Exam 1 Notes
Popular in social psychology
Popular in Psychology
This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by carla Notetaker on Monday September 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYS 130 at University of Vermont taught by Susan K. Fenstermacher in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see social psychology in Psychology at University of Vermont.
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Date Created: 09/26/16
Social Psych Exam 1 Chapters 12 textbook (Revel) and lecture material Chapter 1: Social Psychology Social psychology “psychology of everyday life” scientific study of the ways in which people’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the real or imagined other people Emphasis on the power of the situation Personality psychology studies the variation among individuals, Construction of a coherent picture of the individual and their major psychological processes. Investigation of individual psychological differences Sociology the study of the development, structure, and functioning of human society Behaviorism a school of psychology maintaining that to understand human behavior, one need only consider the reinforcing properties of the environment Social influence the effect that the words, actions or mere presence of other people have on our thoughts, feelings, attitudes or behavior Construalthe ways in which we perceive, understand and interpret social events and social cues Wall Street vs. Community Game Study: same game, participants in the wall street were more competitive even though there were competitive people in both groups the name made them more competitive Pygmalion in the Classroom: kids given an exam and teachers were told select students were smarter thus learned better and were favored throughoutt he school year bc the teach assumed they were smarter *Power of the situation REVEL QUIZ: 1. The study of social psychology → the real or imagined influence of other people 2. For social psychologists the likely explanation of the mass suicide at Jamestown was → the open, welcoming nature of the cult that made members feel it was safe to obey their leader 3. In social psychology the level of analysis is → the individual in a social context 4. Which of the following comments does not illustrate the fundamental attribution error? → “The people who committed suicide at Jamestown were socially isolated and thus cut off from other other points of view about their leader” 5. What do social psychology and personality psychology have in common? → the both focus on the individual 6. What do social psychology and sociology have in common? → they are both concerned with group processes 7. In social psychology, why is Construal so important? → People’s behavior is affected by their interpretation of events, not only the events themselves 8. What is the main contribution of Gestalt psychology to social psychology? → it showed the whole is larger than the sum of its parts 9. Which of the following motives are central to how we construe the world? → the needs to feel good about ourselves and to feel our opinions are accepted 10. To get people to change self destructive behavior, social psychologists would likely → none of the above (other options: scare them, offer useful information, threaten them) Chapter 2: Research Methods Hypothesis tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables Theory presents a concept or idea that is testable Methods for gathering data: Self report survey, questionnaire, interview Observation interactions v. observation, research entail the description of a subjects behavior Participant used in qualitative research, observer takes part in ongoing activities and records behaviors observed Manipulation (Robber’s Cave example)type of social influence that aims to change the behavior or situation No manipulation Nonparticipant Archival analysisan obersvational method bc you arent going into the field or running expierements (looking at baseball stats) Unobtrusive measures when data is not messed with or touched out in the field Museum Example they tested to see how often they needed to replace the tiles at the exhibits and the tiles that were replaced most often suggested that this was the most popular (chick hatchery) Research designs: Observational (and example) technique whereby the researcher observes people and systematically records measurements or impressions of their behavior Correlational technique whereby two or more variables are systematically measured and the relationship between them ( how much one can be predicted from the other) is assessed Experimental the method in which the researcher randomly assigns participants to different conditions and ensures that these conditions are identical except for the independent variable Laboratory experiment in a highly controlled conditions Field experiments conducted in a natural setting rather than in the lab True At least one experimental and control group. Researchermanipulated variable. Random assignment. Quasi impact of some treatment on naturally occurring groups (no true random assignments) Natural not manipulation from experimenter (no true random assignments) Reliability consistency of research Testretest give the same test to the same individuals for consistent research Interrater different raters