simulated prison life.” Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act 1990 (NAGPRA) o Many biological anthropologists and archaeologists use collections from the ancestors of living people o In 1996 Kennewick Man was found in a cave in Washington State, was found to be over 9,000 years old! Controversy exploded over whether or not he was a descendant of the local First Nations people or whether he was from somewhere else?! Solution to research ethics Internal Review Board o Established in 1979 to establish informed consent o Used to determine risk/reward or benefit of proposed study Conclusion Anthropology was developed as a result of the natural sciences, human exploration, and colonialism encountering “the other.” Anthropology developed out of a desire for wealthy, European men to control the world and its resources Anthropology did not always operate ethically when working with other people – who they deemed their subjects There was a shift in the late 20 century that made anthropology research more ethical Not everything is perfect, but it’s up to us to make that change (Week 2) Role of religion Old Testament – Genesis God gave man dominion over all things! – anthropocentric Adam created by God from dust from the ground and Eve was created from Adam’s rib – paternalistic Religious move towards science th Protestant Reformation led by Martin Luther (16 century) posted his 95 Thesis on the door of a Catholic Church o Challenged the dogmatic judgement and hierarchies of the Catholic Church o Lead to various Christian Sects (e.g. Lutheranism, Methodists, Quakers, etc.) o Luther proposed “everyday human common sense was seen to be superior” to Catholic rules This shift from dogma to faith in reason was applied to the natural world as well as the human world! Renaissance Renaissance (15 Century – 16 Century) o Advances in maritime technology and navigation equipment… o People could travel the open seas not just hug the coasts o People would travel for days, weeks, or eventually months without seeing any land or even person (save the people on the ship). So when they did encounter land and the people on it the difference between us and them was markedly different! People began classifying based on categories not graduated variation From renaissance to The Enlightenment Raphael (1509-1511) School of Athens showing all the ancient thinkers that were influencing the thinkers of the Renaissance, e.g. Aristotle and Plato, Pythagoras, and Ptolemy. Aristotle’s tradition of logical categorization was adopted through “Neoplatonism by medieval churchmen” during this time (Brace 2005, p. 22). This Aristotelian tradition was applied to the natural world and taken over by scientists leading to the Age of Reason aka The Enlightenment, e.g. Carolus (aka Carl) Linneaus and his Systema Naturae (1735) God created Linnaeus (Carl Von Linne’) arranges Carl Linnaeus is most famous for taxonomy of all organic living things and binomial system of classification of genus and species, e.g. Canis lupus – wolf Canis familiaris – dogs When classifying human beings Linnaeus was inspired by 17 century French physician, Francois Bernier. o Bernier traveled on a 12 year journey to Egypt, Palestine, (attempted) Ethiopia, India, and Asia. o Advocated using the four corners of the globe to provide labels for human difference: Homo sapiens europaeus, H. sapiens asiaticus, H. sapiens americanus, and H. sapiens afer. The world was arranged in a hierarchical manner from a top down perspective God at the top, then came humans, after which came cats, then insects, and inanimate objects: scala naturae How do Americans conceptualize race? as biological?--(essentialism) as a social invention?--(constructivism) Geographic terms Brace argues that geographic terms for designating human variation are more accurate o Argues that using the geographic name – Middle East, South Australia, or West Africa – allows us to be more specific about where people are from and possible characteristics without the preconceptions of racial classifications o Avoid unwarranted assumptions about human biological difference Walking the World of Human Variation Brace argues that people of antiquity would not have noticed the “marked difference in the physical appearance of the people of Norway and the people of Nigeria…” if they walked the entire way Instead they would have seen a gradation of human variation Science and God (among the Protestants) Sir Francis Bacon (1561-1626) o Believed that to study nature was to see the outward manifestation of God and all his creations o No clash in scientific observation and scriptures Thus scientific inquiry was encouraged because it would prove the existence of God! Catholic countries believed because the human mind is finite (limited), whereas God is infinite (limitless) no scientific investigation by the limited human mind would be capable of revealing God’s greatness Illustrating race Pieter Camper (1722-1789) is famous for comparing the angles of facial profiles between monkeys, apes, and humans Compared also facial lines of ancient Greek sculptures and paintings of Dutch and Flemish artists. He then widened the comparison to recently encountered human beings and apes in other parts of the world Bring Home Specimen Sarah Baartman (1789-1815) – KhoiSan woman born in the Cape colony of South Africa. o In 1810 she “signed” a contract to travel Europe to be put on display because of her large buttocks called "steatopygia.