History 2365: American History to 1877 Study Guide 1
History 2365: American History to 1877 Study Guide 1 History 2365
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Tyler Varzeas on Monday September 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to History 2365 at Baylor University taught by Gerhardt in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see History of the United States to 1877 in History at Baylor University.
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Date Created: 09/26/16
History 2365: American History to 1877 23 August 27, 2016 New World Encounters Migration to the Americas Environmental adaptation o Agricultural Revolution Diversity and Complexity o Aztecs o Cahokia o Eastern Woodland Cultures *Population in 1491: 10 to 100 million Native Americans* The different (Native American) groups adapt very well to their surroundings. o Natives in the plains tend to be largely hunters (Bison). o Eastern Woodland cultures move from largely gatherers, to growing crops like corn, beans, and squash. These three crops are known as the “ThreeSisters”. o In huntergatherer groups, woman become the main crop growers and gatherers, while men are hunters. Food is seen as an important responsibility; women are seen as equal because of their role with food. The idea of a few people (farmers) producing food for an entire society allows for more “diverse jobs” to thrive. Eastern Woodland cultures use “slash and burn” technique. Native Americans believed super natural entities existed in everything around them and that it was accessible to them. Ancestry was matrilineal. Women had much more social influence than Europeans at this time. Most of the time, the child’s uncle would fulfill the father role, not the biological father. Native Americans believed that ownership was determined by use. Conditions of Conquest Sea routes to Asia. o European merchants no longer wish to go through Middle Eastern middlemen in order to trade with China. o Portuguese developed relationship with many African Kingdoms. Contact with West Africa. o Origins of the slave trade. o Slavery on Madeira and the Canary Islands. Portuguese limited to western side of Africa due to not being exposed to diseases located on Eastern side. Even though slave trade was very small, the ideas they used about how slavery worked was continued through to the New World. Cultural Negotiations o Most interactions are peaceful between Europeans and Native Americans. o Europeans ethnocentricity leads to disputes and complications between them. o Europeans are baffled by gender roles in Native American cultures. o Protestants attempted to Christianize Native Americans. o Men were more likely to convert to Christianity because of the amount of exposure to Europeans. The Columbian Exchange o Many crops exchanged between European and Americans o European diseases transmitted as well. These diseases become devastating to Native Americans. Approximately 85% of a society would die. Europe on the Eve of Conquest The context of Europe in 1491. o Renaissance leads to scientific discoveries, especially in navigation. Dominance of Spain and Portugal. o Political alliances o Reconquista Ferdinand and Isabella choose to fight war against Muslims in Spain. o Conquistadores Known for ability to seize Muslim land; they used these tactics in the New World. Christopher Columbus sails in 1492 First European to land in Americas, while people are actually paying attention to it. History 2365: American History to 1877 26 August 2016 Spain in America Competition with Portugal o Treaty of Tordesillas Pope literally split discovered territory in half in order to make both Spain and Portugal happy. Conquistadores o Begin making journeys to the New World o They hear rumors of the amount of gold in Aztec Mexico Cortes and the Aztecs o Takes 600 men from Cuba to Mexico in order to conquer the Aztecs o Although Cortez is far outnumbered, they possess much more advanced weapons than the Aztecs *Aztecs did not believe Cortez and his men were Gods* Plunder and settlement Encomienda System A means of entitling discovered land If Spanish conquistadores found land, they owned all labor and land, but they must offer protection and religion to Natives. Catholicism in the New World o Bartolome de las Casas Reforms were made by Spain to make conditions less harsh in the New World. Black Legend: Idea that Spanish were barbarians and savagely eliminated the Natives. Ideas being circulated by English, French, Dutch, etc. *The New World makes Spain fabulously wealthy* The French and Canada Slow development o Still looking for a western water route to Asia o They think climate in Canada is too harsh to live in Native American Relationships o French see Native relationships as vital to trade and economic success o French fur traders often lived with Native tribes and learned their languages Exploration of the Great Lakes and Mississippi o Discovered many river ways from these two bodies of water French Catholicism o French Jesuits: More successful than English in conversion of Native’s to Christianity 1700, only 15,000 French residents in the New World The English in North America Early voyages o John Cabbot credited for first English ship to reach America o Motivated by all water route to Asia o England does not jump directly into colonization of the New World Birth of English Protestantism The Protestant Reformation (1517) o Henry VIII and the Church of England Religion, War, and Nationalism o Navy almost nonexistent and small army o Ideas of anticlericalism in England o Henry VIII marries Catherine to form alliance with Spain Henry wishes for divorce when Catherine cannot provide a male heir for him o Henry VIII breaks ties between England and Catholicism o After Henry VIII dies, Edward takes the throne as a young man o Under Elizabeth