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History Midterm Exam Study Guide I. I’ve Come to Look for America a. “So we bought a pack of cigarettes and Mrs. Wagner’s pies and walked off to look for America.” Paul Simon, “America,” 1968. b. Wrote song America II. The Civil War and the Context for Reconstruction a. Civil war occurred because of Southern succession. American refusal to accept it b. War over slavery c. Preserving right to slavery was cornerstone of southern succession d. Wanted to preserve state rights and control over their affairs e. Southern believed that “all men created equal” was wrong and dangerous f. Union fought confederacy to preserve the union g. 1863 end slavery Sullivan Ballou o Fought in civil war o Wrote letters to his wife Sarah Important Dates 1861 SC declared it was seceding from the Union Lincoln inaugurated as President Confederate Attack on Ft. Sumter Confederate Attack on Fort Sumter April 12, 1861 April 9, 1865 - Ft. Sumter to the Confederate surrender at Appomattox Court House in Virginia - 620,000 deaths (majority from disease) Emancipation Proclamation (1863) o Freed slaves in most of the Confederacy Gettysburg (1863) o Pickett’s charge o “High Watermark of Confederacy” End of War 1865 America won the war Appomattox Court House, Lee surrendered by Grant (April) o Lincoln shot, died next day History Midterm Exam Study Guide Declarartion of the Immediate Causes which Justify the Secession (Reasoning) o South Carolina Nonslave holding states were in violation of the Constitution Constitution had “Right of property in slaves” Basically seceding b/c of Lincoln o Mississippi Slavery is greatest material interest in world Labor supplies is significant Black race can bear exposure to tropical sun o Texas White men rights for servitude of African race and inferior and dependent race Cornerstone Speech Alexander Stephens o Vice President of the Confederacy enumerated contrasts between U.S. and Confederate ideologies and beliefs laid out the Confederacy's causes for declaring secession defended the enslavement of African Americans. III. Reconstruction and Emancipation: Who Won the Peace? Slave Peter o Shows hardships and cruelty o Picture with scars from whipping Biggest Change from Civil War o End of slavery o 4 million freed Reconstruction period in which the U.S was quickest of any slave state to put former slaves in postion of power and as full citizens Key Themes: Freedom required power Free labor > slave labor Republican party power = much larger and more powerful federal government, clear and broader definition of citizenship, and a more egalitarian inclusive America White Supremacy prevailed especially in South New Birth of Freedom History Midterm Exam Study Guide o Abraham Lincoln “Gettysburg Address” o November 19, 1863 Issues: Nothing but freedom (1865) former Confederate General o Family, Land, Education, Church, Manhood Key of struggle o Land and Labor Who Wins The Peace? 1865 th 13 Amendment abolished slavery Lincolns 10% plan 10 percent of voters from 1860, oath to Union, agree to new gov’t and no slavery Military Reconstruction Late 1865, Black Codes o Vagrancy laws: no guns, no alcohol, no political participation, restricted land access o Could marry, sue, bargain, own property o A lot of vicious white violence March 1867: First Reconstruction Act 14 Amendment 1868 No state shall make or enforce a law which abridges a person to life, liberty, or property without due process law 15 Amendment 1870 Right of citizens of the US to vote shall not be denied 1870 ALL STATES READMITTED TO UNION Presidential Reconstruction: President Andrew Through elections of 1866 Reconstruction to a close? Expansion of Union Leagues, proRepublican grassroots groups Growth of black political organizing Expansion of white supremacist groups o Growth of Ku Klux Klan 1866 early 1870s Knights of the White Camelia Northern abandonment of Reconstruction Weariness of the South Economic panic of 1873 Road to Military Reconstruction Military Reconstruction Late 1865, Black Codes Vagrancy laws. No Guns. No Alcohol. Essentially no political participation. Restricted land access History Midterm Exam Study Guide Could marry. Could sue. Could bargain. Could own property. 