“ o She was put on display at Picadilly Circus in London England for the curious. Wealthy patrons could also pay for a private audience with the “Hottentot Venus.” o She died in Paris either of alcoholism or syphilis, where her remains were on display until 1974. In 2002 Baartman’s remains were repatriated Moiri heads: Mokomokai o In the early 19th century, with the arrival of Europeans in New Zealand, tribes in contact with European sailors, traders and settlers had access to firearms, giving them a military advantage over their neighbors o This gave rise to the Musket Wars, when other tribes became desperate to acquire firearms too. This period of social destabilization created commercial trade in mokomokai sold as curios, artworks and as museum specimens fetching high prices in Europe and America. They could be bartered for firearms and ammunition o In 2002 France repatriated several mokomokai to New Zealand Conclusion Race is not a biological or historical fact Race is a social construction that is grounded in religion AND science of the Enlightenment The concept of race is built on a foundation of superiority and inferiority Geographical designations concerning human variation are more accurate because it represents human variation based on world region But with the advancement in technology and increased globalization its accuracy is lessening As Colonialism and Enlightenment pushed people to far off lands human variation became more pronounced Race was developed in greater detail in the United States because of the wide variety of human beings Race is still applied in contemporary society Anthropology: Structure of human societies Henry Maine (1861) Ancient Law o Wrote about social status of traditional/tribal societies contrasted with contracts of modern industrial societies Sir E. B. Tylor and Lewis Henry Morgan o Social evolution based on hierarchy of complexity o Civilized, Barbarian, Savage, and subdivisions of high, middle, low Emile Durkheim (1895) o Father of modern sociology (but influenced anthropology as well!) o Theorized all human societies had the capacity for classification Social Hierarchies Achieved status – those that were worked for, and earned and ascribed status – those that a person was born with Stratification –“ unequal distribution of people across social categories and are characterized by differential access to scarce resources” (Massey) Resources • Material – wealth, income, food, land • Symbolic – prestige, respect and/or social standing, cultural capital • Emotional – love, affection and/or sex Anthropological Political Divisions Anthropologist Elman Service (1962) divided four levels of political organization (polities) o Band – kin-based group (everyone is related through sanguine or marriage ties. H&G o Tribes – Village life organized by kin groups based on clans and linages. Lack formal government. Non-intensive food production pastoralists/horticulture. o Chiefdom – sociopolitical organization between tribe and state. Relations based on kinship, marriage, age, generation, and gender. Division of wealth, unequal access to resources o State – Organization based on formal government structure and socioeconomic stratification Social Stratification depends on Types of division: Men typically hunt and go to war. Craft weapons. Healers Women keep gardens, care for young, craft clothes, pottery. Patriarchy or Matriarchy age Stratification Processes Massey argues are a combination of 2 things: o Allocation of people to social categories: race, gender, class, (the holy trio of sociology, but you could add sexual orientation, education, free/slave, believer/infidel and we could go on and on). o Instutionalization of “unequal practices that allocate resources unequally across these categories” – health care, education, judicial system, leisure, employment sector (again this is not a comprehensive list!). Emulation Definition: “One group of people copies a set of social distinctions and interrelationships from another group or transfers the distinctions and interrelationships from one social setting to another” (Massey p. 6) Psychology of Social Classification Acts to construct general categories about the world we live in – called schemas o The human brain is limited in capacity o Thus, we chunk bits of information into larger conceptual