I, Protestantism is restored to England Hakluyt and the Campaign for the New World o Wrote a book of collected stories of people who have visited the New World o Natural Resources in New World will boost desire to colonize o Does not address the fact that Natives own the land History 2365: American History of 1877 29 August 2016 New World Experiments Jamestown and the Chesapeake Settlement and survival o JointStock Company The idea that a group of investors buy stock in a company and hope for profit on the stock Creates ability for settlements to occur in America 1606: London company gains charter that allows for creation of settlement in Virginia o Many settlers believed there would be gold and jewels everywhere, like the Spanish had experienced o John Smith = Saving grace of Jamestown o Tobacco John Ralph discovers cross breeding with native tobacco and tobacco back home Becomes very popular in England House of Burgesses Representative government in America Headright System Any man who comes to Virginia will receive 50 acres for himself and every person, family and laborers (everyone gets 50 acres each) Indentured Servants A person pays for someone else’s voyage to the New World, then that person owes the sponsor a certain amount of years of labor Generally white men Most people in this system died Hugely exploitative form of labor o Many of the political issues in England affected Maryland Designed to be a Catholic refuge, but did not turn out the way it was supposed to *Chesapeake = founding of Jamestown and Maryland* New England The Puritans and the Pilgrims o Puritans wanted to purify the Anglican Church o Held to more Calvinist doctrine Believed God already knew and chose who was allowed into heaven before they were even born o Want to removed ceremonies and artistic designs o Believed every single person can read scripture; they don’t need a clergy to read it to them o Wish to get rid of hierarchy of church o Separatism: Puritans with pessimistic outlook on church Pilgrims were separatists: started their own congregations. Large amount move to Holland looking for freedom Plymouth Colony o Pilgrims wish for a new settlement to return to their English culture o Receive a charter from the King to the land of Virginia o End up landing in Massachusetts, making the charter invalid o Pilgrims write up The Mayflower Compact Landmark Document! Establishes a semigovernmental society in Americas “A City on a Hill” Congregationalism Puritans believe the establishment of a more efficient and spiritual church will cause Anglican Church to notice and reform its ways o Puritans restructure Church so that people within church can vote on doctrines, pastors, and other issues History 2365: American History to 1877 31 August 2016 Competing Truths in New England Roger Williams o Criticizes Massachusetts government o Believes in separatism from Anglican Church o Government should have no part in punishing people for religious reasons o Becomes founder of Rhode Island Anne Hutchinson o Antinomian controversy o Teaches that there are things God wants us to do other than what is written in the Bible o Kicked out of church and exiled to Rhode Island Rhode Island has immense religious freedom and tolerance History 2365: American History to 1877 2 September 2016 Diversity in the Middle Colonies The Dutch and New Netherlands o They begin to create the largest merchant fleet o Dutch men engaged in fur trade o New Netherlands of the only nations to actually pay for the land from the Natives o Dutch begin to trade the first African Slaves into North America o English take Dutch colony without a fight Quakers in America o Religious groups who didn’t appoint specific clergy o Gender roles of Quakers (almost equal) creates tension with others o William Penn establishes Pennsylvania to create a religious and ethnically tolerant place One of which being Quakers Penn guarantees people of Pennsylvania have freedom from religious persecution, due process, no taxation without representation o Charter of Liberties (1701): Representatives who speak for the people *DIVERSITY = Key component of the Middle Colonies* The Southern Colonies Carolinas o Settlement from Barbados Saw Carolinas as a place to expand wealth o Rice became economic stabilizer and motivation for labor Georgia o Spanish Competition Feared the Northern expansion of Spanish Colonizers o James Oglethorpe Establishes Georgia as a debtors prison Transplants people from England to Georgia; They work to pay off their debts History 2365: American History to 1877 7 September 2016 Social Stability in New England Family life o Puritans have high view of family (most important unit in society) o Makes transitions to New England easier Retains family network and gender balance o Gives people a greater chance to be married in the New World Puritan Women o Women would step in and take place as head of household when father was gone o Supports the man and the family as a whole o Women were allowed to engage in sideeconomic practices o Far more women become church members than men Social Order o Women could not own land Yeoman: Independent farmers who primarily raised subsistence crops Become ideal of what American Colonial experience will be like o Servitude: A synonym for apprenticeship Children of 12 years old would work with a specialist in a specific field Not an exploitative system The Challenge of the Chesapeake Family life and Mortality rates o More men than women, and very high mortality rates Planter Society o Planters: Most wealthy in Chesapeake society o Freemen: Those that had served out period of servanthood o Indentured Servants: Large percentage if labor force o Slaves Race and Freedom Roots of Slavery o Slave trade: BlackAfrican slaves become the “bestoption” due to their immunity to many environmental and European diseases The Middle