give the same reliability Validity refers to a test's ability to measure what it is supposed to measure InMaking sure that nothing besides the independent variable can affect the dependent variable; this is accomplished by controlling all extraneous variables and by randomly assigning people to different experimental conditions The extent to which the results of a study can be generalized to other situations and to other people Population same group of people who take part in an experiment Ecological research generalized to reallife settings Mundane realism describes the degree to which the materials and procedures involved in an experiment are similar to events that occur in the real world Informed Consent Agreement to participate in an experiment, granted in full awareness of the nature of the experiment, which has been explained in advance Deception Misleading participants about the true purpose of a study or the events that will actually transpire Debriefing Explaining to participants, at the end of an experiment, the true purpose of the study and exactly what transpired Coercion Chapter 3: Two Types of Processing: Automatic Thinking thinking that is nonconscious, and unintentional, involuntary, and effortless Controlled Thinking thinking that is conscious, intentional, voluntary and effortful Types of Automatic Processing: SchemasMental structures people use to organize their knowledge about the social world around themes or subjects and that influence the information people notice, think about, and remember War of the Ghosts Example read story right now what you remember, people would come back over time and say what they remember the important / bigger things were remembered and then little things were lost / changed Chronic Accessibility (like schemas always there) the belief as a result of the frequency that a belief association and how recently the belief is experienced (example: looking at the runner but only noticing her shoes were as other people might not have noticed the runner) Temporary Accessibility only temporary because something just happened Priming The process by which recent experiences increase the accessibility of a schema, trait, or concept Temperature Study ice coffee & warm coffee rated interview w/ warm coffee higher than with cold coffee (weather affects your mood) SelfReference Effect Schema everyday life solve mechanical problem not just short time Impact of schemas on social judgement: 30 Rock Grandma Example (video clip) mom hated boyfriend because he looks like the enemy in the show she is watching, Halo Effects you assume things about people based off of first impression (meet pretty woman think she’s nice as well 30 Rock Doctor Example saying that if you think a person is a doctor you assume they are friendly and smart Suicide Note Study Example asked to read suicide notes, and then were told that they were really good at it and asked to good it again and then they were told that they actually were not good at it Selffulfilling Prophecies An expectation of one’s own or another person’s behavior that comes true because of the tendency of the person holding it to act in ways that bring it about Clever Hans Example Heuristics Availability Heuristic A mental rule of thumb whereby people base a judgment on the ease with which they can bring something to mind (short term) what you’ve seen recently Jaws Example if you’ve just seen jaws you’d be timid to swim and say that a shark attack is more likely to happen Assertiveness Study Example Simulation heuristic Olympic Athletes Example silver more likely to be upset than bronze medal because they can see themselves with the gold Counterfactual thinking Mentally changing some aspect of the past as a way of imagining what might have been Representativeness Heuristic A mental shortcut whereby people classify something according to how similar it is to a typical case Base rate information Information about the frequency of members of different categories in the population Kulsehov study w the short film watched in class Gilbert’s Theory of Automatic Believing people initally believe what, people are more likely to accept false information Chapter 4: Nonverbal Behavior facial expressions, body language, gestures Implicit Personality Theories”my friend is a computer nerd” you believe that they are awkward, introverted, unpopular, how newly formed impression relates to what is already known about the person, type of schema people use to group things together (negative) “Shi Gu Person” vs. “Artistic Type” Example Attributions Attribution Theory description of the way in which people explain the causes of their own and other people’s behavior Types of Attributions: Internal vs. External your fault vs. the fault being someone else fault (I was late because of traffic) Stable vs. Unstable changing vs. not changing (im a bad driver because im from MA unstable) Global vs. Specific specific to one person or happening globally (traffic globally) Kelley’s Covariation Model model to explain the cognitive process used in deciding to make internal or external attributions for others’ behavior Consistency do they usually do this in the situation Distinctiveness behavior different than others Consensus do others behave similarity in this situation High: other people do this in this situation **Consistency