categories (schema) o This is the same technique memory experts use to remember long sequences of things. Think mnemonic devices or mind maps Anatomy of the human brain Prefrontal cortex and neocortex – deals with logic and rational thought Limbic system – emotions – pleasure and pain are processed in the same part of the brain Conclusion Depending on human society that is lived in there are different levels of social distinction Mechanization continued to stratify industrial and post-industrial societies Our brains are hardwired to conserve energy by making snap judgements These snap judgements based on implicit bias are apparent within the structures of institutions (week 3) Phillepe Bourgois (1992): In Search of Respect: Selling Crack in East Harlem Organization of this ethnography Introductions: The Whys of Research – to show the humanity of the marginalized. Setting the Scene – Where and Who. East Harlem (MAP) and Puerto Ricans (Bourgois 1992, p. 5). o Puerto Rican’s cultural forms continuously expand and reinvent (11) because they are syncretic cultural group of Taino, African, and European. Methods: o Participant observation o Establishing rapport With crack dealers and people in East Harlem (mostly Puerto Rican). o Reflexivity – “I was an outsider from the larger society’s dominant class, ethnicity, and gender categories who was attempting to study the experience of inner-city poverty among Puerto Ricans” (p. 13). History o Gives us a timeline so that we understand how these people got here and why they are doing the things they are doing. Observations o Divided by theme o Interviews Conclusions Puerto Rico 1493 – Columbus lands in PR Taino massacre begins 1508 – Ponce de Leon 1542 – Spanish Dominican friar Bartolomé de las Casas (published in 1552) about the mistreatment of the Indigenous Peoples of the Americas in colonial times and sent to then Prince Philip II of Spain who outlawed Native slavery. 1820 – South American nations become independent but not PR! March 22, 1873 – the Spanish National Assembly finally abolished slavery in Puerto Rico. 1898 –Spanish American War USA gets PR territory – Agro-export companies take over small farms, 1940s to 1950s most Puerto Rican immigrants came to USA. 1952 Free associated Common Wealth 1953 – 75,000 Puerto Ricans left to mainland USA, 1992 – 50% qualified for food stamps. “El Barrio” East Harlem’s Immigrant Maelstroms 1664 – Dutch arrive in Manhattan Island Hell’s Gate 110 street East Side became the site of Dutch skirmishes between indigenous people. Tobacco farms 1600. 1800s – public transport made the area more accessible. Apartments and tenements develop, transport to Lower East Side sweat shops e.g. Triangle Shirtwaist Factory. 1867 – end of Civil War and slavery 1880-1890s – immigrant wage labor influx (post slavery) brings greater diversity to the area. (Germans, Irish, Jews, and Eastern Europeans). 1880s – Italian scabs become competition for jobs 1920 -- There were 27 different nationalities - African-Americans, Greek Orthodox, Scandinavians, Italians. Ethnostress In the early 1980's, the concept of 'ethnostress' was developed by Native practitioners Diane Hill, Bob Antone and Mike Meyers. Effects of 'ethnostress' on individuals and communities: o thoughts and feelings of powerlessness and hopelessness within themselves, the people around them, and in their environment (Hill, Antone & Myers, 1980) o "Ethnostress is primarily a result of a psychological response pattern that stems from the disruption of a cultural life and belief system that one cares about deeply" (Cajete:1994:189). Apartheid vs apartheid Apartheid – South African system of legal segregation (de jure) apartheid used by scholars to designate oppressive systems of segregation based on the way people are treated based on difference. Other examples of apartheid Mexico/USA division and the wall; Israel/Palestine division and the wall, China/Tibet division Defacto apartheid o Racist Common Sense – persuades white middle-class outsiders and whites of all races – too dangerous to go into the hood o New York City Housing Authority (NYCHA) White people don’t go above 96 street east or west side or go to Projects Conclusion Sociologist Douglass S. Massey argues that the human brain is “hard wired” to think categorically Social stratification of US society based on race, class, and gender (amongst other things) Immigrants constantly struggling to make a place in America and are subject to the new rules of belonging With the restructuring of the United States economy from factories to service industry many Americans lost jobs Racial stereotypes and de facto apartheid continuously render Puerto Ricans and other marginalized groups unable and unwilling to participate in dominant society Ethnostress - which is the result of colonialism, slavery, and cultural genocide - adversely affects indigenous and minority