Passage o English use same arguments about slaves for Africans as they used for Natives Royal African Company: English begin transferring slaves directly from Africa to North America African American Identities o Creole communities: Blending of two or more cultures o Christianity and spirituality: African beliefs begin mixing with Christian beliefs (Voodoo) o Revolt Can speak same language and communicate Christian beliefs contradict slavery, and slaves notice this Strength in numbers 1739 Stono Rebellion o Slaves begin killing their masters and travel to Florida to be freed o Stopped by militia, and most are killed on the spot or soon after History 2365: American History to 1877 14 September, 2016 Birth of a Consumer Society Growing colonial society o Many nonEnglish people move to colonies o Natural increase beginning to happen o Higher rate of marriage than in England Economic Transformation o Increasing population and far abundant resources lead to economic growth o More goods are being shipped to England o Standard of living is improving for more colonists Consumer Revolution o People concerned with more good purchased for household o Creating gentility: Buying products that bring flash to the household and the people Goods owned by person = how wealthy they are Enlightenment The Age of Reason Practical Knowledge o Humanitarianism Key on removing pain and suffering o Enlightenment Institutions Hospitals are developed; Libraries are also created Relationship to Christianity o Deism: Believes there is a God, but don’t believe that He has any role in every day human life o Arminianism: More positive view on human nature, and moving away from the interest in conversion The Great Awakening Beginnings of Revival o Revival of religion in the colonies Jonathon Edwards: Calvinistic preacher who preaches for young people to repent, and they do George Whitefield: Known for having a booming voice and was charismatic o Becomes main figure of revival Characteristics and Reaction o Radical Evangelicals, and moderate Evangelicals; also have antiRevivalists Gives birth to Evangelicalism o Subset of Christianity History 2365: American History to 1877 September 19, 2016 The Clash of Political Cultures Political structures in the colonies o British constitution is not a written document, but a living body in politics o Americans believe a written charter is necessary for constitution o Royal Governor seen as monarch position o Governor’s counsels – chosen by monarch to advise o Colonial Assemblies – parallel to house of commons in England. Imperial Wars The French threat in North America o French, on paper, are far outnumbered and outgunned by New England o But French had hidden advantages French have greater allies among Natives o Each side is very suspicious of the other King George’s War (17431748) o Series of schermishes between French and British in North America o French establish for Dequesne on Algany River Leads to conflict between French and inhabitants of Virginia o George Washington established Fort Necessity French overrun fort o The Albany Plan Meeting about both French and Native relationships Ben Franklin says in order to drive out French, Colonies need to form a collective Idea shot down by parliament French retain control of Ohio river valley Britain declares war on the French The Seven Years War (17561763) o British recapture Fort Louisburg Cuts off supply line for French o Unable to support the fort system along the river ways o Peace of Paris (1763) British obtain Canada, Florida, but Spain obtains Louisiana Americans see a glimpse of North American Territory that has never been seen before beyond the Appalachian American soldiers receive military training under British army History 2365: American History to 1877 September 21, 2016 Conflict in the Empire Breakdown of political Trust o George III becomes involved in Parliament by assigning friends inside o Parliamentary Sovereignty: British say Parliament decisions supersede all other decisions Does same sovereignty apply to the colonies? o Proclamation of 1763: American Colonists cannot settle in territory obtained from Seven Years War o British claim Parliament has sovereignty over colonies because of virtual representation o Americans say without actual representation, there is no representation o Americans start to mix John Locke’s views of virtue and enlightenment ideas to justify resistance Eroding the Bond of Empire Pontiac’s Rebellion: A man tells natives that in order to regain lands, they must go back to traditional beliefs o A man by the name of Pontiac stirs up rebellions everywhere o Colonists are now even more upset about proclamation of 1763 The National Debt o The Sugar Act (1764): Specifically created to raise revenue for British Empire o Americans begin protesting immediately The Stamp Act (1765) o Tax on everything printed or published o Boycotting becomes a political strategy o Colonists start to realize the difference between being an American and being a British citizen Townshend Revenue Acts o Levies taxes on goods, especially tea (Quartering Act enforced as well) o People continue to boycott British goods Fueling the Crisis The Boston Massacre (1770) o Troops are sent to Boston, a peaceful city, and are causing many problems o Animosity builds for two years o American boys throw a snowball at British soldiers, they shoot and kill five people o Samuel Adams becomes spokesperson for Boston Massacre Committees of Correspondence: People write to each other about tyrannous acts committed by the British across the Colonies The Boston Tea Party (1773) o Tea Act: Lowers price of tea by cutting out middle man o Colonists had been smuggling tea from the Dutch Seen as a play for tricking American colonists into thinking parliament taxation is okay
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