5 military districts – to make southern “states” follow laws of the Union When they agreed they could come back into the Union Vicious white violence Presidential Reconstruction: President Andrew Johnson’s proSouthern actions Pardons for those swearing loyalty oath (except those with over $20,000 in property before war). Land restorations. Minimal requirements for reentry (13 amdt. And war debts) Johnson on black citizenship, “less capacity for government than any other race of people.” Presidential Reconstruction Lasted through elections of Fall 1866 Then 2/3 Republican majority, with Radicals dominating Fall 1866, Radical Republican Voters Some radicals wanted to distribute and to freed people (failed). Wanted Male Vote. Male equality under the law Aided by expansion of white violence in the South 1. Who, after all, had won the civil war? 2. Justice? Limited prosecutions of murders. Estimates of white murders of black residents in the thousands. 3. May 1866, Memphis 46 black residents dead 4. July 30, 1866. Absolute Massacre in New Orleans. 48 dead Military Reconstruction March 1867. First Reconstruction Act 5 military districts Male vote if one had not been a confederate If confederate, then reentry process th Accept 14 amendment New constitutions President Johnson Impeachment 1868 th July 1868 – ratification of 14 amendment Section. 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. Fall 1868 Election History Midterm Exam Study Guide Election of Ulysses S. Grant, Republican Republicans: waved “bloody shirt” of Democrats starting the war Democrats: appeals to racism Grant was very corrupt March 1870, ratification of 15 Amendment Section. 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. By 1870, all former Confederate states readmitted to Union with new state constitutions Reconstruction in Retreat What brought Reconstruction to a close? Black and White at the Local Level in the South: Expansion of Union Leagues, proRepublican grassroots groups Growth of black political organization Expansion of white supremacist groups Growth of the Klu Klux Klan 1866 – early 1870s Also Knights of the White Camelia White League (1874) 18701871 Enforcement Acts in Response Northern abandonment of Reconstruction Weariness about the South Economic panic Compare Thomas Nast in Harper’s Weekly, 8/1865 to 3/1874 Cartoon about Louisiana, 1873 (note depictions of black men, white women, and the federal government) April 13, 1873, Easter Sunday – Colfax Massacre 100300 black Republicans killed Trial led to convictions under Enforcement Act of 1870 Violation of civil rights History Midterm Exam Study Guide US Supreme Court overturned – unconstitutional declaration of Enforcement Acts U.S. vs. Cruikshank (1876) Due to process and equal protection, state only White “Redemption” and the End of Reconstruction 1874, Democrats control US House September 14, 1874 – Battle of Liberty Place 38 dead 1875 – Mississippi Plan, based on violence and intimidation in preventing black voting 1875 – South Carolina – red shirts The Compromise of 1877 Emigration impulses Key Summary Ideas: African Americans were active participants and provided essential voices and structures. The defining element of Reconstruction and the voices that pushing for education, land, and suffrage. U.S was quickest of any slave state to put former slaves in positions of power and as full citizens. Revolutionary era of challenges to the southern order. Federal government expanded its authority, but that expansion had limits and depended on political pressure. Violence and intimidation were powerful forces that led to white supremacy in triumph. Key Advances made during Reconstruction: Personal liberties Laws, Constitutional Amendments Marketcentered labor system Education Strengthening of black community Role of black identity The Splendid Failure: Key Limitations The power of white people The limits to northern power and Radical Republicanism Panic of 1873 Inadequate Federal structures Reverence for private property 14 Amendment – ensuring right to work, but eventually restricting equal protection History Midterm Exam Study Guide Alabama freeman, “I’m free. Ain’t worth nothing.” [I’se free. Ain’t wuf nuffin.”] Rayford Logan, 1877 as “betrayal of the Negro”? Making Modern America: Business and Corporate Order Major Questions: Corporation – from the oxford English Dictionary 2. A number of persons united, or regarded as united, in one body; a body of persons. 