groups and individuals causing them to make decisions that are detrimental to their individual well-being and the well-being of their communities Mental shortcuts in the form of racist stereotypes create patterns of behavior that dehumanize the victims and the oppressors (Week 4) Drugs and Youth Development Genetic and environmental factors interact with critical developmental stages in person’s life to affect addiction risk Although taking drugs at any age can lead to addiction The earlier that drug use begins, the more likely it will progress to addiction o Teens may be especially prone to risky behaviors - including trying drugs o Because areas in their brains that control decision-making o Judgment, and self-control are still developing Running a business Risk versus Reward – in any business. o Lots of competition, jealousy, and rivalries. Drug dealing high profit, fast money, lots of risk (77). Strict patriarchal hierarchies Rationalization of Business George Ritzer McDonaldization of Society talks about the 4 principles of doing business in industrial and post-industrial (aka post-Fordist) era 1) Calculability –profit by Control - hierarchical lowering cost 1) Predictability – sprotocol concerningit of product (customers) with a distribution of anproduceto standardized product and behavior product deliver to customers . Capitali sm 1) Efficiency – cut Dehumanization - all product, reduce the people are reduced time it takes to tmargins to beit produce product exploited or labor. customers ASAPo Everyone is expendable . Control and Predictability Predictability of risk v reward o Ray imposing strict prohibitions on people being outside the crack house stoop to control noise level and police interference o Police raids inevitable o War on Drugs Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1986 (under the Ronald Regan administration) Control o Selling crack as a family business (p. 82) o Led by a PATRIARCHY o Sanguine kinship (remember Lewis Henry Morgan) o Fictive kinship Compadre kinship – God fathers Stratification (from Massey) and increased divergence between rich and poor o Bosses versus employees divide and conquer (p. 105) o Focus on materialism keeps low level employees, in both legal or underground economy poor Low level dealers like Primo and Caesar - minimum wage Laws of supply and demand coincide with supply of money from community members First of the month money flows (pp. 100-102) Creating crack from cocaine extends supply Lowers cost of product Raises profit Increases risk (mandatory sentencing) Efficiently reaches larger customer base Dehumanization DEHUMANIZATION – the process of rendering a person or people less than human by labeling, othering, and comparing to animals and monsters o Non-Westerners as savages, as “the other.” The dehumanizing force of rational systems Law enforcement, dominant society, teachers… Racial stereotypes (137) paint Ray and Caesar as pathetic losers Going Legit Legal labor market o The economic shift from industrial (factory based) to postindustrial (service industry) destabilized skilled manufacturing workers led to high unemployment, income reduction, union busting, erosions in worker benefits at the entry level = structural violence (p. 114) FIRE – Finance, insurance and real-estate o Led to cultural confrontation (culture clash) between upper-middle- class white world (dominant culture) with marginalized peoples – PR and AAs, as well as other blue collar workers Involuntary vs Voluntary Minorities John OGBU o Early 1970s anthropologist and education specialist focused on student success o Theorized new immigrants to the United States (Asians, Dominicans, Jamaicans etc.) or “voluntary minorities” differed from “involuntary minorities” (i.e. Amerindians aka First Nations, Puerto Ricans, Chicanos, and Afro-Americans) Ogbu reasoned the involuntary minorities were colonized people suffering the debilitating effects of oppressive institutions, displacement, imperial wars, forced assimilation, and slavery Thus, any attempt to get these groups to “buy-in” – to forced systems without acknowledging their individual struggles – often fails Immigrants vs Minorities Voluntary minorities come to USA for opportunity and therefore buy into dominant society and are willing to work and make sacrifices to succeed o Think about why your family members or new immigrants come to the USA Involuntary minorities (e.g. Puerto Ricans) suffer from traumatic historical relationships with the US and seek other ways to succeed o Alternative ways of succeeding are not always acceptable in dominant society o Think about why members of your family or people falling under this category are distrustful of government institutions (including public schools, hospitals, etc.) Conclusion All people are susceptible to experimentation, certain factors in people’s lives and communities make drug them more susceptible