and distinctiveness used more than consensus Bob and Cashier Class Example Fundamental Attribution Error (Correspondence Bias) The tendency to overestimate the extent to which other people’s behavior is due to internal, dispositional factors and to underestimate the role of situational factors Why Does It Occur? tend to focus attention on person, not the surrounding situation Use the focus of attention as a starting point Perceptual Salience The seeming importance of information that is the focus of people’s attention. Game of Thrones Example Quizmaster Study Example people on the game show, they had to come up with questions that they knew the answer too Spontaneous Trait Inference automatic inference of a trait after exposure to someone’s behavior First impulse is to make internal attributions when explaining others’ behaviors Librarian Grocery Example Perceptual Salience The seeming importance of information that is the focus of people’s attention Twostep model of attributions 1. Automatic: Make an internal attribution Assume that a person’s behavior was due to something about that person Occurs quickly, spontaneously 2. Controlled: Adjust attribution by considering the situation Requires effort, conscious attention May still fail to make enough adjustment in second step Actor/Observer Difference We see our own behaviors as caused by situational factors, while others’ Behaviors are perceived as dispositionally motivated Egocentric BiasWhen participating in a group, we exaggerate the amount and importance of our own contributions with respect to those of others SelfServing Bias Explanation for one’s successes that credit internal, dispositional factors and explanations for one Maintain/protect selfesteem Selfpresentational strategy Information about our own experience may not give us larger context information Accident Report Example the tree popped up in front of me, the stop sign had never been there before (self serving bias making self feel better about situation) Why Team Won Example Unrealistic Optimism good things are more likely to happen to us, bad things are less likely compared with our peers Defensive Attributions explanations for situations/ outcomes that defend us from feelings of vulnerability or mortality and protect selfesteem Why does this lead people to blame the victim? Belief in a Just Worldbad things happen to bad people, good things happen to good people Why does this lead people to blame the victim? Cultural Differences in SelfServing Bias Cultural Differences in Belief in a Just World Bias Blind SpotPeople realize biases in attribution can occur Believe other people more susceptible to attributional biases compared to self Chapter 5: SelfConcept set of schemas that answer the question “who am I?” Independent view of self: typical of those in a western culture (individualists) Dependent view of self: typical of those in an eastern culture (collectivists) Independent view of self Interdependent view of self Gender Differences in Self Concept Gender Differences? o Men tend to emphasize collective (groupbased) bonds (club or team) o Women tend to emphasize relational (dyadic attachment) bonds (my husband and I.. my daughter and i) SelfAwareness Theory when we focus attention on ourselves, we evaluate and compare our behavior to our internal standards and values Introspection process whereby people look inward and examine own thoughts, feelings, and motives Beeper Study Example Spotlight Effectbelief that others are paying more attention to our appearance/behavior than they actually are Causal Theoriestheories about the causes of one’s own feelings and behaviors ReasonsGenerated Attitude Change Temporary attitude change resulting from considering the concrete reasons for one’s attitudes Poster Choice Study Example SelfPerception Theory theory that when our attitudes and feelings are uncertain or ambiguous, we infer these states by observing our behavior and the situation in which it occurs Pen Cartoon Study Example Americans likely to choose the green pen (because it’s unique) Asain’s likely to choose orange (because it’s seen more in the group) Overjustification Effect in seeking to explains one’s own behavior, overemphasizing the role of extrinsic reasons over intrinsic reasons Tends to occur: For activities where interest is high to begin with As a result of task contingent (as opposed to performancecontingent) rewards Reading Reward Programs Example read three books get free slice of pizza TwoFactor Theory of Emotion Finding the right label for our emotions Experience physiological arousal first, then seek out an explanation Based on the ideas of Selfperception we infer reasons for our physiological arousal (emotional label) from cues in the environment Social Comparison Theory idea that we learn about our own abilities and attitudes by comparing ourselves to others Downward social comparison get an exam back and compare yourself with someone doing really bad in the class to make self feel/look better Upward social comparisons get an exam back and compare yourself with someone doing really well in the class False Consensus example: get a low grade, overestimate how everyone else did not well on the exam SelfHandicapping creating a handy (external) excuse for anticipate failure
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