3. a. Law. A body corporate legally authorized to act as a single individual; an artificial person created by royal charter, prescription, or act of the legislature, and having authority to preserve certain rights in perpetual succession. Private? Public? ForProfit? NonProfit? Churches? Any Collective? Why did large corporations develop? How did they change American culture and personal behavior? Consider how you dress, eat, work, talk/communicate, use time, entertain yourself, and think – and consider what influences corporations have on each of those things How would someone in 1860 respond? History as the art and science of change, a formula for analyzing U.S. history: U.S. History = Heat + Motion + Communication + Pleasure + Fear Why did some Americans celebrate economic inequality as a good thing? Should we view John D. Rockefeller and Andrew Carnegie (and other like them) as Robber Barons or Captains of Industry? What were keys to the vast expansion of business and corporations in the U.S.? History Midterm Exam Study Guide Heat, motion, communications, pleasure, fear Consumers Technical innovation 1804 – steampowered RR 1807 – steamboat travel 1852 – safety elevator by Otis 1859 – oil found in Titusville, PA 1868 – Westinghouse’s RR airbrake 1869 – transcontinental RR 1874 – electric streetcar; steel bridge; typewriter for consumer market; Levi’s blue jeans get their famous copper rivets 1875 – refrigerated railroad car; Edison’s mimeograph 1876Telephone, Alexander Graham Bell. 1878Edison’s phonograph 1879Light bulb, by Edison 1882electric fan. 1883trying to keep the trains running on time. Time zones. 1885Gaspowered automobile; AC (alternating current, which can travel farther than DC) developed by George Westinghouse (Tesla); “skyscrapers” with steel girders, 10story in Chicago (1889, electric elevator); 1888Kodak camera for consumer market; Edison’s kinetoscope film projector. 1891Zipper patent. mid1890sFirst U.S. automobiles 1901Gillette safety razor 1903Airplane by Wright brothers 1906first radio broadcast 1908Henry Ford’s Model T and assembly line production. 1927TV image broadcast Managing the Revolution: The Visible Hand vs. the Invisible Hand Workers separated from the final product; managers separated from owners Managerial control, vertical integration, horizontal integration Resource allocation; production; marketing Mass distribution and mass production Advertising and demand creation 1890 – Sherman AntiTrust Act Prohibited trusts engaged in “restraint of trade” Outlawed monopolies John D. Rockefeller and Standard Oil 18391937 History Midterm Exam Study Guide 1865 – started refinery in Cleveland 1870 – Standard Oil of Ohio Vertical & horizontal integration Within 10 years controlled approximately 90% of refining capacity in the US and reached approx. 80% of US 1911 – US Supreme Court broke up Standard Oil Shortly after, Rockefeller with approximately $900 million 1937 – died Was a major philanthropist in health, education, arts, and architecture Andrew Carnegie 18351919 – born in Scotland 1848 – immigrated to the US, ending up in Pittsburgh 1850s – employee of Pennsylvania RR Invested in oil and bridges 1875 – steel plant 1883 – control of Homestead Works 1889 – “…to administer in the manner which, in his judgment, is best calculated to produce the most beneficial result for the communitythe man of wealth thus becoming the sole agent and trustee for his poorer brethren, bringing to their service his superior wisdom, experience, and ability to administerdoing for them better than they would or could do for themselves.” Carnegie, June 1889, "Wealth," North American Review, reprinted Gave away over $350 million in his life, an estimated 90 percent of his wealth To libraries, museum, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Carnegie Mellon University and many other institutions 1901 – sold steel company to J. Pierpont Morgan for almost $500 million with approximately $250 million in profit to Carnegie Richest individual in the world Morgan formed US Steel Who bought the products and did the work that made these men so exorbitantly wealthy? Making Modern America: Labor Immigration and the PostCivil War American Statue of Liberty Dedicated in 1886 from France What was the New Immigration? PullPush phenomenon 1880s – rise in Eastern European and Asian immigration History Midterm Exam Study Guide ~18801914 – approximately 20 million immigrants came to US, many intending to return to home lands US population grew from 50 million to 92 million 1890 – 42% of NYC resident foreignborn 19001910 – 70% of immigrants Easter and Southern European Jewish, Catholic, Orthodox Different languages Assimilation and “Americanization” Antiimmigration backlash, antiSemitism, antiCatholicism Demand for Americanism 1902 – Chinese Exclusion Act renewed 1882 – Prohibited immigration of laborers and restricted immigration of others Renewed in new bill in 1892 and again in 1902 World War I impact 1924 – Immigration Act – national origins Making America: The City and the Making of Americans