to engaging in illegal activity For profit businesses, whether legal or underground, are run similarly Most businesses exploit and dehumanize people (workers and customers) Having the “right” cultural capital allows people to succeed in the industry Structural violence beginning in school and moving to work environments can prevent individuals from succeeding Addressing these factors, working within cultural structures, and humanizing “the other” instead of blaming are ways to solve many community challenges, which often spill out into neighboring communities (Week 5) Sexuality Nature or Nurture Alfred Kinsey (1930s at IUB) When asked if they had engaged in homosexual sexual relations, a large percent of the population tested answered “no”, however when asked if they had engaged in same-sex relations, the percentage answering “yes” nearly doubled. The experiment yielded that 30% of males had experienced at least an orgasm in a homosexual act Homosexuality in Non-Human Animals Calhoun (1962) males mice hypersexual, sexually deviant (homosexual behavior) and hyperactive in an overpopulated environment Some animals use sex to “climb social ladders” Same-sex pairing in many species alleviates the likelihood of “divorce” Central Africa King Mwanga II of Uganda (1868-1903) regarded the greatest threat to his rule came from Christianity Had 16 wives and many male lovers Ugandan martyrs were burnt to death between 1885 to 1887 in the orders of Mwanga II, for denying him gay sex when they converted to Christianity Homosexuality is demonized because colonial legislation of British Misogyny—A hatred of Women Dehumanization of women o Exploitation o Media (Blurred lines) o Income inequality. In 2015 female full-time workers made only 80 cents for every dollar earned by man Rape and abuse o Remaining silent and avoiding discussions perpetrates status quo and enforces oppressions of women in everyday life o Blaming the victim She wanted it, she knows how we are, blaming family life Tribes, Gangs, and Fraternities Desmond Morris (1928—present) – World renowned British zoologist o Looks at human beings as animals and our behavior in the context of animal behavior o Humans lived in small groups when developing (called bands or tribes) o Held together by sanguine or fictive kinship relations o Society become more codified as societies developed o But we remained animals coded for certain behaviors, what Morris called tribalism Women’s attributes China, Akan of West Africa, and Iroquois Women Matrilineal Woman dominant Women’s Rights Sojourner Truth—born in bondage 1797, NY State o Dutch was her first language Elizabeth Cady Stanton (1815-1902) o 1848 helped organize first Women’s Rights Convention in Seneca Falls, NY o 1860 Advocated “rights to self-sovereignty” to avoid unwanted pregnancy Liberalized divorce laws Women to leave unhappy marriages Didn’t want 15 amendment to pass th Helped get 19 amendment passed o 1869 established National Woman Suffrage Association with Susan B. Anthony o Was married with children but later had a female lover Feminism Gloria Steinem—1934 Toledo, OH o 1963 worked as a Play Boy Bunny while doing an expose on exploitative working conditions of bunnies o 1968 helped founded New Yorker Magazine o In 1969, Steinem published an article, “After Black Power, Women’s Liberation” Angela Davis—born on January 26, 1944, in Birmingham Alabama o Member of The Black Feminist Movement o Grew out of and in response to the Black Liberation Movement and the Woman’s Movement o Black women became invisible o The purpose of the movement was to develop the theories to address the way race, gender, and class were interconnected in their lives and to take action to stop racist, sexist and classist discrimination Gender shifts in Patriarchal society: Hurt people, Hurt people Shift economic systems o Jibaro (plantation) urban factory worker/blue collar (industrial) service worker (post-industrial—FIRE) Traditional power roles of man o Father, breadwinner, provider, protector Reasons for men losing power o Immigration o Ethnostress o Marginalization As men lose power o Lash out against women and children they cannot control Hegemony o Predominant influence exercised by one nation/culture/group over others o Aggression or expansionism by large nations /cultures in an effort to achieve world domination Patriarchal role of government th Women’s suffrage (19 amendment) Age of consent (first in 1885) Child Welfare Agencies Anti-abortion legislations (current) Eugenics movements (up until the 1970s) Government agency hostility to poor: structural violence Welfare agencydoes not provide a living wage Justice system unfair laws and biases Penal/corrections institutions – break up families Weapons of the Weak James C. Scott (1985) introduces the idea that oppression resistance are in constant flux By focusing on visible historic events such as organized rebellions or collective actions we miss subtle but powerful forms of ‘every day resistance’ Marginalized women of color o Working full time and off the books Sometimes take on male roles challenge gender stereotypes o Choosing their own lovers o Gaining education Children at risk Helen Levitt (1948) “In the Street” A way out, pregnant teens get priority in NYCHA allows for autonomy sometimes at the expense of children Normalizing the dysfunction of drugs Gendered shadow economy o Males violence via drugs, robbery, assault o Females sex and prostitution Children at Risk Using evolutionary theory, Daly and Wilson predicted that infanticide would occur under three general conditions: o Uncertain paternity o Defects in offspring o Lack of paternal resources to successfully rear the child Evolutionary reasons 56% Non-evolutionary reasons 15% Conclusions Gender and sexuality are fluid Notions of acceptable behaviors vary around the world Women do have agency and ways to establish autonomy that necessarily does not correlate with traditional gender roles Motherhood is a way to establish independence Poverty stricken areas all over the world where child survival is uncertain (week 6) Family structure Nuclear—(Mom, Dad), (Mom, Mom), (Dad, Dad), with a child o Male role as provider o Female role as nurturer o Lots of money to support children Polygyny—multiple wives Extended families—children with grandparents Single-parent headed household—mother or father With cultural capital women Claim single parent status and associated power Without cultural capital, women have limited agency Misogyny Leave abuse relationships Female gender role linked with sex and biology o Female autonomy Patriarchy Jibaro identity o Alternative sense of power from dominant Angle-American culture o Reassert masculine gender norms o Industrial and post-industrial world o Traditionally many children on plantation = farm hands Changing value of children Number of children o Burden, interferes with individual pursuits o Human population explosion of earth DINC (Double income No children) o Children in post-industrial world expensive to raise o Unsure future Immigration assimilation German immigrants were generally considered hard working, thrifty and charitable No other group founded so many different societies: occupational groups, shooting clubs, singing groups… After war was declared, President Wilson proclaimed all German citizens “alien enemies” Immigration disrupts culture WWII Anti-Japanese Sentiment o Japanese-American’s loyalty questioned o Property taken away, incarcerated for 4 years… Post 9/11/2001 Arab/Muslims Register with Department of Homeland Security (DHS) as a measure of counter-terrorism US, richest country in the world Highest incarceration rate per 100,000 people Economic restructuring In 1960, one in four Americans had a job in manufacturing, now only one in ten are employed by a sector Former manufacturing workers have moved into health care, construction or retail Mechanization Massey and Bourgois o Made production more rationalized systems o Increase social stratification by creating more wealth at the top of production o Dehumanized people People became workers and consumers o Spurred urbanization as people moved from farms to city o Enabled less people to produce more Effects of economic shifts 2013—Large spike in incarceration (largest ever) Drugs Not the problem, they are a symptom of a broken system of structural of violence, globalization, mechanization, and multi-national corporations In mid-1980s, confronted AIDS epidemic among heroin addicts, sharing needles America’s drug culture Prohibition is not the way, this will only fuel crime and lead to growth of stronger spirits at the expense of beer/drugs Safe injection heroin users, successful in reducing crime and saving lives Destroy profit margins Harm caused by drugs: #1 alcohol Creating a mirror Drugs o Are symptoms of a broken system o 2014, a surge in opiate overdose drew intense state wide media attention o Auto industry jobs, have disappeared, and the population has shrunk so much that many towns in the country can no longer sustain a primary school Franz Fanon The colonizers compartmentalized world is a world of statues of the oppressor o The colonist is an exhibitionist reminding the subjugated of his power, because he is fearful of the masses uprising Thus dreams of action by the colonial subject are muscular dreams, dreams of action, dreams of aggressive vitality, jumping, swimming, running, and climbing o The colonized subject will commit crimes against themselves as a training ground for revolution against the colonial oppressors. This is how Fanon excuses why “blacks turn on blacks” Mount Rushmore, SD Built on sacred Sioux tribe land We took over the land after we discovered there was gold in the region Diversifying the system Reform welfare—allow people to work legally