Key questions: What is an American? What was an American? What is a city? How can all of those people live in one place without destroying it? Should we think of the US as a “melting pot”? Other metaphors? What is a city? Accumulations of people: Census – City = 2,500 people 1920 – first Census with more urban dwellers than rural Systems of government and infrastructure A constant cultural struggle 1893 – Columbian World’s Exposition, Chicago White City vs. Midway 1904 – Dreamland, Coney Island (Brooklyn), NY The West and the Frontier What is more important, what we want to believe about the West or what the West was? “Deadwood Dick” Born into slavery, became a cowboy, then worked on the railroad as a sleeping car porter, according to his book Might not be true, no evidence About ¼ of cowboys were African American What was the West? Where was it (geographically and intellectually)? When? TransMississippi West History Midterm Exam Study Guide Late 19 century 1890 – end of the frontier Frontier = less than 4 people per square mile Key role of the “Frontier” in American imagination The Imagined West Garden West Beauty to be preserved and enjoyed National parks, national monuments, wilderness and wildness The West and “American Values” Romance of individualism, agrarianism, independence John Gast, “American Progress” (1872) “It’s Your Misfortune and None of My Own” Richard Whtie West a product of business expansion East drove the West “get in, get rich, get out” Easternizing the West Transcontinental transportation Metals, meat, land, “opportunity”, clearing obstructions RR and land development Farming Mining Ranching Heyday – 18661886 1870s – large ranches in upper West 1873 – barbed wire Cowboys: wage employees for corporations, following the herd History Midterm Exam Study Guide Approximately ¼ were African American (though not in popular depictions) Marlboro Men Consequences of Western Development Economic expansion Environmental Bison Habitat destruction Pollution The Berkeley Pit, Butte, Montana 19551982 Now one of the largest toxic waste sites in the world The West and American Indian 2016 Human Impact – Indian Policy Conflict with American conceptions of private property, conflict over conceptions of land and territory “Savage” to “outcast” by 1890s to “noble” Indian of mid20 century to “Crying Indian” of 1970s 1890 – American Indian Reservations Key developments: Was the “taming” of the west the equivalent of genocide? Genocide: the deliberate and systematic destruction of a racial, political, or cultural group American Indian population in the 1890s at 250,000 Estimates at first European contact range from 5 million to 12 million Systematic destruction of bison herds Army officer, “Kill every buffalo you can; every buffalo is an Indian gone.” 1962 – USDakota War Frontier attacks and responses Mass execution of 38 Sioux Lincoln pardoned most, but 38 still executed November 1864 – Sand Creek Massacre ~ 700 troops killed ~ 200 Cheyenne and Arapaho, including women and children 1874 – US negotiation of 1868 Treaty of For Laramie to stay out of Black Hills Gold History Midterm Exam Study Guide “Great Sioux War” 1876 – Crazy Horse Killed in 1877 as a prisoner June 2526, 1876 – Battle of Little Bighorn General Custer Over 200 US soldiers under Custer destroyed by an estimated 1,500 Sioux and Cheyenne at encampment US response Sitting Bull Holy man and military leader for the Sioux Dies 2 weeks before Massacre at Wounded Knee Shot 1886 – capture of Apache chief Geronimo 1887 – Dawes Severalty Act (Allotment Act) Private property – “civilizing” Americanization “surplus” land sold PreDawes, ~150 million acres controlled by American Indians By 1910s 2/3 gone Dec. 29, 1890 – Massacre at Wounded Knee On pine ridge reservation Fear of the Ghost Dance Dance to build energy Some dance because they believe it will get rid of the Europeans A struggle for a gun, a shot was fired Caused the US troops to fire on large group of Sioux ~500 US soldiers in pursuit ~300 Sioux killed, including women and children Jim Crow and Lynching Homer Plessy 1896 – Plessy vs. Ferguson Booker T. Washington 1881 – Tuskegee Institute 1895 – “Atlanta Compromise” W.E.B. Du Bois (18681963) “What, after all, am I? Am I an American or am I a Negro? Can I be both?” (188orn 7) PhD from Harvard History Midterm Exam Study Guide Intellectual, academic th Born year of 14 Amendment W.E.B. has a son dies very young Angry because he believe he did not receive proper health care because of their race Sam Hose – 1899 Argued with an employer, hit him with an axe and killed