and get help instead of pushing them into the shadow economy Diversity—key word, not solution to structural violence that limits opportunities to marginalized Reforming systems to address society’s inequities will draw diversity Allow people to humanize the public enemy of USA o Drug dealers aren’t exotic o Made in America’s ANTH 205 Midterm Vocabulary Review Sean Anderson 1.)Agency—The capacity of an actor to act in any given government 2.)Autonomy—The right or condition of self-government (sometimes at the expense of children for pregnant teens in NYCHA) 3.)Hegemony—Predominant influence exercised by one nation/culture/group over others 4.)Misogyny—Hatred (dehumanization) of women 5.)Desmond Morris—British Zoologist who looked at human beings as animals and our behavior in the context of animal behavior 6.)Principles of McDonaldization— Control, efficiency, predictability, and calculability 7.)Control—Hierarchical structure and explicit protocol concerning distribution of product and behavior of employees to deliver to customers 8.)Efficiency—Cut time to deliver product, reduce the time it takes to produce product, and get it to customer ASAP 9.)Predictability—Supply people (customers) with a standardized product 10.) Calculability—Increasing profit by lowering cost of product and time to produce 11.) Dehumanization—The process of rendering a person or people less than human by labeling, othering, and comparing to animals and monsters 12.) Charles Darwin—Came up with the theory of Natural selection and the idea that all animals develop because of their environment 13.) Structural Violence—Describes social arrangements that put individuals and populations in harm’s way. They are embedded in the political and economic organization of society and cause injury to people 14.) Marginalization—A way a man would lose power 15.) Gender—The state of being a male or female 16.) Human Sexuality Scale— A scale representing those who experience either homosexual behavior, heterosexual behavior or a mixture of each (by the amount of each) 17.) Alfred Kinsey—He asked if they had engaged in homosexual sexual relations, a large percent of the population tested answered “no”, however when asked if they had engaged in same-sex relations, the percentage answering “yes” nearly doubled 18.) Race—An historical social construction with long lasting effects on the present that is based on arbitrary physical features—such as amount of melanin in the skin, eyes, and hair— that determines their access to resources 19.) Class—The state of which you are financially upper class, middle class, lower class, or even shadow economy 20.) Resources—According to Massey are the three things a person needs to succeed in life—emotional, material and status resources 21.) Ethnostress—1980s theory developed to explain trauma experience by Native people who were not afforded opportunities to participate within their culture due to the impact of colonization, acculturation, assimilation and oppression within their communities 22.) Dejure—according to rightful entitlement or claim 23.) Protestant Reformation—Led by Martin Luther posted his 95 Thesish on the door of the Catholic church 24.) Age of Discovery—1492 Columbus sailed the ocean blue, 1497 John Cabot (Dutch) sailed to North America, and 1498 Vasco da Gama sailed to th th India (this time period lasted between the 15 and 18 century) 25.) Carl Linnaeus—Swedish doctor that began classifying all manners of life forms in Systema Naturae (taxonomy) 26.) Sir Francis Bacon—Believed that to study natures was to see the outward manifestation of God and all his creations 27.) Pieter Camper—Famous for comparing the angles of facial profiles between monkeys, apes, and humans 28.) Charles Lyell—Lawyer/geologist that published Principles of Geology from ruminations of a Scottish farmer James Hutton, that stated the earth’s surface changes were based of slow moving gradual recognizable changes, as opposed to random imaginable catastrophes (uniformitarianism) 29.) Captain James Cook—Mapped the Pacific 30.) Cultural Capital—Knowing the right things to wear, the right things to say, and having the right cultural knowledge based on the cultural environment you are in 31.) Wage Slave—a person who is mainly dependent on their income from employment (no other external incomes) 32.) Social Stratification—Allocation of people to social categories: race, gender, class coupled with Institutionalization of “unequal practices that allocate resources unequally across these categories” (Massey) 33.) Douglass S. Massey—sociologist who argues that the brain is “hardwired” to think categorically 34.) Post-Industrial— FIRE related era (service worker) which came after the industrial era (urban factory worker/blue collar) 35.) Racist Common Sense—persuades white middle-class outsiders and whites of all races – too dangerous to go into the hood 36.) Apartheid—South African system of legal segregation 37.) apartheid—used by scholars to designate oppressive systems of segregation based on the way people are treated based on difference 38.) Elman Service—Divided four level of political organization, Band, Tribes, Chiefdom, and State 39.) Emulation—One group of people copies a set of social distinctions and interrelationships from another group or transfers the distinctions and interrelationships from one social setting to another 40.) Implicit Bias—Unrecognized preferences in all human beings that affect the way people from one group deal with “the other” 41.) Sir Edward Burnett Tylor—British anthropologist influenced by Charles Darwin theorized primitive culture developed the theory of evolution and social evolution; barbarism, savagery, civilization 42.) Lewis-Henry Morgan—NY anthropologist established the study of kinship 43.) Henry Maine—Theorized in his book Ancient Law (1881) that traditional societies were divided up by status and industrial societies were based on contracts 44.) Rapport— a close and harmonious relationship in which the people or groups concerned understand each other's feelings or ideas and communicate well 45.) Informant—A person who provides privileged information about a person or organization to an agency 46.) Kinship— Blood relation (sanguine, fictive, compadre) 47.) Research Ethics—Making sure the participants inform consent before the study and no personal information is shared after the study about the participant 48.) Ethnography—Comprehensive study of a particular culture by a lone researcher in the field 49.) Fieldwork—Anthropologist researches a non-native culture for an extended length of time, finding informants, interviews, notetaking, and collecting information about their life 50.) Infanticide—Killing a child within a year of birth (using evolutionary theory, Daly and Wilson predicted that infanticide would occur under three general conditions, uncertain paternity, defects in offspring, or Lack of paternal resources to successfully rear the child) 51.) Internal Review Board—Established in 1979 to establish informed consent for experiments 52.) Mechanization— The process of changing from working largely or exclusively by hand or with animals to doing that work with machinery, which continues to stratify industrial and post-industrial societies 53.) Emile Durkheim—Father of modern sociology theorized all human societies had the capacity for classification 54.) Matriarchy— System of society or government ruled by a woman or women 55.) Patriarchy— System of society or government in which the father or eldest male is head of the family and descent is traced through the male line 56.) Economic Restructuring –Phenomenon of Western urban areas shifting from a manufacturing (industrial) to a service sector economic base (post-industrial) 57.) Weapons of the Weak—Book written by James C. Scott introducing the idea that oppression resistance are in constant reflux and by focusing on visible historic events such as organized rebellions or collective actions we miss subtle but powerful forms of ‘every day resistance’ 58.) (Black) Feminism—Black women became invisible and the Black Feminist Movement was created with the purpose to develop the theories to address the way race, gender, and class were interconnected in their lives and to take action to stop racist, sexist and classist discrimination 59.) Gloria Steinem—worked as a Play Boy Bunny while doing an expose on exploitative working conditions of bunnies, helped founded the New Yorker Magazine, and published an article, “After Black Power, Women’s Liberation” 60.) Angela Davis—Member of The Black Feminist Movement, grew out of and in response to the Black Liberation Movement and the Woman’s Movement 61.) Elizabeth Cady Stanton— helped organize first Women’s Rights, advocated “rights to self-sovereignty” to avoid unwanted pregnancy, and established National Woman Suffrage Association with Susan B. Anthony 62.) James C. Scott—Introduces the idea that oppression resistance are in constant reflux 63.) FIRE—(Finance, insurance and real-estate) Led to cultural confrontation (culture clash) between upper-middle-class white world (dominant culture) with marginalized peoples— PR and AAs, as well as other blue collar workers 64.) John Ogbu— Anthropologist that theorized new immigrants to the United States (Asians, Dominicans, Jamaicans etc.) or “voluntary minorities” differed from “involuntary minorities” (i.e. Amerindians aka First Nations, Puerto Ricans, Chicanos, and Afro-Americans) 65.) George Ritzer—came up with the principles of McDonaldization and talks about doing business in industrial and post-industrial era 66.) Armchair Anthropologist—an anthropologist who doesn’t enter the fieldwork 67.) Reflexivity— A circular relationship between cause and effect
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