him Rumor that it was a malicious murder and raped employers wife He was hunted down & lynched Brutal lynching, burned and cut up People kept parts of his body Connection between Du Bois and Sam Hose W.E.B. Du Bois heard that Sam Hose’s knuckles were on display in a store – causing himself to question Becomes an activist, tries to be both (American and a Negro) “doubleconsciousness” Origins of Jim Crow What matters for to history, who we are or who we say we are? Is there a difference? Was the black cowboy Nat Love actually legendary cowboy Deadwood Dick? Was the “Crying Indian,” Iron Eyes Cody, an American Indian by birth and ancestry? Was Ronald Reagan an actual cowboy? Did smoking Marlboro filtertip cigarettes turn one into a “Marlboro Man”? Could a Black man be a “Marlboro Man”? Were there any Black or Latino Marlboro Men models, whether as the western CowboyMarlboro Man or otherwise? (1970s) th th In the late 19 centuryearly 20 century, who qualified to be “Americanized”? In the 18801910s who decided who was “white” or a “negro”? st In the 21 century, who decides who is AfricanAmerican (“black”) or European American (“white”)? What was Jim Crow? Jim Crow laws Jim Crow as a ruling system/regime 1/8, 1/32, “onedrop” Plessy – 14 Amendment 1880s until 1960s – approximately 80 years History Midterm Exam Study Guide De Facto and de Jure segregation What is race? What was race? Concept used to categorize people based on physical (or phenotypical or observable) characteristics, as well as cultural and sociological attributions Now: social construction Who getstho decide a person’s race and/or ethnicity? Late 19 Century: God and Science How did Jim Crow emerge and why did it last for approximately 80 years? God, Gold, and Science National context: Reconstruction – who won the peace? “New” immigration Chinses exclusion Plains Indian decimation Workers as commodities The south as an economic problem Fear of the masses Fear of true democracy Desire for order White “Redemption” in the South – end of Reconstruction Reducing black power in politics, public spaces, in the economy, and in culture Public Accommodations/Public Spaces Plessy vs. Ferguson (1896) New Orleans test case 81 decision 1891 – LA Railway segregation law Drawing of Pennsylvania incident Homer Plessy on the train Announced he was breaking the law Majority opinion Separate but equal th 14 Amendment Ensured equality in law but not social equality Provided legal justification for segregation and spurred expansion of Jim Crown laws Politics Disfranchisement: South Carolina: from 91,00 black voters in 1876 to 13,000 in 1888 Louisiana: 130,000 in 1896 to 1,300 in 1904 (after new constitution) History Midterm Exam Study Guide New state constitutions around turn of century Tactics: Education requirements Violence Economic pressure Poll Taxes Residency requirement Property requirements No criminal record or small thefts, etc. Literacy, constructional understanding, with Grandfather clause Results: Solid SouthDemocratic PartyWhite Supremacy Land, Labor, and Limited Economic Power The South as a major economic problem for the US Sharecropping, crop lien and debt peonage Convict lease system “the psychological wage” – Du Bois Lynching and White Southern Justice African Americans 3 times more likely to be jailed South Carolina executions 80% black (19151962) Southern homicide rate, highest in nation What were lynchings? Almost 5,000 between 18821951 Peak in 1890s From then on 80% in the south Approximately 4,000 were African American In South, ~90% were African American Often torture and mutilation Community events Commercialization Why? Reasoned cited Theft Being “bad” person Arrogance Rape, though less than 20% White womanhood Economic competition Booker T. Washington 18561915 1881 – founded Tuskegee Institute Sept. 1895 – Atlanta Compromise, Cotton States Exposition History Midterm Exam Study Guide “it is at the bottom of life we must begin, and not at the top” “Cast down you bucket where you are” Make something for yourself Seen as most important spokesperson Teddy Roosevelt invited him to the White House Upset a lot of Americans Critics of Washington and Tuskegee W.E.B. Du Bois Accommodation vs. Agitation W.E.B Du bois 18681963 (died in Ghana) Fisk University then Harvard Grad Published over 20 books Vision of selfreliance and assertiveness vs. BTW vision Not just African American spokesperson – studied brain Jean Louisiana March of black students on 20062007 Accused of murder from a fight The Jena Six – nooses in trees
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